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    Joseph G Hacia, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor of Biochemistry & Molecular Medicine
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Biology
    AddressCSC 261 2250 Alcazar Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089
    Phone+1 323 442 3030
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      Other Positions
      TitleVice Chair For Medical Education

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Joe Hacia, an Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, is a medical geneticist who obtained his undergraduate training at Rutgers University and graduate training at the California Institute of Technology. Prior to joining the USC faculty, he obtained his post-doctoral training at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

      The Hacia laboratory focuses on developing therapies for genetic disorders caused by impaired peroxisome assembly, structure, and function. His group focuses on peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs), which include Zellweger spectrum disorder (PBD-ZSD) and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). Affected children frequently show progressive loss of vision and hearing, brain and liver dysfunction, craniofacial dysmorphism, and enamel defects.

      The Hacia laboratory is involved in screening of large chemical libraries for candidate small molecule therapies as well as gene therapy and cell transplantation therapy projects. As part of these efforts, they developed patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) models of peroxisomal disorders. By working closely with physician-scientists and patient advocacy groups, the Global Foundation for Peroxisomal Disorders (GFPD) (http://www.thegfpd.org/) and RhizoKids International (http://www.rhizokids.com/), they seek to translate their research into improved treatments in the near future.

      The Hacia laboratory has used comparative genomic and lipidomic approaches to uncover evidence that peroxisomal metabolic activities has been strongly influenced by diet in primate lineages. They wish to use the knowledge gained from these projects to benefit the health of captive non-human primates and people with peroxisomal disorders.

      Research Interests: medical genetics, molecular therapeutics
      Diseases Models: cultured fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells, genome-edited cell lines, genetically engineered mice
      Consortia: Global Foundation for Peroxisomal Disorders and RhizoKids International

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      1989  - 1995Howard Hughes Medical Institute Predoctoral Fellow
      2000American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) Postdoctoral Translational Research Award
      2002V Foundation Scholar
      2004  - 2010Editorial Board of Genome Research
      2008  - 2013Member of NIH Comparative Genomics Study Section
      2008Editorial Board Nucleic Acids Research
      2010Chaired Session at ASHG meeting on Early Diagnosis and Treatment of CNS-based Metabolic Disorders
      2010Editorial Board BMC Genomics
      2010Member, Scientific Advisory Board of the Global Foundation for Peroxisomal Disorders
      2012External Reviewer, Institute of Medicine Review of California Institute for Regenerative Medicine
      2013Year 1 USC Medical Teaching Award
      2014Chaired Session at ASHG meeting on Targeted Drug Therapies for Progressive Genetic Disorders
      2015Year 2 USC Medical Teaching Award
      2015Member of X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Connect Workgroup on Therapy Review
      2015Member of Chemical Gene & Cell Therapy Committee of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
      2016Editorial Board BMC Medical Genomics
      2016Year 1 USC Medical Teaching Award
      2016Year 1 Outstanding Course Award for USC Medical Teaching
      2016Master Teacher of the Keck School of Medicine of USC
      2016Member, Scientific Advisory Board of RhizoKids International
      2016Chaired Session at ‘Leukodystrophies Conference’ in Baltimore, Maryland
      2017Member, Medical Advisory Board of RhizoKids International
      2017Co-organized Development of Therapies for Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders Conference; Washington, DC
      2017Award of Recognition for Excellence in Scientific Community Building for PBD Research by the GFPD

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Curiel J, Steinberg SJ, Bright S, Snowden A, Moser AB, Eichler F, Dubbs HA, Hacia J, Ely JJ, Bezner J, Gean A, Vanderver A. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a chimpanzee due to an ABCD1 mutation reported in multiple unrelated humans. Mol Genet Metab. 2017 Sep 01. PMID: 28919002.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Yin K, Lin W, Guo J, Sugiyama T, Snead ML, Hacia J, Paine ML. MiR-153 Regulates Amelogenesis by Targeting Endocytotic and Endosomal/lysosomal Pathways-Novel Insight into the Origins of Enamel Pathologies. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 13; 7:44118. PMID: 28287144.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Shahabi A, Lewinger JP, Ren J, April C, Sherrod AE, Hacia J, Daneshmand S, Gill I, Pinski JK, Fan JB, Stern MC. Novel Gene Expression Signature Predictive of Clinical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy in Early Stage Prostate Cancer Patients. Prostate. 2016 Oct; 76(14):1239-56. PMID: 27272349.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Braverman NE, Raymond GV, Rizzo WB, Moser AB, Wilkinson ME, Stone EM, Steinberg SJ, Wangler MF, Rush ET, Hacia J, Bose M. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders in the Zellweger spectrum: An overview of current diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment guidelines. Mol Genet Metab. 2016 Mar; 117(3):313-21. PMID: 26750748.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Ramaswamy K, Yik WY, Wang XM, Oliphant EN, Lu W, Shibata D, Ryder OA, Hacia J. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from orangutan skin fibroblasts. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Oct 16; 8:577. PMID: 26475477; PMCID: PMC4609060.
