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    Thomas C Chen, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Neurological Surgery
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentNeurological Surgery
    AddressGNH 3300
    Off Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-9314
    Phone+1 323 226 7421
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      Other Positions
      TitleDirector, Brain Tumor Center At Keck Hospital of Usc

      TitleDirector, Neurosurgery, Good Samaritan Hospital


      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Chen's goal is to make USC Neuro-oncology the leader in innovative treatments for brain and spine tumors. As a result, emphasis is placed on translating new findings made in the laboratory to clinical trials. Laboratory efforts are directed toward research on endoplasmic reticulum stress, understanding glioblastoma endothelial cells, and development of novel anti-invasion therapies such as vicrostatin, a unique disintegrin made at USC, and noscopine. Technological advances that may be used in the treatment of brain or spine tumors are being developed, patented, and will soon be highlighted. Novel clinical trials currently available or soon to be available at USC include anti-EGFRviii vaccine therapy, IL-4-pseudomonas exotoxin for convection enhanced delivery, and anti-tenascin brachytherapy. Surgical therapy is based on the newest techniques in microdissection and image guidance using neuronavigational therapy, with a soon to be added intraoperative MRI scanner. Spine oncology is especially unique as Dr. Chen is one of the few fellowship trained spine surgeons focused on spine cancer. Decisions on therapy are made through tumor board via a multi-disciplinary team dedicated to neuro-oncology including neurosurgery, medical oncology, radiation oncology, neuropathology, and neuro-radiology.


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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Pham MH, Tuchman A, Chen T, Acosta FL, Hsieh PC, Liu JC. Transpedicular Corpectomy and Cage Placement in the Treatment of Traumatic Lumbar Burst Fractures. Clin Spine Surg. 2017 Oct; 30(8):360-366. PMID: 28937458.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Chen T, Yu J, Nouri Nigjeh E, Wang W, Myint PT, Zandi E, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH. A perillyl alcohol-conjugated analog of 3-bromopyruvate without cellular uptake dependency on monocarboxylate transporter 1 and with activity in 3-BP-resistant tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 2017 Aug 01; 400:161-174. PMID: 28450161.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Wang W, Cho HY, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Marín Ramos NI, Price R, Hurth K, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T. Intratumoral delivery of bortezomib: impact on survival in an intracranial glioma tumor model. J Neurosurg. 2017 Apr 14; 1-6. PMID: 28409734.
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      4. Rosa AI, Grade S, Santos SD, Bernardino L, Chen T, Relvas J, Hofman FM, Agasse F. Heterocellular Contacts with Mouse Brain Endothelial Cells Via Laminin and a6ß1 Integrin Sustain Subventricular Zone (SVZ) Stem/Progenitor Cells Properties. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016; 10:284. PMID: 28018177.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Martirosian V, Chen T, Lin M, Neman J. Medulloblastoma initiation and spread: Where neurodevelopment, microenvironment and cancer cross pathways. J Neurosci Res. 2016 Dec; 94(12):1511-1519. PMID: 27629382.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Chen T, Da Fonseca CO, Schönthal AH. Perillyl Alcohol and Its Drug-Conjugated Derivatives as Potential Novel Methods of Treating Brain Metastases. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Sep 02; 17(9). PMID: 27598140.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Pham MH, Tuchman A, Chen T, Acosta FL, Hsieh PC, Liu JC. Transpedicular Corpectomy and Cage Placement in the Treatment of Traumatic Lumbar Burst Fractures. Clin Spine Surg. 2016 Jul 14. PMID: 26301730.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Kushal S, Wang W, Vaikari VP, Kota R, Chen K, Yeh TS, Jhaveri N, Groshen SL, Olenyuk BZ, Chen T, Hofman FM, Shih JC. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 22; 7(12):13842-53. PMID: 26871599; PMCID: PMC4924682.
      9. Song X, Xie L, Wang X, Zeng Q, Chen T, Wang W, Song X. Temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate induced reactive oxygen species accumulation contributes to its cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 07; 6:22762. PMID: 26949038; PMCID: PMC4780103.
      10. Chen T. Primary Intraosseous Meningioma. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Apr; 27(2):189-93. PMID: 27012383.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Xie L, Song X, Guo W, Wang X, Wei L, Li Y, Lv L, Wang W, Chen T, Song X. Therapeutic effect of TMZ-POH on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on reactive oxygen species accumulation. Oncotarget. 2016 Jan 12; 7(2):1651-62. PMID: 26625208; PMCID: PMC4811487.
