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Berislav V Zlokovic, MD, PhD

Title(s)Chair and Professor of Physiology & Neuroscience
AddressZNI 101 1501 San Pablo Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
Phone+1 323 442 2722
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Mary Hayley and Selim Zilkha Chair in Alzheimer's Disease Research

    Title(s)Director, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute


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    Collapse Overview
    Berislav V. Zlokovic is the director of the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute and Professor and Chair of the Department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, and a Professor of Biological Sciences at the Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. Zlokovic studies the role of brain microcirculation, particularly the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in health and disease in the adult brain and during brain aging. He made major contributions to our understanding of the role of BBB in the pathogenesis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and stroke. Using animal models and studying human brain, his laboratory has shown that dysfunction in the BBB and brain microcirculation can accumulate before neuronal loss, and is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction. His group showed that disrupted cross-talk between BBB-associated pericytes and brain capillary endothelial cells, and astrocytes and pericytes, within the neurovascular unit leads to neuronal dysfunction in both sysnapses and neurons, and that targeting these BBB pathways can reverse neurodegenerative process. He has identified genes and receptors at the BBB that regulate brain levels of Alzheimer’s amyloid-beta toxin, which accumulates with aging and dementia. More recently, his team has developed new imaging techniques for studying neurovascular functions in animal models and the living human brain. These findings contributed to development of Phase 2/3 clinical trials for AD patients. He co-discovered with J.H. Griffin vasculoprotective, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities of activated protein C (APC) in the CNS, including the receptor requirements and downstream signaling pathways. These findings have been translated in successfully completed Phase 2 trial of 3K3A-APC, a 2nd generation cytoprotective-selective APC analog, in ischemic stroke patients, which led to a Phase 3 efficacy and safety pivotal trial of 3K3A-APC in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Current research interests
    • We study humans at genetic risk for AD, and use transgenic models, and iPSC-based human models of the BBB and brain on a chip to understand how genes that carry risk for sporadic AD (e.g., APOE4, PICALM) affect the cerebrovascular system contributing to dementia, and AD disease onset and progression.
    • We are developing cell and gene therapy approaches for AD using i) iPSC-derived human pericytes that express different protective target genes, and/or ii) BBB cell-specific gene delivery to influence neuronal and synaptic functions.
    • We study APC biologics and mimetic peptides for white matter stroke, AD and ALS.
    • We work on identifying small molecules that influence genes/pathways linked to AD.
    • We work on CSF and imaging BBB biomarkers of human cognitive dysfunction.
    • Recently, we have initiated studies to understand how gut microbiome influences BBB in relation to neuronal and synaptic functions using transgenic and human iPSC models.
    • We initiated program on BBB molecular signatures (snRNAseq, proteome) in health and disease using transgenic and human models, and human tissue studies.
    Zlokovic is recognized internationally as a leader in the fields of AD and stroke research. Thomson Reuters and Clarivate Analytics listed Zlokovic as one of “The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds” for 17 consecutive years (2002-2019) for ranking in 1 % of the most-cited authors in the field of neurosciences and behavioral sciences. He received MetLife Award for Medical Research for “significant contributions to our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease and for bringing us closer to a cure”, Potamkin Prize from the American Academy of Neurology " in recognition of outstanding achievements in research on Alzheimer’s and related neurodegenerative diseases”, Javits Award from NINDS "in recognition of distinguished record of substantial contributions in a field of neurological sciences”, and MERIT Award from NIA "in recognition of sustained contribution to aging and leadership and commitment to the field”. He is a fellow of the AAAS, The European Academy of Sciences, and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiative. In 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020, he was asked by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, The Nobel Committee to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. He is also an active entrepreneur and inventor. He co-founded ZZ Biotech, a biotechnology company that is developing treatments for stroke and neurological disorders.

    Featured Publications representing interests of the Zlokovic laboratory:

    i-10 index: 243; h-index: 99; 43,599 citations (Google Scholar, Jan 2020); complete list in Google Scholar: https://goo.gl/2Npcj2
    Nation DA, Sweeney MD, Montagne A, Sagare AP, D’Orazio LM, Pachicano M, Sepehrband F, Nelson AR, Buennagel D, Liu CY, Harrington MG, Benzinger TLS, Fagan AM, Ringman JM, Schneider LS, Morris JC, Chui HC, Law M, Toga AW, Zlokovic BV (2019) Blood-brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction. Nature Medicine 25, 270-276.

