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Carolee Joyce Winstein, BA, BS, MS, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentBiokinesiology and Physical Therapy
AddressCHP 155
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-9006
Phone+1 323 442 2903
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    Carolee J. Winstein, PhD, PT, FAPTA is professor of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy and directs the Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. She holds a joint appointment in the Department of Neurology, USC Keck School of Medicine. She is best known for work concerned with the functional neural and behavioral basis of motor control and learning and its relationship to neurorehabilitation. She has published extensively on scientifically derived neurorehabilitation approaches to enhance recovery and repair after adult onset stroke. Winstein is principal investigator (PI) for the first clinical research network, PTClinResNet, funded by the Foundation for Physical Therapy; she is Co-PI of the first National Institutes of Health (NIH) phase III Multi-site Randomized Clinical Trial of a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity recovery in stroke, Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE); she is PI for an individual investigator NIH funded grant, Brain and Behavioral Correlates of Arm Rehabilitation after Stroke, a companion to EXCITE; and Co-PI of a NIH roadmap planning and exploratory project, the Interdisciplinary Study of Neuroplasticity and Stroke Rehabilitation (ISNSR). In 2005, she was appointed to the National Advisory Board on Medical Rehabilitation Research (NABMRR) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the NIH. Recent research efforts that provide critical background and experience for the development of innovative approaches in neurorehabilitation include: 1) feasibility of Novel Virtual Environments and Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (NIH Phase I STTR), 2) Safety and Effectiveness of Cortical Stimulation in the Treatment of Upper Extremity Hemiparesis (Northstar Neuroscience, Inc.), and the recently awarded, NIH NINDS/NICHD Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) Stroke Initiative, a Multi-Center phase III Randomized control Trial.


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    American Society of Neurorehabilitation (ASNR): 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting
    NIH/NICHD R13HD093419Aug 1, 2017 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    American Society of Neurorehabilitation (ASNR): 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting
    NIH/NINDS R13NS098703Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Optimizing the Dose of Rehabilitation After Stroke
    NIH/NICHD R01HD065438Jan 10, 2011 - Dec 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehab Evaluation (I-CARE) Stroke Initiative
    NIH/NINDS U01NS056256Aug 1, 2008 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CI Therapy and Novel Virtual Environments
    NIH/NINDS R41NS050909May 15, 2005 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    III STEP: Linking Movement Science and Intervention
    NIH/NICHD R13HD048148Jul 1, 2004 - Dec 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain and Behavior Correlates of Arm Rehabilitation
    NIH/NINDS R01NS045485Sep 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION OF ARM USE AFTER STROKE
    NIH/NICHD R03HD036212Jan 15, 1999 - Dec 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Winstein C, Varghese R. Been there, done that, so what's next for arm and hand rehabilitation in stroke? NeuroRehabilitation. 2018 Jul 04. PMID: 29991146.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liew SL, Garrison KA, Ito KL, Heydari P, Sobhani M, Werner J, Damasio H, Winstein C, Aziz-Zadeh L. Laterality of Poststroke Cortical Motor Activity during Action Observation Is Related to Hemispheric Dominance. Neural Plast. 2018; 2018:3524960. PMID: 29997648.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kim B, Fisher BE, Schweighofer N, Leahy RM, Haldar JP, Choi S, Kay DB, Gordon J, Winstein C. A comparison of seven different DTI-derived estimates of corticospinal tract structural characteristics in chronic stroke survivors. J Neurosci Methods. 2018 Apr 21; 304:66-75. PMID: 29684462.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Liew SL, Anglin JM, Banks NW, Sondag M, Ito KL, Kim H, Chan J, Ito J, Jung C, Khoshab N, Lefebvre S, Nakamura W, Saldana D, Schmiesing A, Tran C, Vo D, Ard T, Heydari P, Kim B, Aziz-Zadeh L, Cramer SC, Liu J, Soekadar S, Nordvik JE, Westlye LT, Wang J, Winstein C, Yu C, Ai L, Koo B, Craddock RC, Milham M, Lakich M, Pienta A, Stroud A. A large, open source dataset of stroke anatomical brain images and manual lesion segmentations. Sci Data. 2018 Feb 20; 5:180011. PMID: 29461514.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lewthwaite R, Winstein C, Lane CJ, Blanton S, Wagenheim BR, Nelsen MA, Dromerick AW, Wolf SL. Accelerating Stroke Recovery: Body Structures and Functions, Activities, Participation, and Quality of Life Outcomes From a Large Rehabilitation Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2018 Feb; 32(2):150-165. PMID: 29554849.