Darryl Shibata, MD

TitleProfessor of Pathology
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
AddressNOR 1441 Eastlake Ave
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-9092
Phone+1 323 865 3298
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    Collapse Overview
    After attending UCLA for his undergraduate degree, Dr. Shibata obtained his medical degree from the Keck School of Medicine of USC. After completing his internship training in pediatrics from UC San Diego, Dr. Shibata returned to USC for his residency and fellowship at LAC+USC Medical Center. Currently, Dr. Shibata has clinical appointments at both LAC+USC Medical Center and USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. In addition to his wide array of responsibilities in the research, education and practitioner capacities, Dr. Shibata sits on the editorial board of the BMC Cancer Journal and the American Journal of Pathology.

    Collapse Research 
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    Arizona Cancer and Evolution Center (ACE)
    NIH/NCI U54CA217376Apr 12, 2018 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    "Born to be Bad": Is Abnormal Cell Mobility Already Present At Initiation?
    NIH/NCI R21CA185016Jul 30, 2014 - May 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    How Do NSAIDs Prevent Colorectal Cancer
    NIH/NCI R21CA170814Sep 13, 2012 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Tumor Diversity As A Biomarker For Colorectal Cancer
    NIH/NCI R21CA149990Apr 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    How Do Colorectal Cancers Arise Despite Surveillance?
    NIH/NCI R33CA111940Aug 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIDDK R21DK061140Sep 30, 2001 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Fixing Fixed DNA
    NIH/NCI R21CA091301Jul 1, 2001 - Jun 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mouse Models of Early Intestinal Neoplasia
    NIH/NCI R01CA080077Jan 1, 1999 - Mar 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NCI R01CA070858May 21, 1997 - Apr 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NCI R55CA070858Sep 15, 1996 - Apr 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NCI R01CA058704Feb 1, 1993 - Jan 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Shibata D. Somatic Cell Evolution: How To Improve With Age. J Pathol. 2018 Sep 23. PMID: 30246391.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ryser MD, Min BH, Siegmund KD, Shibata D. Spatial mutation patterns as markers of early colorectal tumor cell mobility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 May 14. PMID: 29760052.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Maley CC, Aktipis A, Graham TA, Sottoriva A, Boddy AM, Janiszewska M, Silva AS, Gerlinger M, Yuan Y, Pienta KJ, Anderson KS, Gatenby R, Swanton C, Posada D, Wu CI, Schiffman JD, Hwang ES, Polyak K, Anderson ARA, Brown JS, Greaves M, Shibata D. Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2017 10; 17(10):605-619. PMID: 28912577.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Sun R, Hu Z, Sottoriva A, Graham TA, Harpak A, Ma Z, Fischer JM, Shibata D, Curtis C. Between-region genetic divergence reflects the mode and tempo of tumor evolution. Nat Genet. 2017 Jul; 49(7):1015-1024. PMID: 28581503.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Zhao J, Salomon MP, Shibata D, Curtis C, Siegmund K, Marjoram P. Early mutation bursts in colorectal tumors. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0172516. PMID: 28257429.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Fischer JM, Calabrese PP, Miller AJ, Muñoz NM, Grady WM, Shibata D, Liskay RM. Single cell lineage tracing reveals a role for TgfßR2 in intestinal stem cell dynamics and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 10 25; 113(43):12192-12197. PMID: 27791005.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Siegmund K, Shibata D. At least two well-spaced samples are needed to genotype a solid tumor. BMC Cancer. 2016 Mar 25; 16:250. PMID: 27015839; PMCID: PMC4807557.
    8. Raub CB, Lee CC, Shibata D, Taylor C, Kartalov E. HistoMosaic Detecting KRAS G12V Mutation Across Colorectal Cancer Tissue Slices through in Situ PCR. Anal Chem. 2016 Mar 01; 88(5):2792-8. PMID: 26820161.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ramaswamy K, Yik WY, Wang XM, Oliphant EN, Lu W, Shibata D, Ryder OA, Hacia JG. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from orangutan skin fibroblasts. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Oct 16; 8:577. PMID: 26475477; PMCID: PMC4609060.
    10. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Huang N, Kim BR, Shibata D, Zitting M, Chow RH, Moser AB, Steinberg SJ, Hacia JG. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Aug 29; 6:158. PMID: 26319495; PMCID: PMC4553005.
