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Eileen M Crimmins, PhD

Title(s)University Professor
Phone+1 213 740 1707
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    Eileen Crimmins is the AARP Professor of Gerontology in the Davis School of Gerontology at the University of Southern California. She is currently the director of the USC/UCLA Center on Biodemography and Population Health, one of the Demography of Aging Centers supported by the U.S. National Institute on Aging. She is also the Director of the Multidisciplinary Training in Gerontology Program and the NIA-sponsored Network on Biological Risk. Crimmins is a co-investigator of the Health and Retirement Study in the U.S. Much of Crimmins’ research has focused on changes over time in health and mortality. Crimmins has been instrumental in organizing and promoting the recent integration of the measurement of biological indicators in large population surveys. She recently served as co-chair of a Committee for the National Academy of Sciences to address why life expectancy in the U.S. is falling so far behind that of other countries. She has recently co-edited several books with a focus on international aging, mortality and health expectancy: Determining Health Expectancies; Longer Life and Healthy Aging; Human Longevity, Individual Life Duration, and the Growth of the Oldest-old Population; International Handbook of Adult Mortality; Explaining Diverging Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries; and International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources.

    She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a University Professor at USC. She received the Kleemeier Award for Research from the Gerontological Society of America.

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    Understanding Cross-National Health Differences at Older Ages and Their Causes
    NIH/NIA R01AG063944Sep 15, 2019 - Apr 30, 2024
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Ethnic-Specific Mitochondrial DNA Variations that Contribute to Dementia
    NIH/NIA R56AG062693Aug 15, 2019 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Biological Underpinnings of Socioeconomic Differentials in Health and Mortality
    NIH/NIA R01AG060110Sep 1, 2018 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Network on Measurement of Biological Risk
    NIH/NIA R24AG054365Sep 15, 2016 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biomarker Cross-Calibration to Investigate International Health Inequalities
    NIH/NIA R01AG049020Aug 15, 2015 - Apr 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Network on Life Course Health Dynamics and Disparities in 21st Century America
    NIH/NIA R24AG045061Sep 15, 2014 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Adding Contextual Data to the Health and Retirement Study
    NIH/NIA R21AG045625Sep 15, 2013 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Network on Measurement of Biological Risk
    NIH/NIA R24AG037898Sep 1, 2010 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biomarkers in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
    NIH/NIA R21AG033675Aug 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Preparation of Samples for Investigation of Biological Aging among the Tsimane
    NIH/NIA R21AG031988Jun 1, 2008 - May 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biological Risk Underlying Education Health Differences
    NIH/NIA R01AG023347Sep 30, 2003 - Aug 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Preparation and Distribution of the NUJLSOA
    NIH/NIA R03AG021656Sep 30, 2002 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    USC/UCLA Center on Biodemography and Population Health
    NIH/NIA P30AG017265Aug 15, 1999 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LINKING HEALTH EXPECTANCY TO POLICY AND SCIENCE
    NIH/NIA R13AG017203Jul 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF SES DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH
    NIH/NIA R01AG017055May 26, 1999 - Apr 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ACTIVE LIFE EXPECTANCY IN THE OLDER POPULATION
    NIH/NIA R01AG011235Aug 1, 1993 - May 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    DEMOGRAPHY OF AGING
    NIH/NIA T32AG000159Jul 1, 1988 - Aug 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    DOES IMPROVEMENT IN MORTALITY MEAN BETTER HEALTH?
    NIH/NIA R01AG005107Feb 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Multidisciplinary Research Training in Gerontology
    NIH/NIA T32AG000037Sep 1, 1977 - Apr 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Crimmins EM, Zhang YS, Kim JK, Levine ME. Changing Disease Prevalence, Incidence, and Mortality Among Older Cohorts: The Health and Retirement Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Nov 13; 74(Supplement_1):S21-S26. PMID: 31724057.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Mitchell UA, Ailshire JA, Kim JK, Crimmins EM. Black-White Differences in 20-year Trends in Cardiovascular Risk in the United States, 1990-2010. Ethn Dis. 2019; 29(4):587-598. PMID: 31641326.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Saenz JL, Díaz-Venegas C, Crimmins EM. Fertility History and Cognitive Function in Late-Life: The Case of Mexico. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2019 Oct 11. PMID: 31603514.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Saito Y, Kim JK, Davarian S, Hagedorn A, Crimmins EM. Cognitive Performance Among Older Persons in Japan and the United States. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 Sep 11. PMID: 31509240.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Thyagarajan B, Shippee N, Parsons H, Vivek S, Crimmins E, Faul J, Shippee T. How Does Subjective Age Get "Under the Skin"? The Association Between Biomarkers and Feeling Older or Younger Than One's Age: The Health and Retirement Study. Innov Aging. 