Robert Chow, MD, PhD

Title(s)Retired Faculty
SchoolKeck School of Medicine of Usc
AddressZNI 323, 1501 San Pablo Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
Phone+ 1 323 270 8324
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Postdoctoral Fellow
    Sir Henry Wellcome Innovative Research Award
    Medical Scientist Training Fellowship
    Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship
    Royal Society New Investigator Award
    Fellow of the American College of Physicians

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    The aim of my laboratory is to advance our understanding of how hormone and neuronal secretion is controlled in normal and pathological states, and then to translate this knowledge to improve human health. In the last decade, neuroscience has benefited tremendously from the molecular biology revolution. Dozens of synaptic proteins have been cloned. One of the most exciting goals today is to figure out how these proteins orchestrate the complex life cycle of the secretory vesicle. It is of particular interest to understand how calcium is involved. Katz and colleagues showed that calcium triggers fast exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that calcium may play other important roles that precede exocytosis, perhaps facilitating translocation, docking and priming of vesicles.

    We work with neurons and endocrine cells. Many endocrine cells such as pancreatic beta and chromaffin cells, like neurons, fire action potentials, exhibit fast calcium-dependent exocytosis, and express synaptic proteins or closely related proteins. They have the advantages of being easy to prepare, and their secretory vesicles are larger than synaptic vesicles and can therefore be visualized more readily. We use viral vectors to express the protein of interest in native or mutated form, and we then study the effects on secretion. The high-resolution methods we use to monitor exocytosis include membrane capacitance measurements, carbon-fiber amperometry, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (also called evanescent-wave microscopy).

    Another related area of interest of the laboratory is the cellular mechanism of abnormal secretion and cell death in diabetes mellitus. In collaboration with Prof. Ralf Langen (Biochemistry, ZNI), we are studying the mechanism of cell death in pancreatic beta cells. The aim is to understand the nature of derangements in beta cell function early in disease, which may permit design of therapeutic interventions early in the development of type I and II diabetes.

    In collaboration with Mark Humayun (Ophthalmology, BME) and Jim Weiland (Ophthalmology, BME), we are studying methods to restore sight to the blind. In my laboratory, we perform imaging of retinal ganglion and bipolar neurons expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators, in order to better understand how to improve signaling between the microelectrode array of an implanted epiretinal prosthesis and the retina. In addition, we are working on photoactivated molecules that embed in cell membranes, converting the cells into light-sensors -- a novel cellular prosthesis.

    A recent interest of our laboratory pertains to cancer biology. When cancer cells become invasive, they express many neuronal-type proteins, including those involved in electrical signaling, secretion, and motility. Thus, we have been studying how these genes are turned on, in an effort to develop approaches to recognize the potential of cancer cells to invade/metastasize, as well as to find ways to stop invasion. One recent discovery we made in collaboration with Prof. Kirk Shung (BME) is that highly invasive breast cancer cells, but not less invasive cells, exhibit calcium elevations upon ultrasound stimulation. We are investigating the pathways involved, and we are collaborating with oncologists to develop a possible clinical assay.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Channel activity during skin morphogenesis
    NIH R01AR078050May 1, 2021 - Feb 28, 2026
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Evaluation of Cellular Heterogeneity Using Patchclamp and RNA-Seq of Single Cells
    NIH U01MH098937Sep 21, 2012 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into glucose-responsive be