      6. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Huang N, Kim BR, Shibata D, Zitting M, Chow RH, Moser AB, Steinberg SJ, Hacia J. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Aug 29; 6:158. PMID: 26319495; PMCID: PMC4553005.
      7. Yin K, Hacia J, Zhong Z, Paine ML. Genome-wide analysis of miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes during amelogenesis. BMC Genomics. 2014 Nov 19; 15:998. PMID: 25406666; PMCID: PMC4254193.
      8. Hiebler S, Masuda T, Hacia J, Moser AB, Faust PL, Liu A, Chowdhury N, Huang N, Lauer A, Bennett J, Watkins PA, Zack DJ, Braverman NE, Raymond GV, Steinberg SJ. The Pex1-G844D mouse: A model for mild human Zellweger spectrum disorder. Mol Genet Metab. 2014 Apr; 111(4):522-32. PMID: 24503136.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Pelikan RC, Iwata J, Suzuki A, Chai Y, Hacia J. Identification of candidate downstream targets of TGFß signaling during palate development by genome-wide transcript profiling. J Cell Biochem. 2013 Apr; 114(4):796-807. PMID: 23060211.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Moser AB, Hey J, Dranchak PK, Karaman MW, Zhao J, Cox LA, Ryder OA, Hacia J. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Feb 04; 12:10. PMID: 23379307; PMCID: PMC3571895.
      11. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Dranchak PK, Shibata D, Steinberg SJ, Hacia J. The gene expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells from individuals with childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy are consistent with proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012 Oct 04; 3(5):39. PMID: 23036268; PMCID: PMC3580430.
      12. Levesque S, Morin C, Guay SP, Villeneuve J, Marquis P, Yik WY, Jiralerspong S, Bouchard L, Steinberg S, Hacia J, Dewar K, Braverman NE. A founder mutation in the PEX6 gene is responsible for increased incidence of Zellweger syndrome in a French Canadian population. BMC Med Genet. 2012 Aug 15; 13:72. PMID: 22894767; PMCID: PMC3483250.
      13. Lacruz RS, Hacia J, Bromage TG, Boyde A, Lei Y, Xu Y, Miller JD, Paine ML, Snead ML. The circadian clock modulates enamel development. J Biol Rhythms. 2012 Jun; 27(3):237-45. PMID: 22653892; PMCID: PMC3511783.
      14. Lacruz RS, Smith CE, Bringas P, Chen YB, Smith SM, Snead ML, Kurtz I, Hacia J, Hubbard MJ, Paine ML. Identification of novel candidate genes involved in mineralization of dental enamel by genome-wide transcript profiling. J Cell Physiol. 2012 May; 227(5):2264-75. PMID: 21809343; PMCID: PMC3243804.
      15. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia J, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGFß-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012 May; 139(9):1640-50. PMID: 22438570; PMCID: PMC3317969.
      16. Iwata J, Hacia J, Suzuki A, Sanchez-Lara PA, Urata M, Chai Y. Modulation of noncanonical TGF-ß signaling prevents cleft palate in Tgfbr2 mutant mice. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar; 122(3):873-85. PMID: 22326956; PMCID: PMC3287237.
      17. Lacruz RS, Smith CE, Chen YB, Hubbard MJ, Hacia J, Paine ML. Gene-expression analysis of early- and late-maturation-stage rat enamel organ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011 Dec; 119 Suppl 1:149-57. PMID: 22243241; PMCID: PMC3286129.