      12. Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner AA, Kesari S, Steinberg DM, Toms SA, Taylor LP, Lieberman F, Silvani A, Fink KL, Barnett GH, Zhu JJ, Henson JW, Engelhard HH, Chen T, Tran DD, Sroubek J, Tran ND, Hottinger AF, Landolfi J, Desai R, Caroli M, Kew Y, Honnorat J, Idbaih A, Kirson ED, Weinberg U, Palti Y, Hegi ME, Ram Z. Maintenance Therapy With Tumor-Treating Fields Plus Temozolomide vs Temozolomide Alone for Glioblastoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015 Dec 15; 314(23):2535-43. PMID: 26670971.
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      13. Jhaveri N, Agasse F, Armstrong D, Peng L, Commins D, Wang W, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Vaikari VP, Santiago SV, Santos T, Chen L, Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM. A novel drug conjugate, NEO212, targeting proneural and mesenchymal subtypes of patient-derived glioma cancer stem cells. Cancer Lett. 2016 Feb 28; 371(2):240-50. PMID: 26683773.
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      14. D'Oro A, Spoonamore MJ, Cohen JR, Acosta FL, Hsieh PC, Liu JC, Chen T, Buser Z, Wang JC. Effects of fusion and conservative treatment on disc degeneration and rates of subsequent surgery after thoracolumbar fracture. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Mar; 24(3):476-82. PMID: 26637065.
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      15. Hu CM, Fang RH, Wang KC, Luk BT, Thamphiwatana S, Dehaini D, Nguyen P, Angsantikul P, Wen CH, Kroll AV, Carpenter C, Ramesh M, Qu V, Patel SH, Zhu J, Shi W, Hofman FM, Chen T, Gao W, Zhang K, Chien S, Zhang L. Nanoparticle biointerfacing by platelet membrane cloaking. Nature. 2015 Oct 01; 526(7571):118-21. PMID: 26374997; PMCID: PMC4871317.
      16. Chen T, Cho HY, Wang W, Wetzel SJ, Singh A, Nguyen J, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH. Chemotherapeutic effect of a novel temozolomide analog on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. J Biomed Sci. 2015 Aug 19; 22:71. PMID: 26282951; PMCID: PMC4539921.
      17. Lombardi F, Nakamura KJ, Chen T, Sobrera ER, Tobin NH, Aldrovandi GM. A Conserved Glycan in the C2 Domain of HIV-1 Envelope Acts as a Molecular Switch to Control X4 Utilization by Clonal Variants with Identical V3 Loops. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0128116. PMID: 26083631; PMCID: PMC4471078.
      18. Chen T, Napolitano GR, Adell F, Schönthal AH, Shachar Y. Development of the Metronomic Biofeedback Pump for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: technical note. J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug; 123(2):362-72. PMID: 25955873.
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      19. Chen T, Fonseca CO, Schönthal AH. Preclinical development and clinical use of perillyl alcohol for chemoprevention and cancer therapy. Am J Cancer Res. 2015; 5(5):1580-93. PMID: 26175929; PMCID: PMC4497427.
      20. Schijns VE, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman FM, Chen T, Mespouille P, Hantos P, Glorieux P, Bota DA, Stathopoulos A. First clinical results of a personalized immunotherapeutic vaccine against recurrent, incompletely resected, treatment-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, based on combined allo- and auto-immune tumor reactivity. Vaccine. 2015 May 28; 33(23):2690-6. PMID: 25865468.
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      21. Golden EB, Cho HY, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Chen T. Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs: a novel class of autophagy inhibitors. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Mar; 38(3):E12. PMID: 25727221.
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      22. Fults DW, Chen T, Bruce JN. Introduction. Neurooncology: update on therapeutic options. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Mar; 38(3):E1. PMID: 25727218.
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      23. Wang W, Sivakumar W, Torres S, Jhaveri N, Vaikari VP, Gong A, Howard A, Golden EB, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T. Effects of convection-enhanced delivery of bevacizumab on survival of glioma-bearing animals. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Mar; 38(3):E8. PMID: 25727230.