2019 Aug; 3(4):igz035. PMID: 31528718.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Chen X, Crimmins E, Hu PP, Kim JK, Meng Q, Strauss J, Wang Y, Zeng J, Zhang Y, Zhao Y. Venous Blood-based Biomarkers in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS): Rational, Design, and Results of the 2015 Wave. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 31. PMID: 31364691.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Liu Z, Chen X, Gill TM, Ma C, Crimmins EM, Levine ME. Associations of genetics, behaviors, and life course circumstances with a novel aging and healthspan measure: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. PLoS Med. 2019 Jun; 16(6):e1002827. PMID: 31211779.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Chen Y, Tysinger B, Crimmins E, Zissimopoulos JM. Analysis of dementia in the US population using Medicare claims: Insights from linked survey and administrative claims data. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2019; 5:197-207. PMID: 31198838.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Zhang YS, Saito Y, Crimmins EM. Changing Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy of Older Americans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 May 22. PMID: 31120111.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Farina MP, Hayward MD, Crimmins EM, Kim JK. Racial and Educational Disparities in Cognitive Life Expectancies. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2019 Apr 25. PMID: 31111926.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Liu Z, Kuo PL, Horvath S, Crimmins E, Ferrucci L, Levine M. Correction: A new aging measure captures morbidity and mortality risk across diverse subpopulations from NHANES IV: A cohort study. PLoS Med. 2019 Feb; 16(2):e1002760. PMID: 30802240.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Robinette JW, Boardman JD, Crimmins EM. Differential vulnerability to neighbourhood disorder: a gene×environment interaction study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019 May; 73(5):388-392. PMID: 30661031.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Mitchell UA, Ailshire JA, Crimmins EM. Change in Cardiometabolic Risk Among Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics: Findings From the Health and Retirement Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Jan 16; 74(2):240-246. PMID: 29452335.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Liu Z, Kuo PL, Horvath S, Crimmins E, Ferrucci L, Levine M. A new aging measure captures morbidity and mortality risk across diverse subpopulations from NHANES IV: A cohort study. PLoS Med. 2018 12; 15(12):e1002718. PMID: 30596641.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Levine ME, Harrati A, Crimmins EM. Predictors and Implications of Accelerated Cognitive Aging. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2018; 64(2):83-101. PMID: 31007841.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Zhang YS, Crimmins EM. Urban-rural differentials in age-related biological risk among middle-aged and older Chinese. Int J Public Health. 2019 Jul; 64(6):831-839. PMID: 30535932.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Crimmins EM. Older Persons in The Netherlands and the United States: Similar in Trends in Life in Good Cognitive Health and Different in Trends in Life Without Disability/Poor Health. Am J Public Health. 2018 12; 108(12):1582-1583. PMID: 30403516.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Crimmins EM, Shim H, Zhang YS, Kim JK. Differences between Men and Women in Mortality and the Health Dimensions of the Morbidity Process. Clin Chem. 2019 01; 65(1):135-145. PMID: 30478135.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Lee J, Phillips D, Wilkens J, Chien S, Lin YC, Angrisani M, Crimmins E. Cross-Country Comparisons of Disability and Morbidity: Evidence from the Gateway to Global Aging Data. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 10 08; 73(11):1519-1524. PMID: 29211879.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Yen K, Wan J, Mehta HH, Miller B, Christensen A, Levine ME, Salomon MP, Brandhorst S, Xiao J, Kim SJ, Navarrete G, Campo D, Harry GJ, Longo V, Pike CJ, Mack WJ, Hodis HN, Crimmins EM, Cohen P. Humanin Prevents Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Mice and is Associated with Improved Cognitive Age in Humans. Sci Rep. 2018 09 21; 8(1):14212. PMID: 30242290.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Thyagarajan B, Barcelo H, Crimmins E, Weir D, Minnerath S, Vivek S, Faul J. Effect of delayed cell processing and cryopreservation on immunophenotyping in multicenter population studies. J Immunol Methods. 2018 12; 463:61-70. PMID: 30222961.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Sheehan C, Domingue BW, Crimmins E. Cohort Trends in the Gender Distribution of Household Tasks in the United States and the Implications for Understanding Disability. J Aging Health. 2018 Aug 24; 898264318793469. PMID: 30141717.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Mitchell UA, Ailshire JA, Brown LL, Levine ME, Crimmins EM. Education and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults: 4-Year Change in Sense of Control and Hopelessness. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 06 14; 73(5):849-859. PMID: 27013537.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Shim H, Ailshire J, Zelinski E, Crimmins E. The Health and Retirement Study: Analysis of Associations Between Use of the Internet for Health Information and Use of Health Services at Multiple Time Points. J Med Internet Res. 2018 05 25; 20(5):e200. PMID: 29802088.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Zissimopoulos JM, Tysinger BC, St Clair PA, Crimmins EM. The Impact of Changes in Population Health and Mortality on Future Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias in the United States. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 04 16; 73(suppl_1):S38-S47. PMID: 29669100.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Crimmins EM, Saito Y, Kim JK, Zhang YS, Sasson I, Hayward MD. Educational Differences in the Prevalence of Dementia and Life Expectancy with Dementia: Changes from 2000 to 2010. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 04 16; 73(suppl_1):S20-S28. PMID: 29669097.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Barcelo H, Faul J, Crimmins E, Thyagarajan B. A Practical Cryopreservation and Staining Protocol for Immunophenotyping in Population Studies. Curr Protoc Cytom. 2018 04; 84(1):e35. PMID: 30040214.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. Is 60 the New 50? Examining Changes in Biological Age Over the Past Two Decades. Demography. 2018 04; 55(2):387-402. PMID: 29511995.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Kim JK, Ailshire JA, Crimmins EM. Twenty-year trends in cardiovascular risk among men and women in the United States. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019 Jan; 31(1):135-143. PMID: 29569117.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Thomas D, Seeman T, Potter A, Hu P, Crimmins E, Herningtyas EH, Sumantri C, Frankenberg E. HPLC-based Measurement of Glycated Hemoglobin using Dried Blood Spots Collected under Adverse Field Conditions. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2018 Jan-Mar; 64(1):43-62. PMID: 29741414.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Levine ME, Crimmins EM, Weir DR, Cole SW. Contemporaneous Social Environment and the Architecture of Late-Life Gene Expression Profiles. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 09 01; 186(5):503-509. PMID: 28911009.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Lu AT, Hannon E, Levine ME, Crimmins EM, Lunnon K, Mill J, Geschwind DH, Horvath S. Genetic architecture of epigenetic and neuronal ageing rates in human brain regions. Nat Commun. 2017 05 18; 8:15353. PMID: 28516910.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Espeland MA, Crimmins EM, Grossardt BR, Crandall JP, Gelfond JA, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Manson JE, Robinson JG, Rocca WA, Temprosa M, Thomas F, Wallace R, Barzilai N. Clinical Trials Targeting Aging and Age-Related Multimorbidity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 03 01; 72(3):355-361. PMID: 28364543.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Crimmins E. Introduction to Issue on Gender Dynamics and Disparities in Health and Mortality. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2017; 63(1):1-2. PMID: 28287307.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Langa KM, Larson EB, Crimmins EM, Faul JD, Levine DA, Kabeto MU, Weir DR. A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 01 01; 177(1):51-58. PMID: 27893041.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Crimmins EM, Saito Y, Kim JK. Change in Cognitively Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Life Expectancy in the United States: 2000-2010. SSM Popul Health. 2016 Dec; 2:793-797. PMID: 27917398.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Min J, Ailshire J, Crimmins EM. Social engagement and depressive symptoms: do baseline depression status and type of social activities make a difference? Age Ageing. 2016 11; 45(6):838-843. PMID: 27496942.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Kohrt BA, Worthman CM, Adhikari RP, Luitel NP, Arevalo JM, Ma J, McCreath H, Seeman TE, Crimmins EM, Cole SW. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 07 19; 113(29):8156-61. PMID: 27402736.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Michaud PC, Crimmins E, Hurd M. The Effect of Job Loss on Health: Evidence from Biomarkers. Labour Econ. 2016 Aug; 41:194-203. PMID: 28684890.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Crimmins EM, Zhang Y, Saito Y. Trends Over 4 Decades in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2016 07; 106(7):1287-93. PMID: 27077352.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lu AT, Hannon E, Levine ME, Hao K, Crimmins EM, Lunnon K, Kozlenkov A, Mill J, Dracheva S, Horvath S. Genetic variants near MLST8 and DHX57 affect the epigenetic age of the cerebellum. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 02; 7:10561. PMID: 26830004.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Finch CE, Crimmins EM. Constant molecular aging rates vs. the exponential acceleration of mortality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 02; 113(5):1121-3. PMID: 26792520.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Zhao Y, Crimmins EM, Hu P, Shen Y, Smith JP, Strauss J, Wang Y, Zhang Y. Prevalence, diagnosis, and management of diabetes mellitus among older Chinese: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Int J Public Health. 2016 Apr; 61(3):347-56. PMID: 26755457.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Saito Y, Davarian S, Takahashi A, Schneider E, Crimmins EM. Diagnosis and Control of Hypertension in the Elderly Populations of Japan and the United States. Int J Popul Stud. 2015; 1(1):19-28. PMID: 28553664.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Crimmins EM. Lifespan and Healthspan: Past, Present, and Promise. Gerontologist. 2015 Dec; 55(6):901-11. PMID: 26561272.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Beltrán-Sánchez H, Soneji S, Crimmins EM. Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015 Nov 02; 5(11). PMID: 26525456.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. A Genetic Network Associated With Stress Resistance, Longevity, and Cancer in Humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 06; 71(6):703-12. PMID: 26355015.