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Müller S, Vallence AM, Winstein C. Investigation of Perceptual-Motor Behavior Across the Expert Athlete to Disabled Patient Skill Continuum can Advance Theory and Practical Application. J Mot Behav. 2017 Dec 14; 1-11. PMID: 29240533.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Winstein C. The ATTEND trial: An alternative explanation with implications for future recovery and rehabilitation clinical trials. Int J Stroke. 2018 Feb; 13(2):112-116. PMID: 29214907.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Reinkensmeyer DJ, Blackstone S, Bodine C, Brabyn J, Brienza D, Caves K, DeRuyter F, Durfee E, Fatone S, Fernie G, Gard S, Karg P, Kuiken TA, Harris GF, Jones M, Li Y, Maisel J, McCue M, Meade MA, Mitchell H, Mitzner TL, Patton JL, Requejo PS, Rimmer JH, Rogers WA, Zev Rymer W, Sanford JA, Schneider L, Sliker L, Sprigle S, Steinfeld A, Steinfeld E, Vanderheiden G, Winstein C, Zhang LQ, Corfman T. How a diverse research ecosystem has generated new rehabilitation technologies: Review of NIDILRR's Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2017 Nov 06; 14(1):109. PMID: 29110728.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kwakkel G, Lannin NA, Borschmann K, English C, Ali M, Churilov L, Saposnik G, Winstein C, van Wegen EEH, Wolf SL, Krakauer JW, Bernhardt J. Standardized Measurement of Sensorimotor Recovery in Stroke Trials: Consensus-Based Core Recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017 Sep; 31(9):784-792. PMID: 28934918.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Harris SR, Winstein C. The Past, Present, and Future of Neurorehabilitation: From NUSTEP Through IV STEP and Beyond. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2017 Jul; 29 Suppl 3 Supplement, IV Step 2016 Conference Proceedings Supplement:S2-S9. PMID: 28654472.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Harris SR, Winstein C. The Past, Present, and Future of Neurorehabilitation: From NUSTEP Through IV STEP and Beyond. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2017 Jul; 41 Suppl 3 Supplement, IV STEP Special Issue:S3-S9. PMID: 28628590.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Kwakkel G, Lannin NA, Borschmann K, English C, Ali M, Churilov L, Saposnik G, Winstein C, van Wegen EE, Wolf SL, Krakauer JW, Bernhardt J. Standardized measurement of sensorimotor recovery in stroke trials: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Int J Stroke. 2017 07; 12(5):451-461. PMID: 28697709.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Stewart JC, O'Donnell M, Handlery K, Winstein C. Skilled Reach Performance Correlates With Corpus Callosum Structural Integrity in Individuals With Mild Motor Impairment After Stroke: A Preliminary Investigation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017 Jul; 31(7):657-665. PMID: 28587545.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Rowe VT, Winstein C, Wolf SL, Woodbury ML. Functional Test of the Hemiparetic Upper Extremity: A Rasch Analysis With Theoretical Implications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 10; 98(10):1977-1983. PMID: 28434819.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Edwardson MA, Wang X, Liu B, Ding L, Lane CJ, Park C, Nelsen MA, Jones TA, Wolf SL, Winstein C, Dromerick AW. Stroke Lesions in a Large Upper Limb Rehabilitation Trial Cohort Rarely Match Lesions in Common Preclinical Models. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017 Jun; 31(6):509-520. PMID: 28337932.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Klamroth-Marganska V, Winstein C, Riener R. Erratum to: Robot-assisted and conventional therapies produce distinct rehabilitative trends in stroke survivors. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2016 12 06; 13(1):101. PMID: 27923391.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Klamroth-Marganska V, Winstein C, Riener R. Robot-assisted and conventional therapies produce distinct rehabilitative trends in stroke survivors. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2016 10 11; 13(1):92. PMID: 27724916.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Kim B, Winstein C. Can Neurological Biomarkers of Brain Impairment Be Used to Predict Poststroke Motor Recovery? A Systematic Review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017 01; 31(1):3-24. PMID: 27503908.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Winstein C, Wolf S, Dromerick AW. Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program for Stroke--Reply. JAMA. 2016 Jul 05; 316(1):102. PMID: 27380356.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Winstein C, Stein J, Arena R, Bates B, Cherney LR, Cramer SC, Deruyter F, Eng JJ, Fisher B, Harvey RL, Lang CE, MacKay-Lyons M, Ottenbacher KJ, Pugh S, Reeves MJ, Richards LG, Stiers W, Zorowitz RD. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 Jun; 47(6):e98-e169. PMID: 27145936.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Winstein C, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Lane CJ, Nelsen MA, Lewthwaite R, Cen SY, Azen SP. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke: The ICARE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Feb 09; 315(6):571-81. PMID: 26864411; PMCID: PMC4795962.