      18. Iwata J, Tung L, Urata M, Hacia J, Pelikan R, Suzuki A, Ramenzoni L, Chaudhry O, Parada C, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9)-pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) pathway mediates transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling to regulate cell proliferation in palatal mesenchyme during mouse palatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 20; 287(4):2353-63. PMID: 22123828; PMCID: PMC3268397.
      19. Lorcy S, Hacia J, Roche C, de Biasi C, Lightburne E, Morand JJ. [A case of bullous lupus in black skin]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Nov; 138(11):792-4. PMID: 22078046.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Moser AB, Steinberg SJ, Watkins PA, Moser HW, Ramaswamy K, Siegmund KD, Lee DR, Ely JJ, Ryder OA, Hacia J. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Jun 17; 10:101. PMID: 21679470; PMCID: PMC3129581.
      21. Dranchak PK, Di Pietro E, Snowden A, Oesch N, Braverman NE, Steinberg SJ, Hacia J. Nonsense suppressor therapies rescue peroxisome lipid metabolism and assembly in cells from patients with specific PEX gene mutations. J Cell Biochem. 2011 May; 112(5):1250-8. PMID: 21465523; PMCID: PMC3136445.
      22. Lacruz RS, Lakshminarayanan R, Bromley KM, Hacia J, Bromage TG, Snead ML, Moradian-Oldak J, Paine ML. Structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 18; 6(3):e18028. PMID: 21437261; PMCID: PMC3060920.
      23. Watkins PA, Moser AB, Toomer CB, Steinberg SJ, Moser HW, Karaman MW, Ramaswamy K, Siegmund KD, Lee DR, Ely JJ, Ryder OA, Hacia J. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BMC Physiol. 2010 Oct 08; 10:19. PMID: 20932325; PMCID: PMC2964658.
      24. Wang XM, Greiner TC, Bibikova M, Pike BL, Siegmund KD, Sinha UK, Müschen M, Jaeger EB, Weisenburger DD, Chan WC, Shibata D, Fan JB, Hacia J. Identification and functional relevance of de novo DNA methylation in cancerous B-cell populations. J Cell Biochem. 2010 Mar 01; 109(4):818-27. PMID: 20069569; PMCID: PMC3122883.
      25. Toleno DM, Renaud G, Wolfsberg TG, Islam M, Wildman DE, Siegmund KD, Hacia J. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009 Mar 05; 10:77. PMID: 19265541; PMCID: PMC2660304.
      26. Yik WY, Steinberg SJ, Moser AB, Moser HW, Hacia J. Identification of novel mutations and sequence variation in the Zellweger syndrome spectrum of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Hum Mutat. 2009 Mar; 30(3):E467-80. PMID: 19105186; PMCID: PMC2649967.
      27. Magda D, Lecane P, Prescott J, Thiemann P, Ma X, Dranchak PK, Toleno DM, Ramaswamy K, Siegmund KD, Hacia J. mtDNA depletion confers specific gene expression profiles in human cells grown in culture and in xenograft. BMC Genomics. 2008 Nov 03; 9:521. PMID: 18980691; PMCID: PMC2612029.
      28. Magda D, Lecane P, Wang Z, Hu W, Thiemann P, Ma X, Dranchak PK, Wang X, Lynch V, Wei W, Csokai V, Hacia J, Sessler JL. Synthesis and anticancer properties of water-soluble zinc ionophores. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 01; 68(13):5318-25. PMID: 18593933; PMCID: PMC3033660.
      29. Hacia J, Lee CC, Jimenez DF, Karaman MW, Ho VV, Siegmund KD, Tarantal AF. Age-related gene expression profiles of rhesus monkey bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008 Mar 01; 103(4):1198-210. PMID: 17685434.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Pike BL, Greiner TC, Wang X, Weisenburger DD, Hsu YH, Renaud G, Wolfsberg TG, Kim M, Weisenberger DJ, Siegmund KD, Ye W, Groshen S, Mehrian-Shai R, Delabie J, Chan WC, Laird PW, Hacia J. DNA methylation profiles in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and their relationship to gene expression status. Leukemia. 2008 May; 22(5):1035-43. PMID: 18288132; PMCID: PMC2654231.