    Nikolakopoulou AM, Montagne A, Kisler K, Dai Z, Wang Y, Huuskonen MT, Sagare AP, Lazic D, Sweeney MD, Kong P, Wang M, Owens NC, Lawson EJ, Xie X, Zhao Z, Zlokovic BV (2019) Pericyte loss leads to circulatory failure and pleiotrophin depletion causing neuron loss. Nature Neuroscience 22, 1089–1098.

    Sweeney MD, Zhao Z, Montagne A, Nelson AR, Zlokovic BV (2019) Blood-Brain Barrier: From Physiology to Disease and Back. Physiological Reviews 99, 21-78.

    Lazic D, Sagare AP, Nikolakopoulou AM, Griffin JH, Vassar R, Zlokovic BV (2019) 3K3A-activated protein C blocks amyloidogenic BACE1 pathway and improves functional outcome in mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine 216(2), 279-293.

    Lyden P, Pryor KE, Coffey CS, Cudkowicz M, …Davis TP, Toga AW, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV, NeuroNEXT Clinical Trials Network NN104 Investigators. (2019) Final Results of the RHAPSODY Trial: A Multi-Center, Phase 2 Trial Using a Continual Reassessment Method to Determine the Safety and Tolerability of 3K3A-APC, A Recombinant Variant of Human Activated Protein C, in Combination with Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Mechanical Thrombectomy or both in Moderate to Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke. Annals of Neurology 85(1), 125-136.

    Sweeney MD, Kisler K, Montagne A, Toga A, Zlokovic BV (2018) The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders. Nature Neuroscience 21(10), 1318-1331

    Montagne A, Nikolakopoulou AM, Zhao Z, Sagare AP, Si G, Lazic D, Barnes SR, Daianu M, Ramanathan A, Go A, Lawson EJ, Wang Y, Mack WJ, Thompson PM, Schneider JA, Varkey J, Langen R, Mullins E, Jacobs RE, Zlokovic BV (2018) Pericyte degeneration causes white matter dysfunction in the mouse CNS. Nature Medicine 24(3), 326-337.

    Sweeney MD, Sagare AP, Zlokovic BV (2018) Blood-brain barrier breakdown in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Nature Reviews Neurology 14(3), 133-150.

    Kisler K, Lazic D, Sweeney M, Plunkett S, Khatib ME, Vinogradov SA, Boas DA, Sakadzic S, Zlokovic BV (2018) Diverse protocols for in vivo measurements of cerebrovascular hemodynamic responses and tissue oxygen levels and delivery in the mouse brain. Nature Protocols 13(6), 1377-1402.

    Sweeney MD, Zlokovic BV (2018) A lymphatic waste-disposal system implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 560 (7717) 172-174.

    Kisler K, Nelson A, Montagne A, Zlokovic BV (2017) Cerebral blood flow regulation and neurovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 18, 419-434.

    Kisler K, Nelson AR, Rege SV, Ramanathan A, Wang Y, Ahuja A, Lazic D, Tsai PS, Zhao Z, Zhou Y, Boas DA, Sakadžic S, Zlokovic BV (2017) Pericyte degeneration leads to neurovascular uncoupling and limits oxygen supply to brain. Nature Neuroscience 20, 406-416.

    Wang Y, Zhao Z, Rege S, Griffin JH, Goldman SA, Zlokovic BV (2016) 3K3A-APC stimulates post-ischemic neuronal repair by human neural progenitor cells in mice. Nature Medicine 22 (9): 1050-1055.

    Sweeney MD, Ayyadurai S, Zlokovic BV (2016) Pericytes of the neurovascular unit: key functions and signaling pathways. Nature Neuroscience 19 (6): 771-783.

    Zhao Z, Nelson A, Betsholtz C, Zlokovic BV (2015) Establishment and dysfunction of blood-brain barrier. Cell 163, Nov 19;163(5):1064-78.