    22. Sainburg RL, Maenza C, Winstein C, Good D. Motor Lateralization Provides a Foundation for Predicting and Treating Non-paretic Arm Motor Deficits in Stroke. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 957:257-272. PMID: 28035570.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Lee TD, Wulf G, Winstein C, Zelaznik HN. In Memoriam: Richard Allen Schmidt (1941 - 2015). J Mot Behav. 2016; 48(1):1-4. PMID: 26701105.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Chen YA, Chung YC, Proffitt R, Wade E, Winstein C. Attentional Demand of a Virtual Reality-Based Reaching Task in Nondisabled Older Adults. J Mot Learn Dev. 2015 Dec; 3(2):91-109. PMID: 27004233.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Garrison KA, Rogalsky C, Sheng T, Liu B, Damasio H, Winstein C, Aziz-Zadeh LS. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis. Front Neurol. 2015; 6:196. PMID: 26441816; PMCID: PMC4585177.
    26. Park H, Kim S, Winstein C, Gordon J, Schweighofer N. Short-Duration and Intensive Training Improves Long-Term Reaching Performance in Individuals With Chronic Stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 07; 30(6):551-61. PMID: 26405046; PMCID: PMC4808509 [Available on 07/01/17].
    27. Lee YY, Winstein C, Gordon J, Petzinger GM, Zelinski EM, Fisher BE. Context-Dependent Learning in People With Parkinson's Disease. J Mot Behav. 2016 May-Jun; 48(3):240-8. PMID: 26375786.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Lawrence EL, Dayanidhi S, Fassola I, Requejo P, Leclercq C, Winstein C, Valero-Cuevas FJ. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7:108. PMID: 26097455; PMCID: PMC4456581.
    29. Wang X, Liu BJ, Martinez C, Zhang X, Winstein C. Development of a novel imaging informatics-based system with an intelligent workflow engine (IWEIS) to support imaging-based clinical trials. Comput Biol Med. 2016 Feb 01; 69:261-9. PMID: 25870169; PMCID: PMC4586295 [Available on 02/01/17].
    30. Winstein C, Kay DB. Translating the science into practice: shaping rehabilitation practice to enhance recovery after brain damage. Prog Brain Res. 2015; 218:331-60. PMID: 25890145.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Levy RM, Harvey RL, Kissela BM, Winstein C, Lutsep HL, Parrish TB, Cramer SC, Venkatesan L. Epidural Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation: Results of the Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blinded Everest Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 Feb; 30(2):107-19. PMID: 25748452.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Winstein C, Requejo P. Innovative technologies for rehabilitation and health promotion: what is the evidence? Phys Ther. 2015 Mar; 95(3):294-8. PMID: 25734191.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Sugg K, Müller S, Winstein C, Hathorn D, Dempsey A. Does Action Observation Training With Immediate Physical Practice Improve Hemiparetic Upper-Limb Function in Chronic Stroke? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Oct; 29(9):807-17. PMID: 25613984.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Duff SV, He J, Nelsen MA, Lane CJ, Rowe VT, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Winstein C. Interrater reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale: why it matters. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Jun; 29(5):436-43. PMID: 25323459; PMCID: PMC4400190.