      31. Ku TK, Nguyen DC, Karaman M, Gill P, Hacia J, Crowe DL. Loss of p53 expression correlates with metastatic phenotype and transcriptional profile in a new mouse model of head and neck cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2007 Apr; 5(4):351-62. PMID: 17426250.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Wang Z, Lecane PS, Thiemann P, Fan Q, Cortez C, Ma X, Tonev D, Miles D, Naumovski L, Miller RA, Magda D, Cho DG, Sessler JL, Pike BL, Yeligar SM, Karaman MW, Hacia J. Synthesis and biologic properties of hydrophilic sapphyrins, a new class of tumor-selective inhibitors of gene expression. Mol Cancer. 2007 Jan 19; 6:9. PMID: 17233922; PMCID: PMC1784109.
      33. Pike BL, Groshen S, Hsu YH, Shai RM, Wang X, Holtan N, Futscher BW, Hacia J. Comparisons of PCR-based genome amplification systems using CpG island microarrays. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jun; 27(6):589-96. PMID: 16652338.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Greiner TC, Dasgupta C, Ho VV, Weisenburger DD, Smith LM, Lynch JC, Vose JM, Fu K, Armitage JO, Braziel RM, Campo E, Delabie J, Gascoyne RD, Jaffe ES, Muller-Hermelink HK, Ott G, Rosenwald A, Staudt LM, Im MY, Karaman MW, Pike BL, Chan WC, Hacia J. Mutation and genomic deletion status of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 confer specific gene expression profiles in mantle cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 14; 103(7):2352-7. PMID: 16461462; PMCID: PMC1413716.
      35. Lecane PS, Karaman MW, Sirisawad M, Naumovski L, Miller RA, Hacia J, Magda D. Motexafin gadolinium and zinc induce oxidative stress responses and apoptosis in B-cell lymphoma lines. Cancer Res. 2005 Dec 15; 65(24):11676-88. PMID: 16357179.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Magda D, Lecane P, Miller RA, Lepp C, Miles D, Mesfin M, Biaglow JE, Ho VV, Chawannakul D, Nagpal S, Karaman MW, Hacia J. Motexafin gadolinium disrupts zinc metabolism in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2005 May 01; 65(9):3837-45. PMID: 15867382.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Smith E, Meyerrose TE, Kohler T, Namdar-Attar M, Bab N, Lahat O, Noh T, Li J, Karaman MW, Hacia J, Chen TT, Nolta JA, Müller R, Bab I, Frenkel B. Leaky ribosomal scanning in mammalian genomes: significance of histone H4 alternative translation in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005; 33(4):1298-308. PMID: 15741183; PMCID: PMC552952.
      38. Karaman MW, Groshen S, Lee CC, Pike BL, Hacia J. Comparisons of substitution, insertion and deletion probes for resequencing and mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Feb 18; 33(3):e33. PMID: 15722479; PMCID: PMC549431.
      39. Leclerc N, Luppen CA, Ho VV, Nagpal S, Hacia J, Smith E, Frenkel B. Gene expression profiling of glucocorticoid-inhibited osteoblasts. J Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Aug; 33(1):175-93. PMID: 15291752.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Lipkin SM, Rozek LS, Rennert G, Yang W, Chen PC, Hacia J, Hunt N, Shin B, Fodor S, Kokoris M, Greenson JK, Fearon E, Lynch H, Collins F, Gruber SB. The MLH1 D132H variant is associated with susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer. Nat Genet. 2004 Jul; 36(7):694-9. PMID: 15184898.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Nagpal S, Karaman MW, Timmerman MM, Ho VV, Pike BL, Hacia J. Improving the sensitivity and specificity of gene expression analysis in highly related organisms through the use of electronic masks. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Mar 18; 32(5):e51. PMID: 15031318; PMCID: PMC390348.
      42. Karaman MW, Houck ML, Chemnick LG, Nagpal S, Chawannakul D, Sudano D, Pike BL, Ho VV, Ryder OA, Hacia J. Comparative analysis of gene-expression patterns in human and African great ape cultured fibroblasts. Genome Res. 2003 Jul; 13(7):1619-30. PMID: 12840040; PMCID: PMC403735.
      43. Hacia J, Hey J. Select your words carefully. Heredity (Edinb). 2003 May; 90(5):343-4. PMID: 12714975.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Fang NY, Greiner TC, Weisenburger DD, Chan WC, Vose JM, Smith LM, Armitage JO, Mayer RA, Pike BL, Collins FS, Hacia J. Oligonucleotide microarrays demonstrate the highest frequency of ATM mutations in the mantle cell subtype of lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 29; 100(9):5372-7. PMID: 12697903; PMCID: PMC154352.