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      24. Bota DA, Alexandru-Abrams D, Pretto C, Hofman FM, Chen T, Fu B, Carrillo JA, Schijns VE, Stathopoulos A. Use of ERC-1671 Vaccine in a Patient with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme after Progression during Bevacizumab Therapy: First Published Report. Perm J. 2015; 19(2):41-6. PMID: 25785641; PMCID: PMC4403580.
      25. Jhaveri N, Chen T, Hofman FM. Tumor vasculature and glioma stem cells: Contributions to glioma progression. Cancer Lett. 2016 Oct 01; 380(2):545-51. PMID: 25527451.
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      26. Chen T, Cho HY, Wang W, Nguyen J, Jhaveri N, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH. A novel temozolomide analog, NEO212, with enhanced activity against MGMT-positive melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 2015 Mar 28; 358(2):144-51. PMID: 25524552.
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      27. Berger MS, Bruce JN, Chen T, Zadeh G. Introduction: Glioblastoma: an update on pathophysiology and management strategies. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec; 37(6):Introduction. PMID: 25434392.
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      28. Golden EB, Cho HY, Jahanian A, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Chen T. Chloroquine enhances temozolomide cytotoxicity in malignant gliomas by blocking autophagy. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec; 37(6):E12. PMID: 25434381.
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      29. Santos T, Fang X, Chen MT, Wang W, Ferreira R, Jhaveri N, Gundersen M, Zhou C, Pagnini P, Hofman FM, Chen T. Sequential administration of carbon nanotubes and near-infrared radiation for the treatment of gliomas. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:180. PMID: 25077069; PMCID: PMC4097104.
      30. Cho HY, Wang W, Jhaveri N, Lee DJ, Sharma N, Dubeau L, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T. NEO212, temozolomide conjugated to perillyl alcohol, is a novel drug for effective treatment of a broad range of temozolomide-resistant gliomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Aug; 13(8):2004-17. PMID: 24994771.
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      31. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Gong A, Chen T, Tahara SM, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Argonaute-2 promotes miR-18a entry in human brain endothelial cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 16; 3(3):e000968. PMID: 24837588; PMCID: PMC4309089.
      32. Sivasundaram L, Hazany S, Wagle N, Zada G, Chen T, Lerner A, Go JL, D'Amore F, Law M, Shiroishi MS. Diffusion restriction in a non-enhancing metastatic brain tumor treated with bevacizumab - recurrent tumor or atypical necrosis? Clin Imaging. 2014 Sep-Oct; 38(5):724-6. PMID: 24910165.
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      33. Chen T, Cho HY, Wang W, Barath M, Sharma N, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH. A novel temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate exhibits superior activity against breast cancer cells in vitro and intracranial triple-negative tumor growth in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 May; 13(5):1181-93. PMID: 24623736.
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      34. Peterson A, Bansal A, Hofman F, Chen T, Zada G. A systematic review of inhaled intranasal therapy for central nervous system neoplasms: an emerging therapeutic option. J Neurooncol. 2014 Feb; 116(3):437-46. PMID: 24398618.
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      35. Chang X, Shi L, Gao F, Russin J, Zeng L, He S, Chen T, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Wang K, Mack WJ. Genomic and transcriptome analysis revealing an oncogenic functional module in meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E3. PMID: 24289128.
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      36. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Tahara SM, Chen T, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. MicroRNA-18a improves human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cell function. Stroke. 2014 Jan; 45(1):293-7. PMID: 24203843.
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      37. Thomas S, Sharma N, Gonzalez R, Pao PW, Hofman FM, Chen T, Louie SG, Pirrung MC, Schönthal AH. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65695. PMID: 23755268; PMCID: PMC3675020.
      38. Popovich JM, Welcher JB, Hedman TP, Tawackoli W, Anand N, Chen T, Kulig K. Lumbar facet joint and intervertebral disc loading during simulated pelvic obliquity. Spine J. 2013 Nov; 13(11):1581-9. PMID: 23706384.
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      39. Gao F, Shi L, Russin J, Zeng L, Chang X, He S, Chen T, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Mack WJ, Wang K. DNA methylation in the malignant transformation of meningiomas. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54114. PMID: 23349797; PMCID: PMC3551961.
      40. Safdie F, Brandhorst S, Wei M, Wang W, Lee C, Hwang S, Conti PS, Chen T, Longo VD. Fasting enhances the response of glioma to chemo- and radiotherapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44603. PMID: 22984531; PMCID: PMC3439413.