    NIH K18DK091445Aug 11, 2011 - Aug 10, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01GM085791Aug 1, 2008 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Insulin granule dynamics in pancreatic beta cells
    NIH R01DK060623Jul 15, 2002 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Altered adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2022 04; 25(4):493-503. Ammothumkandy A, Ravina K, Wolseley V, Tartt AN, Yu PN, Corona L, Zhang N, Nune G, Kalayjian L, Mann JJ, Rosoklija GB, Arango V, Dwork AJ, Lee B, Smith JAD, Song D, Berger TW, Heck C, Chow RH, Boldrini M, Liu CY, Russin JJ, Bonaguidi MA. PMID: 35383330; PMCID: PMC9097543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Global feather orientations changed by electric current. iScience. 2021 Jun 25; 24(6):102671. Jiang TX, Li A, Lin CM, Chiu C, Cho JH, Reid B, Zhao M, Chow RH, Widelitz RB, Chuong CM. PMID: 34179734; PMCID: PMC8214094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    3. Integrating Bioelectrical Currents and Ca2+ Signaling with Biochemical Signaling in Development and Pathogenesis. Bioelectricity. 2020 Sep 01; 2(3):210-220. Li A, Zhou J, Widelitz RB, Chow RH, Chuong CM. PMID: 34476353; PMCID: PMC8370337.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    4. Focused Ultrasound Stimulates ER Localized Mechanosensitive PANNEXIN-1 to Mediate Intracellular Calcium Release in Invasive Cancer Cells. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020; 8:504. Lee NS, Yoon CW, Wang Q, Moon S, Koo KM, Jung H, Chen R, Jiang L, Lu G, Fernandez A, Chow RH, Weitz AC, Salvaterra PM, Pinaud F, Shung KK. PMID: 32656213; PMCID: PMC7325310.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15  
    5. Robust RNA-Seq of aRNA-amplified single cell material collected by patch clamp. Sci Rep. 2020 02 06; 10(1):1979. Kim JMH, Camarena A, Walker C, Lin MY, Wolseley V, Souaiaia T, Thornton M, Grubbs B, Chow RH, Evgrafov OV, Knowles JA. PMID: 32029778; PMCID: PMC7004989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Mitigating Antagonism between Transcription and Proliferation Allows Near-Deterministic Cellular Reprogramming. Cell Stem Cell. 2019 10 03; 25(4):486-500.e9. Babos KN, Galloway KE, Kisler K, Zitting M, Li Y, Shi Y, Quintino B, Chow RH, Zlokovic BV, Ichida JK. PMID: 31523028; PMCID: PMC6778044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Stimulation strategies for selective activation of retinal ganglion cell soma and threshold reduction. J Neural Eng. 2019 04; 16(2):026017. Chang YC, Haji Ghaffari D, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 30560810; PMCID: PMC6648650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Calcium oscillations coordinate feather mesenchymal cell movement by SHH dependent modulation of gap junction networks. Nat Commun. 2018 12 18; 9(1):5377. Li A, Cho JH, Reid B, Tseng CC, He L, Tan P, Yeh CY, Wu P, Li Y, Widelitz RB, Zhou Y, Zhao M, Chow RH, Chuong CM. PMID: 30560870; PMCID: PMC6299091.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Alveolar epithelial cell processing of nanoparticles activates autophagy and lysosomal exocytosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 08 01; 315(2):L286-L300. Sipos A, Kim KJ, Chow RH, Flodby P, Borok Z, Crandall ED. PMID: 29722567; PMCID: PMC6139662.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Estradiol Protects White Matter of Male C57BL6J Mice against Experimental Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Jul; 27(7):1743-1751. Dominguez R, Zitting M, Liu Q, Patel A, Babadjouni R, Hodis DM, Chow RH, Mack WJ. PMID: 29602614; PMCID: PMC5972054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Direct measurement of bipolar cell responses to electrical stimulation in wholemount mouse retina. J Neural Eng. 2018 08; 15(4):046003. Walston ST, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 29513646; PMCID: PMC6657336.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Zika Virus Infects Intermediate Progenitor Cells and Post-mitotic Committed Neurons in Human Fetal Brain Tissues. Sci Rep. 2017 11 01; 7(1):14883. Lin MY, Wang YL, Wu WL, Wolseley V, Tsai MT, Radic V, Thornton ME, Grubbs BH, Chow RH, Huang IC. PMID: 29093521; PMCID: PMC5665882.