    11. Kang H, Salomon MP, Sottoriva A, Zhao J, Toy M, Press MF, Curtis C, Marjoram P, Siegmund K, Shibata D. Many private mutations originate from the first few divisions of a human colorectal adenoma. J Pathol. 2015 Nov; 237(3):355-62. PMID: 26119426; PMCID: PMC4607608 [Available on 11/01/16].
    12. Walther V, Hiley CT, Shibata D, Swanton C, Turner PE, Maley CC. Can oncology recapitulate paleontology? Lessons from species extinctions. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2015 May; 12(5):273-85. PMID: 25687908; PMCID: PMC4569005.
    13. Sottoriva A, Kang H, Ma Z, Graham TA, Salomon MP, Zhao J, Marjoram P, Siegmund K, Press MF, Shibata D, Curtis C. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth. Nat Genet. 2015 Mar; 47(3):209-16. PMID: 25665006.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Siddiqi IN, Shibata D. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of germinal center and nongerminal center phenotypes presenting concurrently at the same anatomic site: intratumoral heterogeneity or composite lymphoma? Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015 Jan; 23(1):78-80. PMID: 25153495.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Zhao J, Siegmund KD, Shibata D, Marjoram P. Ancestral inference in tumors: how much can we know? J Theor Biol. 2014 Oct 21; 359:136-45. PMID: 24907673; PMCID: PMC4138290.
    16. Siddiqi IN, Ailawadhi S, Huang Q, Shibata RK, Kang H, Shibata D. Deep sequencing reveals lack of a clonal relationship between a metachronous classical hodgkin and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2014 Jun; 14(3):e87-93. PMID: 24548610.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kang H, Shibata D. Direct measurements of human colon crypt stem cell niche genetic fidelity: the role of chance in non-darwinian mutation selection. Front Oncol. 2013 Oct 14; 3:264. PMID: 24133655; PMCID: PMC3796283.
    18. Fischer JM, Schepers AG, Clevers H, Shibata D, Liskay RM. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Jan; 35(1):237-46. PMID: 23996931; PMCID: PMC3871938.
    19. Kreso A, O'Brien CA, van Galen P, Gan OI, Notta F, Brown AM, Ng K, Ma J, Wienholds E, Dunant C, Pollett A, Gallinger S, McPherson J, Mullighan CG, Shibata D, Dick JE. Variable clonal repopulation dynamics influence chemotherapy response in colorectal cancer. Science. 2013 Feb 01; 339(6119):543-8. PMID: 23239622.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Sottoriva A, Spiteri I, Shibata D, Curtis C, Tavaré S. Single-molecule genomic data delineate patient-specific tumor profiles and cancer stem cell organization. Cancer Res. 2013 Jan 01; 73(1):41-9. PMID: 23090114; PMCID: PMC3544316.
    21. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Dranchak PK, Shibata D, Steinberg SJ, Hacia JG. The gene expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells from individuals with childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy are consistent with proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012 Oct 04; 3(5):39. PMID: 23036268; PMCID: PMC3580430.
    22. Shibata D. Cancer. Heterogeneity and tumor history. Science. 2012 Apr 20; 336(6079):304-5. PMID: 22517848.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Tsai AG, Chen DM, Lin M, Hsieh JC, Okitsu CY, Taghva A, Shibata D, Hsieh CL. Heterogeneity and randomness of DNA methylation patterns in human embryonic stem cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2012 Jun; 31(6):893-907. PMID: 22277069.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Wolkenhauer O, Shibata D, Mesarovic MD. The role of theorem proving in systems biology. J Theor Biol. 2012 May 07; 300:57-61. PMID: 22244914.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Wang X, Kang GH, Campan M, Weisenberger DJ, Long TI, Cozen W, Bernstein L, Wu AH, Siegmund KD, Shibata D, Laird PW. Epigenetic subgroups of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma with differential GATA5 DNA methylation associated with clinical and lifestyle factors. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25985. PMID: 22028801; PMCID: PMC3197593.
    26. Shibata D. Molecular tumor clocks to study the evolution of drug resistance. Mol Pharm. 2011 Dec 05; 8(6):2050-4. PMID: 21732670; PMCID: PMC4142061.
    27. Siegmund KD, Marjoram P, Tavaré S, Shibata D. High DNA methylation pattern intratumoral diversity implies weak selection in many human colorectal cancers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21657. PMID: 21738754; PMCID: PMC3125304.