    35. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein C. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke II: planning and adjustments to control movement distance. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Nov; 232(11):3431-43. PMID: 25000904.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Winstein C, Lewthwaite R, Blanton SR, Wolf LB, Wishart L. Infusing motor learning research into neurorehabilitation practice: a historical perspective with case exemplar from the accelerated skill acquisition program. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2014 Jul; 38(3):190-200. PMID: 24828523.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein C. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke: kinematic differences based on side of brain damage. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Jul; 232(7):2407-19. PMID: 24718494.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Goh HT, Gordon J, Sullivan KJ, Winstein C. Evaluation of attentional demands during motor learning: validity of a dual-task probe paradigm. J Mot Behav. 2014; 46(2):95-105. PMID: 24447033.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Proffitt R, Lange B, Chen C, Winstein C. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities. J Aging Phys Act. 2015 Jan; 23(1):24-33. PMID: 24334299; PMCID: PMC4053487.
    40. Wade E, Chen C, Winstein C. Spectral analyses of wrist motion in individuals poststroke: the development of a performance measure with promise for unsupervised settings. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Feb; 28(2):169-78. PMID: 24213957; PMCID: PMC3900236.
    41. Rose DK, Winstein C. Temporal coupling is more robust than spatial coupling: an investigation of interlimb coordination after stroke. J Mot Behav. 2013; 45(4):313-24. PMID: 23819649.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Garrison KA, Aziz-Zadeh L, Wong SW, Liew SL, Winstein C. Modulating the motor system by action observation after stroke. Stroke. 2013 Aug; 44(8):2247-53. PMID: 23743974; PMCID: PMC3753677.
    43. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein C. Planning and adjustments for the control of reach extent in a virtual environment. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013 Mar 02; 10:27. PMID: 23453002; PMCID: PMC3606602.
    44. Tretriluxana J, Runnarong N, Tretriluxana S, Prayoonwiwat N, Vachalathiti R, Winstein C. Feasibility investigation of the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP): insights into reach-to-grasp coordination of individuals with postacute stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2):151-60. PMID: 23611856.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Han CE, Kim S, Chen S, Lai YH, Lee JY, Osu R, Winstein C, Schweighofer N. Quantifying arm nonuse in individuals poststroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Jun; 27(5):439-47. PMID: 23353185; PMCID: PMC3922644.
    46. Winstein C, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Lane CJ, Nelsen MA, Lewthwaite R, Blanton S, Scott C, Reiss A, Cen SY, Holley R, Azen SP. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Neurol. 2013 Jan 11; 13:5. PMID: 23311856; PMCID: PMC3547701.
    47. Chen S, Lewthwaite R, Schweighofer N, Winstein C. Discriminant validity of a new measure of self-efficacy for reaching movements after stroke-induced hemiparesis. J Hand Ther. 2013 Apr-Jun; 26(2):116-22; quiz 123. PMID: 23123014.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Schweighofer N, Choi Y, Winstein C, Gordon J. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Nov; 91(11 Suppl 3):S270-9. PMID: 23080042.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Winstein C, Requejo PS, Zelinski EM, Mulroy SJ, Crimmins EM. A transformative subfield in rehabilitation science at the nexus of new technologies, aging, and disability. Front Psychol. 2012; 3:340. PMID: 23049517; PMCID: PMC3448347.
    50. Goh HT, Sullivan KJ, Gordon J, Wulf G, Winstein C. Dual-task practice enhances motor learning: a preliminary investigation. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Oct; 222(3):201-10. PMID: 22886044.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Tan C, Tretriluxana J, Pitsch E, Runnarong N, Winstein C. Anticipatory planning of functional reach-to-grasp: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Oct; 26(8):957-67. PMID: 22434022.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Hidaka Y, Han CE, Wolf SL, Winstein C, Schweighofer N. Use it and improve it or lose it: interactions between arm function and use in humans post-stroke. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012 Feb; 8(2):e1002343. PMID: 22761551; PMCID: PMC3385844.
    53. Chen S, Wolf SL, Zhang Q, Thompson PA, Winstein C. Minimal detectable change of the actual amount of use test and the motor activity log: the EXCITE Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Jun; 26(5):507-14. PMID: 22275157; PMCID: PMC3754443.