    Zhao Z, Sagare AP, Ma Q, Halliday MR, Kong P, Kisler K, Winkler EA, Ramanathan A, Kanekiyo T, Bu G, Owens NQ, Rege SV, Si G, Ahuja A, Zhu D, Miller CA, Schneider JA, Maeda M, Maeda T, Sugawara T, Ichida JK, Zlokovic BV (2015) Central role for PICALM in amyloid-? blood-brain barrier transcytosis and clearance. Nature Neuroscience 18, 978-987.

    Winkler EA, Nishida Y, Sagare AP, Rege SV, Bell RD, Perlmutter D, Sengillo JD, Hillman S, Kong P, Nelson AR, Sullivan JS, Zhao Z, Meiselman HJ, Wendy RB, Soto J, Abel ED, Makshanoff J, Zuniga E, De Vivo DC, Zlokovic BV (2015) GLUT1 reductions exacerbate Alzheimer’s disease vasculo-neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. Nature Neuroscience 18, 521-530.

    Montagne A, Barnes SR, Sweeney MD, Halliday MR, Sagare AP, Zhao Z, Toga AW, Jacobs RE, Liu CY, Amezcua L, Harrington MG, Chui HC, Law M, Zlokovic BV (2015) Blood-brain barrier breakdown in the aging human hippocampus. Neuron 85, 296-302.

    Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV, Mosnier LO (2015) Activated Protein C: Biased for Translation. Blood 125 (19), 2898-2907.

    Zhao Z and Zlokovic BV (2014) Blood-Brain Barrier: A Dual Life of MFSD2A? Neuron 82, 728–730.

    Winkler EA, Sengillo JD, Sagare AP, Zhao Z, Ma Q, Zuniga E, Wang Y, Zhong G, Sullivan JS, Griffin JH, Cleveland DW, Zlokovic BV (2014) Blood-spinal cord barrier disruption contributes to early motor neuron degeneration in ALS model mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111(11), E1035-42.

    Bell RD, Winkler E, Sagare A, Singh I, Deane R, Wu Z, Holtzman DM, Betsholtz C, Armulik A, Sallstrom J, Berk B, Zlokovic BV (2012) Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512-516.

    Deane R, Singh I, Sagare A, Bell R, Ross NT, Larue B, Love R, Perry S, Deane RJ, Thiyagarajan M, Zarcone T, Friedman A, Miller BL, Zlokovic BV (2012) A novel multi-modal RAGE-specific inhibitor controls amyloid-beta-mediated brain disorder in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 122 (4), 1377-1392.

    Winkler E, Bell R, Zlokovic BV (2011) Functions of CNS pericytes in health and disease. Nature Neuroscience 14, 1398-1405.

    Zlokovic BV (2011) Neurovascular pathways to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 12, 723-738.

    Winkler EA, Bell RD, Zlokovic BV (2011) Lack of Smad and Notch Leads to a Fatal Game of Brain Pericyte Hopscotch. Developmental Cell (Cell) 20 (3), 279-281.

    Zlokovic BV, Griffin JH (2011) Activated protein C cytoprotective pathways and implications for stroke and neurological disorders. Trends in Neurosciences 34 (4), 1198-2009.

    Zlokovic BV (2010) Neurodegeneration and the neurovascular unit. Nature Medicine 16(12), 1370-71.

    Bell RD, Winkler EA, Sagare A, Singh I, LaRue B, Deane R, Zlokovic BV (2010) Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and the neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging. Neuron 68, 409-427.

    Zhu D, Wang Y, Singh I, Bell RD, Deane R, Zhong Z, Sagare A, Winkler EA, Zlokovic BV (2010) Protein S controls hypoxic/ischemic blood-brain barrier disruption through the TAM receptor Tyro3 and sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Blood 115, 4963-4972.

    Bell RD , Deane R, Chow N, Long X, Sagare A, Singh I, Streb JW, Guo H, Rubio A, Van Nostrand W, Miano JP, Zlokovic BV (2009) SRF and myocardin regulate LRP-mediated amyloid-beta clearance in brain vascular cells. Nature Cell Biology 11(2), 143-153.