    28. Oghamian S, Sodir NM, Bashir MU, Shen H, Cullins AE, Carroll CA, Kundu P, Shibata D, Laird PW. Reduction of pancreatic acinar cell tumor multiplicity in Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice. Carcinogenesis. 2011 Jun; 32(6):829-35. PMID: 21362628; PMCID: PMC3106433.
    29. Wolkenhauer O, Shibata DK, Mesarovic MD. A stem cell niche dominance theorem. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 08; 5:4. PMID: 21214945; PMCID: PMC3030540.
    30. Shibata D. Mutation and epigenetic molecular clocks in cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2011 Feb; 32(2):123-8. PMID: 21076057; PMCID: PMC3026845.
    31. Hong YJ, Marjoram P, Shibata D, Siegmund KD. Using DNA methylation patterns to infer tumor ancestry. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 09; 5(8):e12002. PMID: 20711251; PMCID: PMC2918495.
    32. Shibata D, Lieber MR. Is there any genetic instability in human cancer? DNA Repair (Amst). 2010 Aug 05; 9(8):858; discussion 859-60. PMID: 20605538; PMCID: PMC2914198.
    33. Wang XM, Greiner TC, Bibikova M, Pike BL, Siegmund KD, Sinha UK, Müschen M, Jaeger EB, Weisenburger DD, Chan WC, Shibata D, Fan JB, Hacia JG. Identification and functional relevance of de novo DNA methylation in cancerous B-cell populations. J Cell Biochem. 2010 Mar 01; 109(4):818-27. PMID: 20069569; PMCID: PMC3122883.
    34. Wu AH, Siegmund KD, Long TI, Cozen W, Wan P, Tseng CC, Shibata D, Laird PW. Hormone therapy, DNA methylation and colon cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Jun; 31(6):1060-7. PMID: 20064828; PMCID: PMC2878358.
    35. Calabrese P, Shibata D. A simple algebraic cancer equation: calculating how cancers may arise with normal mutation rates. BMC Cancer. 2010 Jan 05; 10:3. PMID: 20051132; PMCID: PMC2829925.
    36. Wolkenhauer O, Auffray C, Baltrusch S, Blüthgen N, Byrne H, Cascante M, Ciliberto A, Dale T, Drasdo D, Fell D, Ferrell JE, Gallahan D, Gatenby R, Günther U, Harms BD, Herzel H, Junghanss C, Kunz M, van Leeuwen I, Lenormand P, Levi F, Linnebacher M, Lowengrub J, Maini PK, Malik A, Rateitschak K, Sansom O, Schäfer R, Schürrle K, Sers C, Schnell S, Shibata D, Tyson J, Vera J, White M, Zhivotovsky B, Jaster R. Systems biologists seek fuller integration of systems biology approaches in new cancer research programs. Cancer Res. 2010 Jan 01; 70(1):12-3. PMID: 20028868; PMCID: PMC2802734.
    37. Siegmund KD, Marjoram P, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Many colorectal cancers are "flat" clonal expansions. Cell Cycle. 2009 Jul 15; 8(14):2187-93. PMID: 19556889; PMCID: PMC4145878.
    38. Siegmund KD, Marjoram P, Woo YJ, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Inferring clonal expansion and cancer stem cell dynamics from DNA methylation patterns in colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 24; 106(12):4828-33. PMID: 19261858; PMCID: PMC2651202.
    39. Woo YJ, Siegmund KD, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Older individuals appear to acquire mitotically older colorectal cancers. J Pathol. 2009 Mar; 217(4):483-8. PMID: 19165870; PMCID: PMC4418435.
    40. Jiang X, Castelao JE, Groshen S, Cortessis VK, Shibata DK, Conti DV, Gago-Dominguez M. Water intake and bladder cancer risk in Los Angeles County. Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 01; 123(7):1649-56. PMID: 18623082.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Siegmund KD, Marjoram P, Shibata D. Modeling DNA methylation in a population of cancer cells. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol. 2008; 7(1):Article 18. PMID: 18597664.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Basile LA, Gallaher TK, Shibata D, Miller JD, Douer D. Multilineage hematopoietic recovery with concomitant antitumor effects using low dose Interleukin-12 in myelosuppressed tumor-bearing mice. J Transl Med. 2008 May 19; 6:26. PMID: 18489769; PMCID: PMC2424034.