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. GCaMP expression in retinal ganglion cells characterized using a low-cost fundus imaging system. J Neural Eng. 2017 10; 14(5):056018. Chang YC, Walston ST, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 28930702; PMCID: PMC6651747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Method to remove photoreceptors from whole mount retina in vitro. J Neurophysiol. 2017 11 01; 118(5):2763-2769. Walston ST, Chang YC, Weiland JD, Chow RH. PMID: 28855296; PMCID: PMC5675901.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Functional Assay of Cancer Cell Invasion Potential Based on Mechanotransduction of Focused Ultrasound. Front Oncol. 2017; 7:161. Weitz AC, Lee NS, Yoon CW, Bonyad A, Goo KS, Kim S, Moon S, Jung H, Zhou Q, Chow RH, Shung KK. PMID: 28824873; PMCID: PMC5545605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7  
    16. The GCaMP-R Family of Genetically Encoded Ratiometric Calcium Indicators. ACS Chem Biol. 2017 04 21; 12(4):1066-1074. Cho JH, Swanson CJ, Chen J, Li A, Lippert LG, Boye SE, Rose K, Sivaramakrishnan S, Chuong CM, Chow RH. PMID: 28195691; PMCID: PMC5572679.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Assessing characteristics of RNA amplification methods for single cell RNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2016 11 24; 17(1):966. Dueck HR, Ai R, Camarena A, Ding B, Dominguez R, Evgrafov OV, Fan JB, Fisher SA, Herstein JS, Kim TK, Kim JM, Lin MY, Liu R, Mack WJ, McGroty S, Nguyen JD, Salathia N, Shallcross J, Souaiaia T, Spaethling JM, Walker CP, Wang J, Wang K, Wang W, Wildberg A, Zheng L, Chow RH, Eberwine J, Knowles JA, Zhang K, Kim J. PMID: 27881084; PMCID: PMC5122016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    
    18. Calibration of Trapping Force on Cell-Size Objects From Ultrahigh-Frequency Single-Beam Acoustic Tweezer. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2016 11; 63(11):1988-1995. Chow RH, Shung KK. PMID: 27834633.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    
    19. Diabetic Risk Factors Promote Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Misfolding by a Common, Membrane-mediated Mechanism. Sci Rep. 2016 08 17; 6:31094. Okada AK, Teranishi K, Isas JM, Bedrood S, Chow RH, Langen R. PMID: 27531121; PMCID: PMC4987648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. In vivo characterization of genetic expression of virus-transduced calcium indicators in retinal ganglion cells using a low-cost funduscope. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:1316-1319. Chang YC, Walston ST, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 28261004; PMCID: PMC5325050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    21. Improving the spatial resolution of epiretinal implants by increasing stimulus pulse duration. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Dec 16; 7(318):318ra203. Weitz AC, Nanduri D, Behrend MR, Gonzalez-Calle A, Greenberg RJ, Humayun MS, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 26676610; PMCID: PMC4698804.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Aug 29; 6:158. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Huang N, Kim BR, Shibata D, Zitting M, Chow RH, Moser AB, Steinberg SJ, Hacia JG. PMID: 26319495; PMCID: PMC4553005.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. Corrections: High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance does not Increase Plasma Anandamide Levels or Potentiate Anandamide Insulinotropic Effect in Isolated Canine Islets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0131033. Woolcott OO, Richey JM, Kabir M, Chow RH, Iyer MS, Kirkman EL, Stefanovski D, Lottati M, Kim SP, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Bradshaw H, Wu Q, Kolka CM, Bergman RN. PMID: 26075612; PMCID: PMC4468268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    24. Non-coding RNAs derived from an alternatively spliced REST transcript (REST-003) regulate breast cancer invasiveness. Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 08; 5:11207. Lee NS, Evgrafov OV, Souaiaia T, Bonyad A, Herstein J, Lee JY, Kim J, Ning Y, Sixto M, Weitz AC, Lenz HJ, Wang K, Knowles JA, Press MF, Salvaterra PM, Shung KK, Chow RH. PMID: 26053433; PMCID: PMC4459148.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    25. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123558. Woolcott OO, Richey JM, Kabir M, Chow RH, Iyer MS, Kirkman EL, Stefanovski D, Lottati M, Kim SP, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Bradshaw H, Wu Q, Kolka CM, Bergman RN. PMID: 25855974; PMCID: PMC4391925.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    26. Patch clamp recordings of retinal bipolar cells in response to extracellular electrical stimulation in wholemount mouse retina. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:3363-6. Walston ST, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 26737013; PMCID: PMC4704141.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Interphase gap as a means to reduce electrical stimulation thresholds for epiretinal prostheses. J Neural Eng. 2014 Feb; 11(1):016007. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Christopher P, Wei J, Wuyyuru V, Patel U, Greenberg RJ, Humayun MS, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 24654269; PMCID: PMC3970787.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Investigating contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation for determination of invasion potential of breast cancer cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013 Oct; 110(10):2697-705. Hwang JY, Lee NS, Lee C, Lam KH, Kim HH, Woo J, Lin MY, Kisler K, Choi H, Zhou Q, Chow RH, Shung KK. PMID: 23568761; PMCID: PMC3839413.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Fluorescently-Labeled Estradiol Internalization and Membrane Trafficking in Live N-38 Neuronal Cells Visualized with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. J Steroids Horm Sci. 2013 Apr 20; Suppl 12. Kisler K, Chow RH, Dominguez R. PMID: 24353903; PMCID: PMC3863688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6  
    30. Light-triggered modulation of cellular electrical activity by ruthenium diimine nanoswitches. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013 Apr 17; 4(4):585-93. Rohan JG, Citron YR, Durrell AC, Cheruzel LE, Gray HB, Grubbs RH, Humayun M, Engisch KL, Pikov V, Chow RH. PMID: 23419103; PMCID: PMC3629747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Complexin facilitates exocytosis and synchronizes vesicle release in two secretory model systems. J Physiol. 2013 May 15; 591(10):2463-73. Lin MY, Rohan JG, Cai H, Reim K, Ko CP, Chow RH. PMID: 23401610; PMCID: PMC3678037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. Imaging the response of the retina to electrical stimulation with genetically encoded calcium indicators. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Apr; 109(7):1979-88. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Lee NS, Klein RL, Chiodo VA, Hauswirth WW, Humayun MS, Weiland JD, Chow RH. PMID: 23343890; PMCID: PMC3628009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. A novel dual-color reporter for identifying insulin-producing beta-cells and classifying heterogeneity of insulinoma cell lines. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35521. Lee NS, Rohan JG, Zitting M, Kamath S, Weitz A, Sipos A, Salvaterra PM, Hasegawa K, Pera M, Chow RH. PMID: 22530041; PMCID: PMC3329476.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    34. Simplified method to isolate highly pure canine pancreatic islets. Pancreas. 2012 Jan; 41(1):31-8. Woolcott OO, Bergman RN, Richey JM, Kirkman EL, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Lottati M, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Stefanovski D, Kabir M, Kim SP, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Chow RH. PMID: 21792087; PMCID: PMC4423806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    35. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 mutation perturbs glucose homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2011 Aug; 210(2):209-17. Ye R, Ni M, Wang M, Luo S, Zhu G, Chow RH, Lee AS. PMID: 21565852; PMCID: PMC3137733.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Resolution of the epiretinal prosthesis is not limited by electrode size. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011 Aug; 19(4):436-42. Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Humayun MS, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 21511569; PMCID: PMC3356684.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Interphase gap decreases electrical stimulation threshold of retinal ganglion cells. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011; 2011:6725-8. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Humayun MS, Chow RH, Weiland JD. PMID: 22255882.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Acute and long-term response of dopamine nigrostriatal synapses to a single, low-dose episode of 3-nitropropionic acid-mediated chemical hypoxia. Synapse. 2011 Apr; 65(4):339-50. Crawford CA, Akopian G, Ring J, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM, Andersen JK, Vittozzi-Wong P, Wang K, Farley CM, Charntikov S, Mitroi D, Beal MF, Chow R, Walsh JP. PMID: 20730800; PMCID: PMC3032029.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Characteristics and functions of {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors expressed in mouse pancreatic {alpha}-cells. Endocrinology. 2010 Apr; 151(4):1541-50. Cho JH, Chen L, Kim MH, Chow RH, Hille B, Koh DS. PMID: 20189997; PMCID: PMC2850235.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Ezrin mediates tethering of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GAT1 to actin filaments via a C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Biophys J. 2009 Apr 08; 96(7):2949-60. Imoukhuede PI, Moss FJ, Michael DJ, Chow RH, Lester HA. PMID: 19348776; PMCID: PMC2711277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Cytopathology and exocrine dysfunction induced in ex vivo rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cell models by chronic exposure to histamine or serotonin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul; 50(7):3164-75. McDonald ML, Wang Y, Selvam S, Nakamura T, Chow RH, Schechter JE, Yiu SC, Mircheff AK. PMID: 19324838.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Selective labeling of retinal ganglion cells with calcium indicators by retrograde loading in vitro. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 May 15; 179(2):166-72. Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Humayun MS, Weiland JD, Chow RH. PMID: 19428523; PMCID: PMC3345189.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Fluorescent cargo proteins in peptidergic endocrine cells: cell type determines secretion kinetics at exocytosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jan; 1152:7-17. Michael DJ, Tapechum S, Rohan JG, Johnson JM, Chow RH. PMID: 19161372.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 09; 105(49):19538-43. Cai H, Reim K, Varoqueaux F, Tapechum S, Hill K, Sørensen JB, Brose N, Chow RH. PMID: 19033464; PMCID: PMC2614796.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. A novel tool to visualize the cell secretory pathway. Focus on "a fluorimetry-based ssYFP secretion assay to monitor vasopressin-induced exocytosis in LLC-PK1 cells expressing aquaporin-2". Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Dec; 295(6):C1473. Peti-Peterdi J, Chow RH. PMID: 18971386.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    46. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 h after 3-nitropropionic-acid-induced chemical hypoxia. J Neurosci. 2008 Sep 17; 28(38):9585-97. Akopian G, Crawford C, Beal MF, Cappelletti M, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM, Zheng L, Gheorghe SL, Reichel CM, Chow R, Walsh JP. PMID: 18799690; PMCID: PMC2724653.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Calcium-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a major component of tumor cell death induced by 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a non-coxib analogue of celecoxib. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr; 6(4):1262-75. Pyrko P, Kardosh A, Liu YT, Soriano N, Xiong W, Chow RH, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Mircheff AK, Farley RA, Louie SG, Chen TC, Schönthal AH. PMID: 17431104.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Human insulin vesicle dynamics during pulsatile secretion. Diabetes. 2007 May; 56(5):1277-88. Michael DJ, Xiong W, Geng X, Drain P, Chow RH. PMID: 17317765.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. Mouse adrenal chromaffin cell isolation. J Vis Exp. 2007 Jan 05; (2):129. Kolski-Andreaco A, Cai H, Currle DS, Chandy KG, Chow RH. PMID: 18830430; PMCID: PMC2532942.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Mechanisms of peptide hormone secretion. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec; 17(10):408-15. Michael DJ, Cai H, Xiong W, Ouyang J, Chow RH. PMID: 17084640.