    54. Kantak SS, Winstein C. Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: a focused review and perspective. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Mar 01; 228(1):219-31. PMID: 22142953.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Wade E, Winstein C. Virtual reality and robotics for stroke rehabilitation: where do we go from here? Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011 Nov-Dec; 18(6):685-700. PMID: 22436307.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Mulroy SJ, Winstein C, Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Fowler EG, DeMuth SK, Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Lane CJ. Secondary mediation and regression analyses of the PTClinResNet database: determining causal relationships among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels for four physical therapy intervention trials. Phys Ther. 2011 Dec; 91(12):1766-79. PMID: 22003170.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Schweighofer N, Lee JY, Goh HT, Choi Y, Kim SS, Stewart JC, Lewthwaite R, Winstein C. Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Nov; 106(5):2632-41. PMID: 21832031; PMCID: PMC3214116.
    58. Mulroy SJ, Thompson L, Kemp B, Hatchett PP, Newsam CJ, Lupold DG, Haubert LL, Eberly V, Ge TT, Azen SP, Winstein C, Gordon J. Strengthening and optimal movements for painful shoulders (STOMPS) in chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2011 Mar; 91(3):305-24. PMID: 21292803.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Winstein C. Invited commentary. Phys Ther. 2011 Feb; 91(2):174-6; author reply 176-7. PMID: 21285038.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Rizzo A, Requejo P, Winstein C, Lange B, Ragusa G, Merians A, Patton J, Banerjee P, Aisen M. Virtual reality applications for addressing the needs of those aging with disability. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011; 163:510-6. PMID: 21335848.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ, Winstein C. Transfer of motor learning engages specific neural substrates during motor memory consolidation dependent on the practice structure. J Mot Behav. 2011; 43(6):499-507. PMID: 22150021.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Winstein C, Miller JP, Blanton SR, Nichols-Larsen DS, Morris DM, Uswatte G, Taub E, Light KE, Sawaki L. The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing early and delayed constraint-induced movement therapy. Stroke. 2010 Oct; 41(10):2309-15. PMID: 20814005; PMCID: PMC2954658.
    63. Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ, Winstein C. Neural substrates of motor memory consolidation depend on practice structure. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Aug; 13(8):923-5. PMID: 20622872.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Woodbury M, Velozo CA, Thompson PA, Light K, Uswatte G, Taub E, Winstein C, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen DS, Wolf SL. Measurement structure of the Wolf Motor Function Test: implications for motor control theory. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010 Nov-Dec; 24(9):791-801. PMID: 20616302; PMCID: PMC3731767.
    65. Lin CH, Winstein C, Fisher BE, Wu AD. Neural correlates of the contextual interference effect in motor learning: a transcranial magnetic stimulation investigation. J Mot Behav. 2010 Jul-Aug; 42(4):223-32. PMID: 20570818.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Garrison KA, Winstein C, Aziz-Zadeh L. The mirror neuron system: a neural substrate for methods in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010 Jun; 24(5):404-12. PMID: 20207851.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Winstein C. The best we can be is yet to come. Phys Ther. 2009 Nov; 89(11):1236-49. PMID: 19884639.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Schweighofer N, Han CE, Wolf SL, Arbib MA, Winstein C. A functional threshold for long-term use of hand and arm function can be determined: predictions from a computational model and supporting data from the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. Phys Ther. 2009 Dec; 89(12):1327-36. PMID: 19797304; PMCID: PMC2794477.
    69. Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM, Ge TT, Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada KA, Powers CM, Azen S, Winstein C, Gordon J, Samudrala S, Chen TC, Shamie AN, Khoo LT, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC. An intensive, progressive exercise program reduces disability and improves functional performance in patients after single-level lumbar microdiskectomy. Phys Ther. 2009 Nov; 89(11):1145-57. PMID: 19778981.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Ojha HA, Kern RW, Lin CH, Winstein C. Age affects the attentional demands of stair ambulation: evidence from a dual-task approach. Phys Ther. 2009 Oct; 89(10):1080-8. PMID: 19661159.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Fisher BE, Winstein C. Hemisphere specific impairments in reach-to-grasp control after stroke: effects of object size. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 Sep; 23(7):679-91. PMID: 19411406.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Lin CH, Fisher BE, Wu AD, Ko YA, Lee LY, Winstein C. Neural correlate of the contextual interference effect in motor learning: a kinematic analysis. J Mot Behav. 2009 May; 41(3):232-42. PMID: 19366656; PMCID: PMC2687810.