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    48. Arpawong TE, Lee J, Phillips DF, Crimmins EM, Levine ME, Prescott CA. Effects of Recent Stress and Variation in the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Depressive Symptoms: A Repeated-Measures Study of Adults Age 50 and Older. Behav Genet. 2016 Jan; 46(1):72-88. PMID: 26330209.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Tiedt AD, Saito Y, Crimmins EM. Depressive Symptoms, Transitions to Widowhood, and Informal Support From Adult Children Among Older Women and Men in Japan. Res Aging. 2016 08; 38(6):619-42. PMID: 26243334.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Cole SW, Levine ME, Arevalo JM, Ma J, Weir DR, Crimmins EM. Loneliness, eudaimonia, and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Dec; 62:11-7. PMID: 26246388.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Beltrán-Sánchez H, Finch CE, Crimmins EM. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 21; 112(29):8993-8. PMID: 26150507.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Wheaton FV, Crimmins EM. Female disability disadvantage: a global perspective on sex differences in physical function and disability. Ageing Soc. 2016 Jul; 36(6):1136-1156. PMID: 27453613.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Donoho CJ, Seeman TE, Sloan RP, Crimmins EM. Marital status, marital quality, and heart rate variability in the MIDUS cohort. J Fam Psychol. 2015 Apr; 29(2):290-5. PMID: 25844496.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Solé-Auró A, Michaud PC, Hurd M, Crimmins E. Disease incidence and mortality among older Americans and Europeans. Demography. 2015 Apr; 52(2):593-611. PMID: 25715676.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Crimmins EM. Physiological Differences Across Populations Reflecting Early Life and Later Life Nutritional Status and Later Life Risk for Chronic Disease. J Popul Ageing. 2015 Mar; 8(1-2):51-69. PMID: 25750688.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Levine ME, Cole SW, Weir DR, Crimmins EM. Childhood and later life stressors and increased inflammatory gene expression at older ages. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr; 130:16-22. PMID: 25658624.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Hu P, Herningtyas EH, Kale V, Crimmins EM, Risbud AR, McCreath H, Lee J, Strauss J, O'Brien JC, Bloom DE, Seeman TE. External quality control for dried blood spot-based C-reactive protein assay: experience from the indonesia family life survey and the longitudinal aging study in India. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2015; 61(1):111-20. PMID: 25879265.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Hu P, Edenfield M, Potter A, Kale V, Risbud A, Williams S, Lee J, Bloom DE, Crimmins E, Seeman T. Validation and modification of dried blood spot-based glycosylated hemoglobin assay for the longitudinal aging study in India. Am J Hum Biol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 27(4):579-81. PMID: 25472916.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Zissimopoulos J, Crimmins E, St Clair P. The Value of Delaying Alzheimer's Disease Onset. Forum Health Econ Policy. 2014 Nov; 18(1):25-39. PMID: 27134606.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Ailshire JA, Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM. Becoming centenarians: disease and functioning trajectories of older US Adults as they survive to 100. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Feb; 70(2):193-201. PMID: 25136001.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. A comparison of methods for assessing mortality risk. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 26(6):768-76. PMID: 25088793.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. Evidence of accelerated aging among African Americans and its implications for mortality. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Oct; 118:27-32. PMID: 25086423.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Ailshire JA, Crimmins EM. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Aug 15; 180(4):359-66. PMID: 24966214.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Solé-Auró A, Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM. Are Differences in Disability-Free Life Expectancy by Gender, Race, and Education Widening at Older Ages? Popul Res Policy Rev. 2014 Jun; 34(1):1-18. PMID: 29681672.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Levine ME, Suarez JA, Brandhorst S, Balasubramanian P, Cheng CW, Madia F, Fontana L, Mirisola MG, Guevara-Aguirre J, Wan J, Passarino G, Kennedy BK, Wei M, Cohen P, Crimmins EM, Longo VD. Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metab. 2014 Mar 04; 19(3):407-17. PMID: 24606898.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Solé-Auró A, Crimmins EM. Who cares? A comparison of informal and formal care provision in Spain, England and the USA. Ageing Soc. 2014 Mar 01; 34(3):495-517. PMID: 24550574.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Levine M, Crimmins E. Not all smokers die young: a model for hidden heterogeneity within the human population. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87403. PMID: 24520332.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Crimmins EM. Integrating work from genetics and the social sciences: part two. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2014; 60(2):115-6. PMID: 25343361.
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    69. Crimmins E, Kim JK, McCreath H, Faul J, Weir D, Seeman T. Validation of blood-based assays using dried blood spots for use in large population studies. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2014; 60(1):38-48. PMID: 24784986.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Levine ME, Crimmins EM, Prescott CA, Phillips D, Arpawong TE, Lee J. A polygenic risk score associated with measures of depressive symptoms among older adults. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2014; 60(2):199-211. PMID: 25343367.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Saito Y, Robine JM, Crimmins EM. The methods and materials of health expectancy. Stat J IAOS. 2014; 30(3):209-223. PMID: 30319718.
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    72. Yon Y, Crimmins EM. Cohort Morbidity Hypothesis: Health Inequalities of Older Maori and non-Maori in New Zealand. N Z Popul Rev. 2014; 40:63-83. PMID: 30636820.
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    73. Chen H, Wang H, Crimmins EM, Chen G, Huang C, Zheng X. The contributions of diseases to disability burden among the elderly population in China. J Aging Health. 2014 Mar; 26(2):261-82. PMID: 24368296.
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    74. Finch CE, Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution. Gerontology. 2014; 60(2):183-8. PMID: 24401556.
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    75. Vasunilashorn S, Ferrucci L, Crimmins EM, Bandinelli S, Guralnik JM, Patel KV. Association of inflammation with loss of ability to walk 400 meters: longitudinal findings from the Invecchiare in Chianti Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct; 61(10):1743-9. PMID: 24083386.
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    76. Beltrán-Sánchez H, Thomas D, Teruel G, Wheaton F, Crimmins EM. Links between socio-economic circumstances and changes in smoking behavior in the Mexican population: 2002-2010. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2013 Sep; 28(3):339-58. PMID: 23888371.
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    77. Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM. Biological risk in the Mexican population at the turn of the 21st century. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2013 Sep; 28(3):299-316. PMID: 23812952.
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    78. Kim JK, Baker LA, Davarian S, Crimmins E. Oral health problems and mortality. J Dent Sci. 2013 Jun; 8(2). PMID: 24416472.
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    79. Vasunilashorn S, Kim JK, Crimmins EM. International differences in the links between obesity and physiological dysregulation: the United States, England, and Taiwan. J Obes. 2013; 2013:618056. PMID: 23781331.