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2006 Sep 15; 58(7):788-808. Oheim M, Michael DJ, Geisbauer M, Madsen D, Chow RH. PMID: 17055106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in fast- and slow-release forms. Diabetes. 2006 Mar; 55(3):600-7. Michael DJ, Ritzel RA, Haataja L, Chow RH. PMID: 16505221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Nanobiolistic delivery of indicators to the living mouse retina. J Neurosci Methods. 2006 May 15; 153(1):154-61. Roizenblatt R, Weiland JD, Carcieri S, Qiu G, Behrend M, Humayun MS, Chow RH. PMID: 16290199.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Fluorescent cargo proteins in pancreatic beta-cells: design determines secretion kinetics at exocytosis. Biophys J. 2004 Dec; 87(6):L03-5. Michael DJ, Geng X, Cawley NX, Loh YP, Rhodes CJ, Drain P, Chow RH. PMID: 15516519; PMCID: PMC1304941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Real-time imaging of renin release in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Aug; 287(2):F329-35. Peti-Peterdi J, Fintha A, Fuson AL, Tousson A, Chow RH. PMID: 15082450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    56. Biochemical changes contributing to functional quiescence in lacrimal gland acinar cells after chronic ex vivo exposure to a muscarinic agonist. Scand J Immunol. 2003 Nov; 58(5):550-65. Qian L, Wang Y, Xie J, Rose CM, Yang T, Nakamura T, Sandberg M, Zeng H, Schechter JE, Chow RH, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Mircheff AK. PMID: 14629627.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Red, yellow, green go!--A novel tool for microscopic segregation of secretory vesicle pools according to their age. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Aug; 31(Pt 4):851-6. Wiegand UK, Duncan RR, Greaves J, Chow RH, Shipston MJ, Apps DK. PMID: 12887320.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Functional and spatial segregation of secretory vesicle pools according to vesicle age. Nature. 2003 Mar 13; 422(6928):176-80. Duncan RR, Greaves J, Wiegand UK, Matskevich I, Bodammer G, Apps DK, Shipston MJ, Chow RH. PMID: 12634788.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 83     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Calcium dependence of action potential-induced endocytosis in chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch. 2003 Feb; 445(5):540-6. Chan SA, Chow R, Smith C. PMID: 12634923.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Intracellular calcium dependence of large dense-core vesicle exocytosis in the absence of synaptotagmin I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25; 98(20):11680-5. Voets T, Moser T, Lund PE, Chow RH, Geppert M, Südhof TC, Neher E. PMID: 11562488; PMCID: PMC58789.
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    61. Is double C2 protein (DOC2) expressed in bovine adrenal medulla? A commercial anti-DOC2 monoclonal antibody recognizes a major bovine mitochondrial antigen. Biochem J. 2000 Oct 01; 351(Pt 1):33-7. Duncan RR, Apps DK, Learmonth MP, Shipston MJ, Chow RH. PMID: 10998344; PMCID: PMC1221332.
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    62. Double C2 protein. A review. Biochimie. 2000 May; 82(5):421-6. Duncan RR, Shipston MJ, Chow RH. PMID: 10865129.
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    63. Transient, phorbol ester-induced DOC2-Munc13 interactions in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 24; 274(39):27347-50. Duncan RR, Betz A, Shipston MJ, Brose N, Chow RH. PMID: 10488064.
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    64. High-efficiency Semliki Forest virus-mediated transduction in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem J. 1999 Sep 15; 342 Pt 3:497-501. Duncan RR, Don-Wauchope AC, Tapechum S, Shipston MJ, Chow RH, Estibeiro P. PMID: 10477258; PMCID: PMC1220488.
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    65. Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999 Feb 28; 354(1381):307-18. Oheim M, Loerke D, Chow RH, Stühmer W. PMID: 10212479; PMCID: PMC1692489.
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    66. Multiple stimulation-dependent processes regulate the size of the releasable pool of vesicles. Eur Biophys J. 1999; 28(2):91-101. Oheim M, Loerke D, Stühmer W, Chow RH. PMID: 10028234.