      41. Cho HY, Wang W, Jhaveri N, Torres S, Tseng J, Leong MN, Lee DJ, Goldkorn A, Xu T, Petasis NA, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T. Perillyl alcohol for the treatment of temozolomide-resistant gliomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Nov; 11(11):2462-72. PMID: 22933703.
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      42. Sharma N, Thomas S, Golden EB, Hofman FM, Chen T, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH, Louie SG. Inhibition of autophagy and induction of breast cancer cell death by mefloquine, an antimalarial agent. Cancer Lett. 2012 Dec 30; 326(2):143-54. PMID: 22863539.
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      43. Thomas S, Sharma N, Golden EB, Cho H, Agarwal P, Gaffney KJ, Petasis NA, Chen T, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Schönthal AH. Preferential killing of triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo when pharmacological aggravators of endoplasmic reticulum stress are combined with autophagy inhibitors. Cancer Lett. 2012 Dec 01; 325(1):63-71. PMID: 22664238.
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      44. Stathopoulos A, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman FM, Kruse C, Jadus M, Chen T, Schijns VE. Development of immune memory to glial brain tumors after tumor regression induced by immunotherapeutic Toll-like receptor 7/8 activation. Oncoimmunology. 2012 May 01; 1(3):298-305. PMID: 22737605.
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      45. Stathopoulos A, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman FM, Epstein AL, Farghadani H, Kruse CA, Jadus MR, Chen T, Schijns VE. Exploring the Therapeutic Efficacy of Glioma Vaccines Based on Allo- and Syngeneic Antigens and Distinct Immunological Costimulation Activators. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2012; Suppl 5:004. PMID: 24955288.
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      46. Jhaveri N, Cho H, Torres S, Wang W, Schönthal AH, Petasis NA, Louie SG, Hofman FM, Chen T. Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in TMZ-resistant gliomas. Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 22; 312(2):245-52. PMID: 21925789.
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      47. Pham MH, Zada G, Mosich GM, Chen T, Giannotta SL, Wang K, Mack WJ. Molecular genetics of meningiomas: a systematic review of the current literature and potential basis for future treatment paradigms. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 May; 30(5):E7. PMID: 21529178.
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      48. Couldwell WT, Surnock AA, Tobia AJ, Cabana BE, Stillerman CB, Forsyth PA, Appley AJ, Spence AM, Hinton DR, Chen T. A phase 1/2 study of orally administered synthetic hypericin for treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas. Cancer. 2011 Nov 01; 117(21):4905-15. PMID: 21456013.
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      49. Chen T, Wang W, Golden EB, Thomas S, Sivakumar W, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Schönthal AH. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate enhances therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide in orthotopic mouse glioblastoma models. Cancer Lett. 2011 Mar 28; 302(2):100-8. PMID: 21257259.
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      50. Orringer DA, Chen T, Huang DL, Philbert M, Kopelman R, Sagher O. A technical description of the brain tumor window model: an in vivo model for the evaluation of intraoperative contrast agents. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011; 109:259-63. PMID: 20960353; PMCID: PMC4438080.
      51. Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Petasis NA. Preclinical development of novel anti-glioma drugs targeting the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Curr Pharm Des. 2011; 17(23):2428-38. PMID: 21827419.
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      52. Chen T. GRP78/BiP modulation of GRP78/BiP in altering sensitivity to chemotherapy. Methods Enzymol. 2011; 491:25-36. PMID: 21329792.
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      53. Andreopoulou E, Chen T, Liebes L, Curtin J, Blank S, Wallach R, Hochster H, Muggia F. Phase 1/pharmacology study of intraperitoneal topotecan alone and with cisplatin: potential for consolidation in ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Aug; 68(2):457-63. PMID: 21069334.
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      54. Zada G, Chen T. A novel method for administering intrathecal chemotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases and shunted hydrocephalus: case report. Neurosurgery. 2010 Sep; 67(3 Suppl Operative):onsE306-7; discussion onsE307. PMID: 20679917.
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      55. Wang W, Ghandi A, Liebes L, Louie SG, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH, Chen T. Effective conversion of irinotecan to SN-38 after intratumoral drug delivery to an intracranial murine glioma model in vivo. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):689-94. PMID: 20415520.