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    80. Davarian S, Crimmins E, Takahashi A, Saito Y. Sociodemographic correlates of four indices of blood pressure and hypertension among older persons in Japan. Gerontology. 2013; 59(5):392-400. PMID: 23689609.
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    81. Freedman VA, Spillman BC, Andreski PM, Cornman JC, Crimmins EM, Kramarow E, Lubitz J, Martin LG, Merkin SS, Schoeni RF, Seeman TE, Waidmann TA. Trends in late-life activity limitations in the United States: an update from five national surveys. Demography. 2013 Apr; 50(2):661-71. PMID: 23104207.
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    82. Donoho CJ, Crimmins EM, Seeman TE. Marital Quality, Gender, and Markers of Inflammation in the MIDUS Cohort. J Marriage Fam. 2013 Feb 01; 75(1):127-141. PMID: 24700968.
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    83. Wheaton FV, Crimmins EM. In hindsight: urban exposure explains the association between prior migration and current health of older adults in Mexico. J Aging Health. 2013 Apr; 25(3):422-38. PMID: 23349513.
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    84. Levine ME, Kim JK, Crimmins EM. The role of physiological markers of health in the association between demographic factors and periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 2013 Jun; 48(3):367-72. PMID: 23231345.
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    85. Kim JK, Baker LA, Seirawan H, Crimmins EM. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity. Spec Care Dentist. 2012 Nov-Dec; 32(6):234-41. PMID: 23095066.
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    86. Beltrán-Sáncheza H, Crimmins E, Finch C. Early cohort mortality predicts the rate of aging in the cohort: a historical analysis. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2012 Oct; 3(5):380-6. PMID: 23626899.
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    87. Winstein CJ, Requejo PS, Zelinski EM, Mulroy SJ, Crimmins EM. A transformative subfield in rehabilitation science at the nexus of new technologies, aging, and disability. Front Psychol. 2012; 3:340. PMID: 23049517.
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    88. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. Sarcopenic obesity and cognitive functioning: the mediating roles of insulin resistance and inflammation? Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2012; 2012:826398. PMID: 22611388.
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    89. Crimmins EM, Finch CE. The genetics of age-related health outcomes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 May; 67(5):467-9. PMID: 22454370.
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    90. Levine ME, Crimmins EM. The impact of insulin resistance and inflammation on the association between sarcopenic obesity and physical functioning. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Oct; 20(10):2101-6. PMID: 22310233.
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    91. Ailshire JA, Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM. Social characteristics and health status of exceptionally long-lived Americans in the Health and Retirement Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Dec; 59(12):2241-8. PMID: 22188072.
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    92. Ailshire JA, Crimmins EM. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Longevity in the United States: Age Differences between the Old and Oldest-Old in the Health and Retirement Study. J Aging Res. 2011; 2011:530534. PMID: 22028969.
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    93. Beltrán-Sánchez H, Crimmins EM, Teruel GM, Thomas D. Links between childhood and adult social circumstances and obesity and hypertension in the Mexican population. J Aging Health. 2011 Oct; 23(7):1141-65. PMID: 21948773.
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    94. Canon ME, Crimmins EM. Sex differences in the association between muscle quality, inflammatory markers, and cognitive decline. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 Aug; 15(8):695-8. PMID: 21968867.
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    95. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Langa KM, Weir DR. Assessment of cognition using surveys and neuropsychological assessment: the Health and Retirement Study and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2011 Jul; 66 Suppl 1:i162-71. PMID: 21743047.
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    96. Solé-Auró A, Guillén M, Crimmins EM. Health care usage among immigrants and native-born elderly populations in eleven European countries: results from SHARE. Eur J Health Econ. 2012 Dec; 13(6):741-54. PMID: 21660564.
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    97. Vasunilashorn S, Finch CE, Crimmins EM, Vikman SA, Stieglitz J, Gurven M, Kaplan H, Allayee H. Inflammatory gene variants in the Tsimane, an indigenous Bolivian population with a high infectious load. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2011; 57(1):33-52. PMID: 21845926.
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    98. Crimmins EM, Beltrán-Sánchez H. Mortality and morbidity trends: is there compression of morbidity? J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2011 Jan; 66(1):75-86. PMID: 21135070.
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    99. Reynolds SL, Crimmins EM. TRENDS IN THE ABILITY TO WORK AMONG MEN AND WOMEN IN THE OLDER AMERICAN POPULATION: 1997-2007. Eur J Ageing. 2010 Dec 01; 7(4):249-256. PMID: 23585761.
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    100. Goldman N, Turra CM, Rosero-Bixby L, Weir D, Crimmins E. Do biological measures mediate the relationship between education and health: A comparative study. Soc Sci Med. 2011 Jan; 72(2):307-15. PMID: 21159415.
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    101. Vasunilashorn S, Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Winking J, Gurven M, Kaplan H, Finch CE. Blood lipids, infection, and inflammatory markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia. Am J Hum Biol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 22(6):731-40. PMID: 20721985.
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    102. Karlamangla AS, Merkin SS, Crimmins EM, Seeman TE. Socioeconomic and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular risk in the United States, 2001-2006. Ann Epidemiol. 2010 Aug; 20(8):617-28. PMID: 20609342.