    43. Chu M, Siegmund KD, Hao QL, Crooks GM, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Inferring relative numbers of human leucocyte genome replications. Br J Haematol. 2008 Jun; 141(6):862-71. PMID: 18410448.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Alhopuro P, Phichith D, Tuupanen S, Sammalkorpi H, Nybondas M, Saharinen J, Robinson JP, Yang Z, Chen LQ, Orntoft T, Mecklin JP, Järvinen H, Eng C, Moeslein G, Shibata D, Houlston RS, Lucassen A, Tomlinson IP, Launonen V, Ristimäki A, Arango D, Karhu A, Sweeney HL, Aaltonen LA. Unregulated smooth-muscle myosin in human intestinal neoplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 08; 105(14):5513-8. PMID: 18391202; PMCID: PMC2291082.
    45. Miller AJ, Dudley SD, Tsao JL, Shibata D, Liskay RM. Tractable Cre-lox system for stochastic alteration of genes in mice. Nat Methods. 2008 Mar; 5(3):227-9. PMID: 18264106; PMCID: PMC2394730.
    46. Shibata D. Mistakes make history: visualizing intestinal tectonics. Gastroenterology. 2008 Feb; 134(2):628-31. PMID: 18242228.
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    47. Shibata D. Stem cells as common ancestors in a colorectal cancer ancestral tree. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan; 24(1):59-63. PMID: 18043234.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Shibata DK, Kern SE. Ancestral trees for modeling stem cell lineages genetically rather than functionally: understanding mutation accumulation and distinguishing the restrictive cancer stem cell propagation theory and the unrestricted cell propagation theory of human tumorigenesis. Breast Dis. 2008; 29:15-25. PMID: 19029621.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Kern SE, Shibata D. The fuzzy math of solid tumor stem cells: a perspective. Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 01; 67(19):8985-8. PMID: 17908998.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Chu MW, Siegmund KD, Eckstam CL, Kim JY, Yang AS, Kanel GC, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Lack of increases in methylation at three CpG-rich genomic loci in non-mitotic adult tissues during aging. BMC Med Genet. 2007 Jul 31; 8:50. PMID: 17672908; PMCID: PMC1950491.
    51. Chen T, Burke KA, Zhan Y, Wang X, Shibata D, Zhao Y. IL-12 facilitates both the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis and the engraftment of stem cells after ionizing radiation. Exp Hematol. 2007 Feb; 35(2):203-13. PMID: 17258069.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Nicolas P, Kim KM, Shibata D, Tavaré S. The stem cell population of the human colon crypt: analysis via methylation patterns. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007 Mar 02; 3(3):e28. PMID: 17335343; PMCID: PMC1808490.
    53. Shibata D, Tavaré S. Stem cell chronicles: autobiographies within genomes. Stem Cell Rev. 2007 Jan; 3(1):94-103. PMID: 17873386.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Sodir NM, Chen X, Park R, Nickel AE, Conti PS, Moats R, Bading JR, Shibata D, Laird PW. Smad3 deficiency promotes tumorigenesis in the distal colon of ApcMin/+ mice. Cancer Res. 2006 Sep 01; 66(17):8430-8. PMID: 16951153.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Shibata D. Clonal diversity in tumor progression. Nat Genet. 2006 Apr; 38(4):402-3. PMID: 16570060.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Shibata D, Tavaré S. Counting divisions in a human somatic cell tree: how, what and why? Cell Cycle. 2006 Mar; 5(6):610-4. PMID: 16582617.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Kim JY, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency. BMC Biol. 2006 Feb 03; 4:2. PMID: 16457718; PMCID: PMC1386708.
    58. Shibata D. When does MMR loss occur during HNPCC progression? Cancer Biomark. 2006; 2(1-2):29-35. PMID: 17192057.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Kim JY, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Counting human somatic cell replications: methylation mirrors endometrial stem cell divisions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 06; 102(49):17739-44. PMID: 16314580; PMCID: PMC1308885.
    60. Calabrese P, Mecklin JP, Järvinen HJ, Aaltonen LA, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Numbers of mutations to different types of colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2005 Oct 03; 5:126. PMID: 16202134; PMCID: PMC1266026.