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      56. Orringer DA, Chen T, Huang DL, Armstead WM, Hoff BA, Koo YE, Keep RF, Philbert MA, Kopelman R, Sagher O. The brain tumor window model: a combined cranial window and implanted glioma model for evaluating intraoperative contrast agents. Neurosurgery. 2010 Apr; 66(4):736-43. PMID: 20305495; PMCID: PMC3970731.
      57. Raphael DT, Chang JH, Zhang YP, Kudija D, Chen T, Shung KK. A-Mode ultrasound guidance for pedicle screw advancement in ovine vertebral bodies. Spine J. 2010 May; 10(5):422-32. PMID: 20347399; PMCID: PMC2860664.
      58. Virrey JJ, Liu Z, Cho HY, Kardosh A, Golden EB, Louie SG, Gaffney KJ, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM. Antiangiogenic activities of 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib on the tumor vasculature. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Mar; 9(3):631-41. PMID: 20197398.
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      59. Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM, Ge TT, Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada KA, Powers CM, Azen S, Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Samudrala S, Chen T, Shamie AN, Khoo LT, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC. An intensive, progressive exercise program reduces disability and improves functional performance in patients after single-level lumbar microdiskectomy. Phys Ther. 2009 Nov; 89(11):1145-57. PMID: 19778981.
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      60. Orringer DA, Koo YE, Chen T, Kim G, Hah HJ, Xu H, Wang S, Keep R, Philbert MA, Kopelman R, Sagher O. In vitro characterization of a targeted, dye-loaded nanodevice for intraoperative tumor delineation. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5):965-71; discussion 971-2. PMID: 19404156; PMCID: PMC2701445.
      61. Virrey JJ, Golden EB, Sivakumar W, Wang W, Pen L, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T. Glioma-associated endothelial cells are chemoresistant to temozolomide. J Neurooncol. 2009 Oct; 95(1):13-22. PMID: 19381445.
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      62. Cho HY, Thomas S, Golden EB, Gaffney KJ, Hofman FM, Chen T, Louie SG, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH. Enhanced killing of chemo-resistant breast cancer cells via controlled aggravation of ER stress. Cancer Lett. 2009 Sep 08; 282(1):87-97. PMID: 19345476.
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      63. Golden EB, Lam PY, Kardosh A, Gaffney KJ, Cadenas E, Louie SG, Petasis NA, Chen T, Schönthal AH. Green tea polyphenols block the anticancer effects of bortezomib and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors. Blood. 2009 Jun 04; 113(23):5927-37. PMID: 19190249.
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      64. Shai RM, Reichardt JK, Chen T. Pharmacogenomics of brain cancer and personalized medicine in malignant gliomas. Future Oncol. 2008 Aug; 4(4):525-34. PMID: 18684063.
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      65. Virrey JJ, Dong D, Stiles C, Patterson JB, Pen L, Ni M, Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM, Lee AS. Stress chaperone GRP78/BiP confers chemoresistance to tumor-associated endothelial cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008 Aug; 6(8):1268-75. PMID: 18708359; PMCID: PMC2593417.
      66. Virrey JJ, Guan S, Li W, Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM. Increased survivin expression confers chemoresistance to tumor-associated endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2008 Aug; 173(2):575-85. PMID: 18599610; PMCID: PMC2475793.
      67. Stathopoulos A, Samuelson C, Milbouw G, Hermanne JP, Schijns VE, Chen T. Therapeutic vaccination against malignant gliomas based on allorecognition and syngeneic tumor antigens: proof of principle in two strains of rat. Vaccine. 2008 Mar 25; 26(14):1764-72. PMID: 18336964.
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      68. Kardosh A, Golden EB, Pyrko P, Uddin J, Hofman FM, Chen T, Louie SG, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH. Aggravated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a basis for enhanced glioblastoma cell killing by bortezomib in combination with celecoxib or its non-coxib analogue, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib. Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 01; 68(3):843-51. PMID: 18245486.
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      69. Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Petasis NA. Celecoxib analogs that lack COX-2 inhibitory function: preclinical development of novel anticancer drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Feb; 17(2):197-208. PMID: 18230053.
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      70. Pyrko P, Kardosh A, Wang W, Xiong W, Schönthal AH, Chen T. HIV-1 protease inhibitors nelfinavir and atazanavir induce malignant glioma death by triggering endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15; 67(22):10920-8. PMID: 18006837.