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    103. Oksuzyan A, Crimmins E, Saito Y, O'Rand A, Vaupel JW, Christensen K. Cross-national comparison of sex differences in health and mortality in Denmark, Japan and the US. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul; 25(7):471-80. PMID: 20495953.
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    104. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Solé-Auró A. Gender differences in health: results from SHARE, ELSA and HRS. Eur J Public Health. 2011 Feb; 21(1):81-91. PMID: 20237171.
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    105. Shultz KS, Wang M, Crimmins EM, Fisher GG. Age Differences in the Demand-Control Model of Work Stress: An Examination of Data From 15 European Countries. J Appl Gerontol. 2010 Feb; 29(1):21-47. PMID: 20948986.
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    106. Mazumder B, Almond D, Park K, Crimmins EM, Finch CE. Lingering prenatal effects of the 1918 influenza pandemic on cardiovascular disease. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2010 Feb; 1(1):26-34. PMID: 20198106.
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    107. Cai L, Hayward MD, Saito Y, Lubitz J, Hagedorn A, Crimmins E. Estimation of multi-state life table functions and their variability from complex survey data using the SPACE Program. Demogr Res. 2010 Jan 26; 22(6):129-158. PMID: 20463842.
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    108. Seeman TE, Merkin SS, Crimmins EM, Karlamangla AS. Disability trends among older Americans: National Health And Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Am J Public Health. 2010 Jan; 100(1):100-7. PMID: 19910350.
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    109. Crimmins E, Kim JK, Vasunilashorn S. Biodemography: new approaches to understanding trends and differences in population health and mortality. Demography. 2010; 47 Suppl:S41-64. PMID: 21302421.
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    110. Sharp ES, Suthers KM, Crimmins E, Gatz M. Does "no" mean "sometimes"? How older adults respond to the same depression symptoms with different response formats. Clin Gerontol. 2009 Oct 01; 32(4):371-378. PMID: 20563229.
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    111. Gurven M, Kaplan H, Winking J, Eid Rodriguez D, Vasunilashorn S, Kim JK, Finch C, Crimmins E. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists. PLoS One. 2009 Aug 11; 4(8):e6590. PMID: 19668697.
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    112. Crimmins EM, Hayward MD, Hagedorn A, Saito Y, Brouard N. Change in disability-free life expectancy for Americans 70-years-old and older. Demography. 2009 Aug; 46(3):627-46. PMID: 19771948.
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    113. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Seeman TE. Poverty and biological risk: the earlier "aging" of the poor. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Feb; 64(2):286-92. PMID: 19196637.
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    114. Merkin SS, Karlamangla A, Crimmins E, Charette SL, Hayward M, Kim JK, Koretz B, Seeman T. Education differentials by race and ethnicity in the diagnosis and management of hypercholesterolemia: a national sample of U.S. adults (NHANES 1999-2002). Int J Public Health. 2009; 54(3):166-74. PMID: 19219403.
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    115. Yeom J, Kim JK, Crimmins EM. Factors Associated with Body Mass Index(BMI) Among Older Adults: A Comparison Study of the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Hanguk Nonyonhak. 2009; 29(4):1479-1500. PMID: 25285028.
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    116. Reynolds SL, Hagedorn A, Yeom J, Saito Y, Yokoyama E, Crimmins EM. A tale of two countries--the United States and Japan: are differences in health due to differences in overweight? J Epidemiol. 2008; 18(6):280-90. PMID: 19057112.
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    117. Watts A, Crimmins EM, Gatz M. Inflammation as a potential mediator for the association between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Oct; 4(5):865-76. PMID: 19183779.
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    118. Crimmins EM, Vasunilashorn S, Kim JK, Hagedorn A, Saito Y. A Comparison of Biological Risk Factors in Two Populations: The United States and Japan. Popul Dev Rev. 2008 Sep 05; 34(3):457-482. PMID: 19421428.
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    119. Lièvre A, Alley D, Crimmins EM. Educational differentials in life expectancy with cognitive impairment among the elderly in the United States. J Aging Health. 2008 Jun; 20(4):456-77. PMID: 18448687.
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    120. Drevenstedt GL, Crimmins EM, Vasunilashorn S, Finch CE. The rise and fall of excess male infant mortality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 01; 105(13):5016-21. PMID: 18362357.
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    121. Gurven M, Kaplan H, Winking J, Finch C, Crimmins EM. Aging and inflammation in two epidemiological worlds. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Feb; 63(2):196-9. PMID: 18314457.
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    122. Alley DE, Crimmins EM, Karlamangla A, Hu P, Seeman TE. Inflammation and rate of cognitive change in high-functioning older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Jan; 63(1):50-5. PMID: 18245760.
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    123. Crimmins EM, Hayward MD, Ueda H, Saito Y, Kim JK. Life with and without heart disease among women and men over 50. J Women Aging. 2008; 20(1-2):5-19. PMID: 18581697.
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    124. Crimmins E, Vasunilashorn S, Kim JK, Alley D. Biomarkers related to aging in human populations. Adv Clin Chem. 2008; 46:161-216. PMID: 19004190.
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    125. Solé-Auró A, Crimmins EM. Health of Immigrants in European countries. Int Migr Rev. 2008; 42(4):861-876. PMID: 21048888.
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    126. Yip J, Nishita CM, Crimmins EM, Wilber KH. High-cost users among dual eligibles in three care settings. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007 Nov; 18(4):950-65. PMID: 17982217.