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    67. Extrasynaptic vesicular transmitter release from the somata of substantia nigra neurons in rat midbrain slices. J Neurosci. 1998 May 15; 18(10):3548-53. Jaffe EH, Marty A, Schulte A, Chow RH. PMID: 9570786; PMCID: PMC6793140.
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    68. Comparison of secretory responses as measured by membrane capacitance and by amperometry. Biophys J. 1998 Apr; 74(4):2100-13. Haller M, Heinemann C, Chow RH, Heidelberger R, Neher E. PMID: 9545069; PMCID: PMC1299551.
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    69. Cylindrically etched carbon-fiber microelectrodes for low-noise amperometric recording of cellular secretion. Anal Chem. 1998 Mar 01; 70(5):985-90. Schulte A, Chow RH. PMID: 21644628.
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    70. The last few milliseconds in the life of a secretory granule. Docking, dynamics and fusion visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Eur Biophys J. 1998; 27(2):83-98. Oheim M, Loerke D, Stühmer W, Chow RH. PMID: 9530824.
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    71. Kinetics of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1997 Apr; 8(2):133-40. Gillis KD, Chow RH. PMID: 15001088.
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    72. A simple method for insulating carbon-fiber microelectrodes using anodic electrophoretic deposition of paint. Anal Chem. 1996 Sep 01; 68(17):3054-8. Schulte A, Chow RH. PMID: 21619374.
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    73. Rapid fluctuations in transmitter release from single vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biophys J. 1996 Mar; 70(3):1543-52. Zhou Z, Misler S, Chow RH. PMID: 8785312; PMCID: PMC1225082.
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    74. Mechanisms determining the time course of secretion in neuroendocrine cells. Neuron. 1996 Feb; 16(2):369-76. Chow RH, Klingauf J, Heinemann C, Zucker RS, Neher E. PMID: 8789951.
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    75. Swelling-induced catecholamine secretion recorded from single chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch. 1995 Dec; 431(2):196-203. Moser T, Chow RH, Neher E. PMID: 9026779.
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    76. Coincidence of early glucose-induced depolarization with lowering of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. J Physiol. 1995 Jun 15; 485 ( Pt 3):607-17. Chow RH, Lund PE, Löser S, Panten U, Gylfe E. PMID: 7562604; PMCID: PMC1158031.
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    77. Time course of Ca2+ concentration triggering exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20; 91(26):12765-9. Chow RH, Klingauf J, Neher E. PMID: 7809118; PMCID: PMC45520.
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    78. Kinetics of the secretory response in bovine chromaffin cells following flash photolysis of caged Ca2+. Biophys J. 1994 Dec; 67(6):2546-57. Heinemann C, Chow RH, Neher E, Zucker RS. PMID: 7696493; PMCID: PMC1225640.
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    79. A two-step model of secretion control in neuroendocrine cells. Pflugers Arch. 1993 Jul; 424(2):105-12. Heinemann C, von Rüden L, Chow RH, Neher E. PMID: 8414901.
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    80. Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells. Nature. 1992 Mar 05; 356(6364):60-3. Chow RH, von Rüden L, Neher E. PMID: 1538782.
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    81. Cadmium block of squid calcium currents. Macroscopic data and a kinetic model. J Gen Physiol. 1991 Oct; 98(4):751-70. Chow RH. PMID: 1660061; PMCID: PMC2229079.
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    82. Neuritic outgrowth in primary cell culture of neurons from the squid, Loligo pealei. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Feb 13; 97(1-2):23-8. Parsons TD, Chow RH. PMID: 2919006.
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    83. Supercharging: a method for improving patch-clamp performance. Biophys J. 1987 Jul; 52(1):133-6. Armstrong CM, Chow RH. PMID: 2440491; PMCID: PMC1329993.
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    84. The role of calcium in the stimulation of aldosterone production by adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, and potassium in isolated glomerulosa cells. Endocrinology. 1979 Aug; 105(2):327-33. Fakunding JL, Chow R, Catt KJ. PMID: 222570.
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