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      71. Pyrko P, Schönthal AH, Hofman FM, Chen T, Lee AS. The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78/BiP as a novel target for increasing chemosensitivity in malignant gliomas. Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 15; 67(20):9809-16. PMID: 17942911.
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      72. Pyrko P, Kardosh A, Liu YT, Soriano N, Xiong W, Chow RH, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Mircheff AK, Farley RA, Louie SG, Chen T, Schönthal AH. Calcium-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a major component of tumor cell death induced by 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a non-coxib analogue of celecoxib. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr; 6(4):1262-75. PMID: 17431104.
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      73. Gupta V, Su YS, Samuelson CG, Liebes LF, Chamberlain MC, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH, Chen T. Irinotecan: a potential new chemotherapeutic agent for atypical or malignant meningiomas. J Neurosurg. 2007 Mar; 106(3):455-62. PMID: 17367069.
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      74. Charalambous C, Virrey J, Kardosh A, Jabbour MN, Qazi-Abdullah L, Pen L, Zidovetzki R, Schönthal AH, Chen T, Hofman FM. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence. Exp Cell Res. 2007 Apr 01; 313(6):1192-202. PMID: 17291495.
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      75. Elder JB, Atkinson R, Zee CS, Chen T. Primary intraosseous meningioma. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(4):E13. PMID: 17961037.
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      76. Chen T, Chamberlain MC. Adjuvant therapy for unresectable meningiomas: benign and malignant. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(4):1. PMID: 18081514.
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      77. Gupta V, Samuleson CG, Su S, Chen T. Nelfinavir potentiation of imatinib cytotoxicity in meningioma cells via survivin inhibition. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(4):E9. PMID: 17961046.
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      78. Elder JB, Chen T. Surgical interventions for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Nov 15; 21(5):E13. PMID: 17134115.
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      79. Wang W, Kardosh A, Su YS, Schonthal AH, Chen T. Efficacy of celecoxib in the treatment of CNS lymphomas: an in vivo model. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Nov 15; 21(5):E14. PMID: 17134116.
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      80. Pyrko P, Soriano N, Kardosh A, Liu YT, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Hofman FM, Chen CS, Chen T, Schönthal AH. Downregulation of survivin expression and concomitant induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and its non-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory analog, dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer. 2006 May 18; 5:19. PMID: 16707021; PMCID: PMC1479836.
      81. Gupta V, Wang W, Sosnowski BA, Hofman FM, Chen T. Fibroblast growth factor-2-retargeted adenoviral vector for selective transduction of primary glioblastoma multiforme endothelial cells. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E26. PMID: 16709032.
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      82. Gupta V, Su YS, Wang W, Kardosh A, Liebes LF, Hofman FM, Schönthal AH, Chen T. Enhancement of glioblastoma cell killing by combination treatment with temozolomide and tamoxifen or hypericin. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E20. PMID: 16709026.
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      83. Charalambous C, Chen T, Hofman FM. Characteristics of tumor-associated endothelial cells derived from glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E22. PMID: 16709028.
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      84. Wang W, Tai CK, Kershaw AD, Solly SK, Klatzmann D, Kasahara N, Chen T. Use of replication-competent retroviral vectors in an immunocompetent intracranial glioma model. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E25. PMID: 16709031.
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      98. Schmitmeier S, Markland FS, Ritter MR, Sawcer DE, Chen T. Functional effect of contortrostatin, a snake venom disintegrin, on human glioma cell invasion in vitro. Cell Commun Adhes. 2003 Jan-Feb; 10(1):1-16. PMID: 12881036.
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      99. Simard M, Zhang W, Hinton DR, Chen T, Weiss MH, Su YZ, Gopalakrishna R, Law RE, Couldwell WT. Tamoxifen-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in pituitary tumor cells in vitro via a protein kinase C-independent pathway. Cancer Lett. 2002 Nov 28; 185(2):131-8. PMID: 12169386.
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      100. Chen T, Wadsten P, Su S, Rawlinson N, Hofman FM, Hill CK, Schönthal AH. The type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram induces expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), resulting in growth inhibition, increased differentiation, and subsequent apoptosis of malignant A-172 glioma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002 May-Jun; 1(3):268-76. PMID: 12432276.
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