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    127. Seeman T, Merkin SS, Crimmins E, Koretz B, Charette S, Karlamangla A. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994). Soc Sci Med. 2008 Jan; 66(1):72-87. PMID: 17920177.
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    128. Kim JK, Alley D, Hu P, Karlamangla A, Seeman T, Crimmins EM. Changes in postmenopausal hormone therapy use since 1988. Womens Health Issues. 2007 Nov-Dec; 17(6):338-41. PMID: 17936641.
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    129. Takagi E, Silverstein M, Crimmins E. Intergenerational coresidence of older adults in Japan: conditions for cultural plasticity. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007 Sep; 62(5):S330-9. PMID: 17906177.
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    130. Alley DE, Crimmins E, Bandeen-Roche K, Guralnik J, Ferrucci L. Three-year change in inflammatory markers in elderly people and mortality: the Invecchiare in Chianti study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Nov; 55(11):1801-7. PMID: 17727645.
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    131. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Alley DE, Karlamangla A, Seeman T. Hispanic paradox in biological risk profiles. Am J Public Health. 2007 Jul; 97(7):1305-10. PMID: 17538054.
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    132. Alley D, Suthers K, Crimmins E. Education and Cognitive Decline in Older Americans: Results From the AHEAD Sample. Res Aging. 2007 Jan 01; 29(1):73-94. PMID: 19830260.
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    133. Crimmins EM, Finch CE. Commentary: do older men and women gain equally from improving childhood conditions? Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct; 35(5):1270-1. PMID: 16980313.
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    134. Kim JK, Alley D, Seeman T, Karlamangla A, Crimmins E. Recent changes in cardiovascular risk factors among women and men. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 Jul-Aug; 15(6):734-46. PMID: 16910905.
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    135. Hu P, Bretsky P, Crimmins EM, Guralnik JM, Reuben DB, Seeman TE. Association between serum beta-carotene levels and decline of cognitive function in high-functioning older persons with or without apolipoprotein E 4 alleles: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Jun; 61(6):616-20. PMID: 16799145.
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    136. Crimmins EM, Finch CE. Infection, inflammation, height, and longevity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 10; 103(2):498-503. PMID: 16387863.
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    137. Alley DE, Seeman TE, Ki Kim J, Karlamangla A, Hu P, Crimmins EM. Socioeconomic status and C-reactive protein levels in the US population: NHANES IV. Brain Behav Immun. 2006 Sep; 20(5):498-504. PMID: 16330181.
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    138. Crimmins EM, Alley D, Reynolds SL, Johnston M, Karlamangla A, Seeman T. Changes in biological markers of health: older Americans in the 1990s. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005 Nov; 60(11):1409-13. PMID: 16339326.
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    139. Crimmins EM. Childhood conditions and late-life health: introduction. Soc Biol. 2005 Fall-Winter; 52(3-4):89-93. PMID: 17619605.
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    140. Crimmins EM, Soldo BJ, Kim JK, Alley DE. Using anthropometric indicators for Mexicans in the United States and Mexico to understand the selection of migrants and the "Hispanic paradox". Soc Biol. 2005 Fall-Winter; 52(3-4):164-77. PMID: 17619609.
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    141. Andel R, Crowe M, Pedersen NL, Mortimer J, Crimmins E, Johansson B, Gatz M. Complexity of work and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study of Swedish twins. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Sep; 60(5):P251-8. PMID: 16131619.
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    142. Reynolds SL, Saito Y, Crimmins EM. The impact of obesity on active life expectancy in older American men and women. Gerontologist. 2005 Aug; 45(4):438-44. PMID: 16051906.
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    143. Seeman TE, Huang MH, Bretsky P, Crimmins E, Launer L, Guralnik JM. Education and APOE-e4 in longitudinal cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Mar; 60(2):P74-83. PMID: 15746021.
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    144. Finch CE, Crimmins EM. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science. 2004 Sep 17; 305(5691):1736-9. PMID: 15375259.
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    145. Freedman VA, Crimmins E, Schoeni RF, Spillman BC, Aykan H, Kramarow E, Land K, Lubitz J, Manton K, Martin LG, Shinberg D, Waidmann T. Resolving inconsistencies in trends in old-age disability: report from a technical working group. Demography. 2004 Aug; 41(3):417-41. PMID: 15461008.
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    146. Hu P, Reuben DB, Crimmins EM, Harris TB, Huang MH, Seeman TE. The effects of serum beta-carotene concentration and burden of inflammation on all-cause mortality risk in high-functioning older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 Aug; 59(8):849-54. PMID: 15345737.
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    147. Seeman TE, Crimmins E, Huang MH, Singer B, Bucur A, Gruenewald T, Berkman LF, Reuben DB. Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Soc Sci Med. 2004 May; 58(10):1985-97. PMID: 15020014.
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    148. Crimmins EM, Hayward MD. Workplace characteristics and work disability onset for men and women. Soz Praventivmed. 2004; 49(2):122-31. PMID: 15150864.
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    149. Crimmins EM. Trends in the health of the elderly. Annu Rev Public Health. 2004; 25:79-98. PMID: 15015913.
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    150. Crimmins EM, Johnston M, Hayward M, Seeman T. Age differences in allostatic load: an index of physiological dysregulation. Exp Gerontol. 2003 Jul; 38(7):731-4. PMID: 12855278.