    73. Chen SY, Winstein C. A systematic review of voluntary arm recovery in hemiparetic stroke: critical predictors for meaningful outcomes using the international classification of functioning, disability, and health. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2009 Mar; 33(1):2-13. PMID: 19265766.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Mataric M, Tapus A, Winstein C, Eriksson J. Socially assistive robotics for stroke and mild TBI rehabilitation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009; 145:249-62. PMID: 19592798.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Winstein C, Pate P, Ge T, Ervin C, Baurley J, Sullivan KJ, Underwood SJ, Fowler EG, Mulroy S, Brown DA, Kulig K, Gordon J, Azen SP. The physical therapy clinical research network (PTClinResNet): methods, efficacy, and benefits of a rehabilitation research network. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Nov; 87(11):937-50. PMID: 18174846.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Lin CH, Fisher BE, Winstein C, Wu AD, Gordon J. Contextual interference effect: elaborative processing or forgetting-reconstruction? A post hoc analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced effects on motor learning. J Mot Behav. 2008 Nov; 40(6):578-86. PMID: 18980910.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Harvey RL, Winstein C. Design for the everest randomized trial of cortical stimulation and rehabilitation for arm function following stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 Jan; 23(1):32-44. PMID: 18812431.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Park SW, Wolf SL, Blanton S, Winstein C, Nichols-Larsen DS. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a clinically meaningful motor activity log outcome. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008 Sep-Oct; 22(5):486-93. PMID: 18780883; PMCID: PMC3754439.
    79. Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Winstein C. Manual asymmetries in grasp pre-shaping and transport-grasp coordination. Exp Brain Res. 2008 Jun; 188(2):305-15. PMID: 18437369.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Onla-or S, Winstein C. Determining the optimal challenge point for motor skill learning in adults with moderately severe Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008 Jul-Aug; 22(4):385-95. PMID: 18326891.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Wolf SL, Winstein C, Miller JP, Thompson PA, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen D, Clark PC. Retention of upper limb function in stroke survivors who have received constraint-induced movement therapy: the EXCITE randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Jan; 7(1):33-40. PMID: 18077218; PMCID: PMC2329576.
    82. Kaplon RT, Prettyman MG, Kushi CL, Winstein C. Six hours in the laboratory: a quantification of practice time during constraint-induced therapy (CIT). Clin Rehabil. 2007 Oct; 21(10):950-8. PMID: 17981854.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Klassen T, Mulroy S, Ge T, Azen SP, Winstein C. Effects of task-specific locomotor and strength training in adults who were ambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2007 Dec; 87(12):1580-602. PMID: 17895349.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Wolf SL, Winstein C, Miller JP, Blanton S, Clark PC, Nichols-Larsen D. Looking in the rear view mirror when conversing with back seat drivers: the EXCITE trial revisited. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):379-87. PMID: 17644651.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Lin CH, Sullivan KJ, Wu AD, Kantak S, Winstein C. Effect of task practice order on motor skill learning in adults with Parkinson disease: a pilot study. Phys Ther. 2007 Sep; 87(9):1120-31. PMID: 17609332.
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    86. Winstein C, Bentzen KR, Boyd L, Schneider LS. Does the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, benefit both declarative and non-declarative processes in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease? Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Jul; 4(3):273-6. PMID: 17627484.
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    87. Stewart JC, Yeh SC, Jung Y, Yoon H, Whitford M, Chen SY, Li L, McLaughlin M, Rizzo A, Winstein C. Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movements after stroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual reality system. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2007 Jun 23; 4:21. PMID: 17587459; PMCID: PMC1929111.
    88. Boyd LA, Quaney BM, Pohl PS, Winstein C. Learning implicitly: effects of task and severity after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):444-54. PMID: 17416874.
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    89. Fowler EG, Knutson LM, DeMuth SK, Sugi M, Siebert K, Simms V, Azen SP, Winstein C. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS)--a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention. BMC Pediatr. 2007 Mar 21; 7:14. PMID: 17374171; PMCID: PMC1838902.