    61. Kabbarah O, Sotelo AK, Mallon MA, Winkeler EL, Fan MY, Pfeifer JD, Shibata D, Gutmann DH, Goodfellow PJ. Diethylstilbestrol effects and lymphomagenesis in Mlh1-deficient mice. Int J Cancer. 2005 Jul 01; 115(4):666-9. PMID: 15700306.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Kim JY, Siegmund KD, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Age-related human small intestine methylation: evidence for stem cell niches. BMC Med. 2005 Jun 23; 3:10. PMID: 15975143; PMCID: PMC1168897.
    63. Kim JY, Beart RW, Shibata D. Stability of colon stem cell methylation after neo-adjuvant therapy in a patient with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun 07; 5:19. PMID: 15941485; PMCID: PMC1164411.
    64. Irvine RA, Adachi N, Shibata DK, Cassell GD, Yu K, Karanjawala ZE, Hsieh CL, Lieber MR. Generation and characterization of endonuclease G null mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jan; 25(1):294-302. PMID: 15601850; PMCID: PMC538798.
    65. Xie Y, Yang H, Cunanan C, Okamoto K, Shibata D, Pan J, Barnes DE, Lindahl T, McIlhatton M, Fishel R, Miller JH. Deficiencies in mouse Myh and Ogg1 result in tumor predisposition and G to T mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene in lung tumors. Cancer Res. 2004 May 01; 64(9):3096-102. PMID: 15126346.
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    66. Calabrese P, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Pretumor progression: clonal evolution of human stem cell populations. Am J Pathol. 2004 Apr; 164(4):1337-46. PMID: 15039221; PMCID: PMC1615336.
    67. Kim KM, Calabrese P, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Enhanced stem cell survival in familial adenomatous polyposis. Am J Pathol. 2004 Apr; 164(4):1369-77. PMID: 15039224; PMCID: PMC1615334.
    68. Kim KM, Shibata D. Tracing ancestry with methylation patterns: most crypts appear distantly related in normal adult human colon. BMC Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr 01; 4:8. PMID: 15059289; PMCID: PMC400737.
    69. Calabrese P, Tsao JL, Yatabe Y, Salovaara R, Mecklin JP, Järvinen HJ, Aaltonen LA, Tavaré S, Shibata D. Colorectal pretumor progression before and after loss of DNA mismatch repair. Am J Pathol. 2004 Apr; 164(4):1447-53. PMID: 15039232; PMCID: PMC1615342.
    70. Quach N, Goodman MF, Shibata D. In vitro mutation artifacts after formalin fixation and error prone translesion synthesis during PCR. BMC Clin Pathol. 2004 Feb 12; 4(1):1. PMID: 15028125.
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    71. Karanjawala ZE, Adachi N, Irvine RA, Oh EK, Shibata D, Schwarz K, Hsieh CL, Lieber MR. The embryonic lethality in DNA ligase IV-deficient mice is rescued by deletion of Ku: implications for unifying the heterogeneous phenotypes of NHEJ mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002 Dec 05; 1(12):1017-26. PMID: 12531011.
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    72. Shibata D. Molecular tumour clocks and colorectal cancer: seeing the unseen. Pathology. 2002 Dec; 34(6):534-40. PMID: 12555991.
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    73. Tsao JL, Dudley S, Kwok B, Nickel AE, Laird PW, Siegmund KD, Liskay RM, Shibata D. Diet, cancer and aging in DNA mismatch repair deficient mice. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Nov; 23(11):1807-10. PMID: 12419828.
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    74. Kim KM, Shibata D. Methylation reveals a niche: stem cell succession in human colon crypts. Oncogene. 2002 Aug 12; 21(35):5441-9. PMID: 12154406.
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    75. Trinh BN, Long TI, Nickel AE, Shibata D, Laird PW. DNA methyltransferase deficiency modifies cancer susceptibility in mice lacking DNA mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 May; 22(9):2906-17. PMID: 11940649; PMCID: PMC133764.
    76. Kim KM, Salovaara R, Mecklin JP, Järvinen HJ, Aaltonen LA, Shibata D. PolyA deletions in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: mutations before a gatekeeper. Am J Pathol. 2002 Apr; 160(4):1503-6. PMID: 11943734; PMCID: PMC1867223.
    77. Laiho P, Launonen V, Lahermo P, Esteller M, Guo M, Herman JG, Mecklin JP, Järvinen H, Sistonen P, Kim KM, Shibata D, Houlston RS, Aaltonen LA. Low-level microsatellite instability in most colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15; 62(4):1166-70. PMID: 11861399.
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