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    151. Suthers K, Kim JK, Crimmins E. Life expectancy with cognitive impairment in the older population of the United States. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2003 May; 58(3):S179-86. PMID: 12730319.
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    152. Tabbarah M, Crimmins EM, Seeman TE. The relationship between cognitive and physical performance: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 Apr; 57(4):M228-35. PMID: 11909888.
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    153. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Hagedorn A. Life with and without disease: women experience more of both. J Women Aging. 2002; 14(1-2):47-59. PMID: 12537279.
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    154. Seeman TE, Crimmins E. Social environment effects on health and aging: integrating epidemiologic and demographic approaches and perspectives. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Dec; 954:88-117. PMID: 11797869.
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    155. Wagener DK, Molla MT, Crimmins EM, Pamuk E, Madans JH. Summary measures of population health: addressing the first goal of healthy people 2010, improving health expectancy. Healthy People 2010 Stat Notes. 2001 Sep; (22):1-13. PMID: 11676468.
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    156. Crimmins EM, Saito Y. Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970-1990: gender, racial, and educational differences. Soc Sci Med. 2001 Jun; 52(11):1629-41. PMID: 11327137.
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    157. Blackwell DL, Hayward MD, Crimmins EM. Does childhood health affect chronic morbidity in later life? Soc Sci Med. 2001 Apr; 52(8):1269-84. PMID: 11281409.
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    158. Crimmins EM. Mortality and health in human life spans. Exp Gerontol. 2001 Apr; 36(4-6):885-97. PMID: 11295521.
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    159. Crimmins EM, Reynolds SL, Saito Y. Trends in health and ability to work among the older working-age population. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1999 Jan; 54(1):S31-40. PMID: 9934400.
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    160. Zelinski EM, Crimmins E, Reynolds S, Seeman T. Do medical conditions affect cognition in older adults? Health Psychol. 1998 Nov; 17(6):504-12. PMID: 9848800.
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    161. Reynolds SL, Crimmins EM, Saito Y. Cohort differences in disability and disease presence. Gerontologist. 1998 Oct; 38(5):578-90. PMID: 9803646.
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    162. Crimmins EM, Saito Y, Reynolds SL. Further evidence on recent trends in the prevalence and incidence of disability among older Americans from two sources: the LSOA and the NHIS. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997 Mar; 52(2):S59-71. PMID: 9060986.
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    163. Mihelic AH, Crimmins EM. Loss to folow-up in a sample of Americans 70 years of age and older: The LSOA 1984-1990. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997 Jan; 52B(1):S37-48. PMID: 9008680.
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    164. Crimmins EM. Mixed trends in population health among older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1996 Sep; 51(5):S223-5. PMID: 8809006.
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    165. Crimmins EM, Hayward MD, Saito Y. Differentials in active life expectancy in the older population of the United States. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1996 May; 51(3):S111-20. PMID: 8620358.
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    166. Macunovich DJ, Easterlin RA, Schaeffer CM, Crimmins EM. Echoes of the baby boom and bust: recent and prospective changes in living alone among elderly widows in the United States. Demography. 1995 Feb; 32(1):17-28. PMID: 7774728.
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    167. Hayward MD, Crimmins EM, Wray LA. The relationship between retirement life cycle changes and older men's labor force participation rates. J Gerontol. 1994 Sep; 49(5):S219-30. PMID: 8056951.
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    168. Crimmins EM, Hayward MD, Saito Y. Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population. Demography. 1994 Feb; 31(1):159-75. PMID: 8005340.
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    169. Crimmins EM. Demography: the past 30 years, the present, and the future. Demography. 1993 Nov; 30(4):579-91. PMID: 8262281.
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    170. Crimmins EM, Ingegneri DG. Interaction and living arrangements of older parents and their children. Past trends, present determinants, future implications. Res Aging. 1990 Mar; 12(1):3-35. PMID: 2315554.
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    171. Crimmins EM. Life expectancy and the older population. Demographic implications of recent and prospective trends in old age mortality. Res Aging. 1984 Dec; 6(4):490-514. PMID: 6544994.
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    172. Crimmins EM, Easterlin RA. The estimation of natural fertility: a micro approach. Soc Biol. 1984 Spring-Summer; 31(1-2):160-70. PMID: 6543999.
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    173. Crimmins EM. Implications of recent mortality trends for the size and composition of the population over 65. Rev Public Data Use. 1983 Mar; 11(1):37-48. PMID: 10261281.
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    174. Crimmins EM, Condran GA. Mortality variation in U.S. cities in 1900: a two-level explanation by cause of death and underlying factors. Soc Sci Hist. 1983; 7(1):31-60. PMID: 11633201.
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    175. Condran GA, Crimmins E. Mortality differentials between rural and urban areas of states in the Northeastern United States 1890-1900. J Hist Geogr. 1980; 6(2):179-202. PMID: 11632264.
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    176. Crimmins EM. The completeness of 1900 mortality data collected by registration and enumeration for rural and urban parts of states: estimates using the Chandra Sekar-Deming technique. Hist Methods. 1980; 13(3):163-9. PMID: 11614589.
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    177. Condran GA, Crimmins E. A description and evaluation of mortality data in the federal census: 1850-1900. Hist Methods. 1979; 12(1):1-23. PMID: 11614603.
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