    90. Dong Y, Winstein C, Albistegui-DuBois R, Dobkin BH. Evolution of FMRI activation in the perilesional primary motor cortex and cerebellum with rehabilitation training-related motor gains after stroke: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):412-28. PMID: 17369516; PMCID: PMC4067098.
    91. Mataric MJ, Eriksson J, Feil-Seifer DJ, Winstein C. Socially assistive robotics for post-stroke rehabilitation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2007 Feb 19; 4:5. PMID: 17309795; PMCID: PMC1821334.
    92. Koski L, Lin JC, Wu AD, Winstein C. Reliability of intracortical and corticomotor excitability estimates obtained from the upper extremities in chronic stroke. Neurosci Res. 2007 May; 58(1):19-31. PMID: 17303273.
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    93. Wolf SL, Newton H, Maddy D, Blanton S, Zhang Q, Winstein C, Morris DM, Light K. The Excite Trial: relationship of intensity of constraint induced movement therapy to improvement in the wolf motor function test. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007; 25(5-6):549-62. PMID: 18334772.
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    94. Wolf SL, Winstein C, Miller JP, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light KE, Nichols-Larsen D. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006 Nov 01; 296(17):2095-104. PMID: 17077374.
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    95. Uswatte G, Giuliani C, Winstein C, Zeringue A, Hobbs L, Wolf SL. Validity of accelerometry for monitoring real-world arm activity in patients with subacute stroke: evidence from the extremity constraint-induced therapy evaluation trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Oct; 87(10):1340-5. PMID: 17023243.
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    96. Boyd L, Winstein C. Explicit information interferes with implicit motor learning of both continuous and discrete movement tasks after stroke. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2006 Jun; 30(2):46-57; discussion 58-9. PMID: 16796767.
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    97. Dong Y, Dobkin BH, Cen SY, Wu AD, Winstein C. Motor cortex activation during treatment may predict therapeutic gains in paretic hand function after stroke. Stroke. 2006 Jun; 37(6):1552-5. PMID: 16645139.
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    98. Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Morris DM, Rose DK, Winstein C, Taub E, Giuliani C, Pearson SL. The EXCITE trial: attributes of the Wolf Motor Function Test in patients with subacute stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2005 Sep; 19(3):194-205. PMID: 16093410.
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    99. Boyd LA, Winstein C. Cerebellar stroke impairs temporal but not spatial accuracy during implicit motor learning. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004 Sep; 18(3):134-43. PMID: 15375273.
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    100. Boyd LA, Winstein C. Providing explicit information disrupts implicit motor learning after basal ganglia stroke. Learn Mem. 2004 Jul-Aug; 11(4):388-96. PMID: 15286181; PMCID: PMC498316.
    101. Winstein C, Rose DK, Tan SM, Lewthwaite R, Chui HC, Azen SP. A randomized controlled comparison of upper-extremity rehabilitation strategies in acute stroke: A pilot study of immediate and long-term outcomes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Apr; 85(4):620-8. PMID: 15083439.
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    102. Rose DK, Winstein C. Bimanual training after stroke: are two hands better than one? Top Stroke Rehabil. 2004; 11(4):20-30. PMID: 15592987.
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    103. Winstein C. Why is the functional independence measure used to identify some rehabilitation needs in stroke survivors when there are better tools? Physiother Res Int. 2004; 9(4):182-4. PMID: 15790256.
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    104. Boyd LA, Winstein C. Impact of explicit information on implicit motor-sequence learning following middle cerebral artery stroke. Phys Ther. 2003 Nov; 83(11):976-89. PMID: 14577825.
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    105. Winstein C, Miller JP, Blanton S, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Nichols D, Wolf S. Methods for a multisite randomized trial to investigate the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy in improving upper extremity function among adults recovering from a cerebrovascular stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2003 Sep; 17(3):137-52. PMID: 14503435.
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    106. Esparza DY, Archambault PS, Winstein C, Levin MF. Hemispheric specialization in the co-ordination of arm and trunk movements during pointing in patients with unilateral brain damage. Exp Brain Res. 2003 Feb; 148(4):488-97. PMID: 12582832.
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