      45. Crowe DL, Hacia J, Hsieh CL, Sinha UK, Rice H. Molecular pathology of head and neck cancer. Histol Histopathol. 2002; 17(3):909-14. PMID: 12168802.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Hacia J. Genome of the apes. Trends Genet. 2001 Nov; 17(11):637-45. PMID: 11672864.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Hacia J, Edgemon K, Fang N, Mayer RA, Sudano D, Hunt N, Collins FS. Oligonucleotide microarray based detection of repetitive sequence changes. Hum Mutat. 2000 Oct; 16(4):354-63. PMID: 11013446.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Hacia J, Novotny EA, Mayer RA, Woski SA, Ashlock MA, Collins FS. Design of modified oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes to detect telomere repeat sequences in FISH assays. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Oct 15; 27(20):4034-9. PMID: 10497268; PMCID: PMC148671.
      49. Hacia J, Collins FS. Mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays. J Med Genet. 1999 Oct; 36(10):730-6. PMID: 10528850; PMCID: PMC1734240.
      50. Hacia J, Fan JB, Ryder O, Jin L, Edgemon K, Ghandour G, Mayer RA, Sun B, Hsie L, Robbins CM, Brody LC, Wang D, Lander ES, Lipshutz R, Fodor SP, Collins FS. Determination of ancestral alleles for human single-nucleotide polymorphisms using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Nat Genet. 1999 Jun; 22(2):164-7. PMID: 10369258.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Hacia J. Resequencing and mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays. Nat Genet. 1999 Jan; 21(1 Suppl):42-7. PMID: 9915500.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Hacia J, Sun B, Hunt N, Edgemon K, Mosbrook D, Robbins C, Fodor SP, Tagle DA, Collins FS. Strategies for mutational analysis of the large multiexon ATM gene using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Genome Res. 1998 Dec; 8(12):1245-58. PMID: 9872980.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Hacia J, Brody LC, Collins FS. Applications of DNA chips for genomic analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 1998 Nov; 3(6):483-92. PMID: 9857973.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Hacia J, Woski SA, Fidanza J, Edgemon K, Hunt N, McGall G, Fodor SP, Collins FS. Enhanced high density oligonucleotide array-based sequence analysis using modified nucleoside triphosphates. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Nov 01; 26(21):4975-82. PMID: 9776762; PMCID: PMC147927.
      55. Hacia J, Edgemon K, Sun B, Stern D, Fodor SP, Collins FS. Two color hybridization analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays and energy transfer dyes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Aug 15; 26(16):3865-6. PMID: 9685507; PMCID: PMC147769.
      56. Bachelin M, Hessler G, Kurz G, Hacia J, Dervan PB, Kessler H. Structure of a stereoregular phosphorothioate DNA/RNA duplex. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):271-6. PMID: 9546216.
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      57. Hacia J, Brody LC, Collins FS. New approaches to BRCA1 mutation detection. Breast Dis. 1998 Apr; 10(1-2):45-59. PMID: 15687548.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Hacia J, Makalowski W, Edgemon K, Erdos MR, Robbins CM, Fodor SP, Brody LC, Collins FS. Evolutionary sequence comparisons using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Nat Genet. 1998 Feb; 18(2):155-8. PMID: 9462745.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Hacia J, Brody LC, Chee MS, Fodor SP, Collins FS. Detection of heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 using high density oligonucleotide arrays and two-colour fluorescence analysis. Nat Genet. 1996 Dec; 14(4):441-7. PMID: 8944024.
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      60. Hacia J, Dervan PB, Wold BJ. Inhibition of Klenow fragment DNA polymerase on double-helical templates by oligonucleotide-directed triple-helix formation. Biochemistry. 1994 May 24; 33(20):6192-200. PMID: 8193133.
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      61. Hacia J, Wold BJ, Dervan PB. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotide-directed triple helix formation. Biochemistry. 1994 May 10; 33(18):5367-9. PMID: 8180158.
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      62. Chen GT, Axley MJ, Hacia J, Inouye M. Overproduction of a selenocysteine-containing polypeptide in Escherichia coli: the fdhF gene product. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Mar; 6(6):781-5. PMID: 1533438.
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