    Zhong Z, Ilieva H, Hallagan L, Bell R, Singh I, Paquette N, Thiyagarajan M, Deane R, Fernandez JA, Lane S, Zlokovic AB, Liu T, Griffin JH, Chow N, Castellino F, Stojanovic K, Cleveland DW, Zlokovic BV (2009) Activated protein C slows ALS-like disease by transcrptionally inhibiting SOD1 in motor neurons and microglial cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 119(11), 3437-3440.

    Deane R, Sagare A, Hamm K, Parisi M, Lane S, Finn MB, Holtzman DM, Zlokovic BV (2008) Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific disruption of Alzheimer’s amyloid ?-peptide clearance from mouse brain. Journal of Clinical Investigation 118(12), 4002-4013.

    Zhong Z, Deane R, Zarina A, Parisi M, Shapovalov Y, 0’Banion K, Stojanovic K, Sagare A, Boillee S, Cleveland DW, Zlokovic BV (2008) ALS-causing SOD1 mutants generate vascular changes prior to motor neuron degeneration. Nature Neuroscience 11(4), 420-422.

    Zlokovic BV (2008) Blood-brain barrier in health and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Neuron, 57, 178-201.

    Sagare A, Deane R, Bell RD, Johnson B, Hamm K, Pendu R, Marky A, Lenting PJ, Wu Z, Zarcone T, Goate A, Mayo K, Pelmutter D, Coma M, Zhong Z, Zlokovic BV (2007) Clearance of amyloid-beta by circulating lipoprotein receptors. Nature Medicine 13 (9), 1029-1031.

    Chow N, Bell RD, Deane R, Streb JW, Chen J, Brooks A, Van Nostrand W, Miano JM, Zlokovic BV (2007). Serum response factor and myocardin mediate cerebral arterial hypercontractility and blood flow dysregulation in Alzheimer’s phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 823-828.

    Mosnier L, Zlokovic BV, Griffin JH (2007) The cellular protein C pathway. Blood 109(8), 161-172.

    Cheng T, Petraglia A, Li Z, Meedakshisudaram T, Wu Z, Zhong Z, Liu D, Maggirwar SB, Deane R, Fernandez J, LaRue B, Griffin J, Chopp M, Zlokovic BV (2006) Activated protein C inhibits tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain hemorrhage. Nature Medicine 12 (11), 1278-1285.

    Zlokovic BV (2006) Remodeling after stroke. Nature Medicine 12 (4) 390-391.

    Wu Z, Guo H, Chow N, Sallstrom J, Bell RD, Deane R, Brooks A, Kanagala S, Rubio A, Sagare A, Liu D, Li F, Armstrong D, Gasiewicz T, Zidovetski R, Song H, Hofman F, Zlokovic BV (2005) Role of MEOX2 homeobox gene in neurovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer disease. Nature Medicine 11(9), 959-965.

    Zlokovic BV (2005) Neurovascular mechanisms of Alzheimer’s neurodegeneration. Trends in Neurosciences 28, 202-208.

    Deane R, Wu Z, Davis J, Yan SD, Hamm K, Sagare A, Xu F, Spijkers P, Lenting PJ, Van Nostrand WE, Zlokovic BV (2004) LRP-amyloid-beta interaction mediates differential brain efflux of Abeta isoforms. Neuron 43, 33-44.

    Liu D, Cheng T, Guo H, Fernandez AJ, Griffin JH, Song X, Zlokovic BV (2004) Tissue plasminogen activator neurovascular toxicity is controlled by activated protein C. Nature Medicine 10, (12), 1379-1383.

    Guo H, Liu D, Gelbard H, Cheng T, Fernandez JA, Insalaca R, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV (2004) Activated protein C prevents neuronal apoptosis via protease activated receptors 1 and 3. Neuron 41, 563-572.

    Deane R, Yan SD, Kumar R, Jovanovic S, LaRue B, Welch D, Maness L, Yu J, Zhu H, Ghiso J, Frangione B, Schmidt AM, Arnold B, Liliensiek B, Nawroth P, Hofman F, Kindy M, Stern D, Zlokovic BV (2003) RAGE mediates amyloid-ß peptide transport across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation in brain. Nature Medicine 9(7), 907-913.

    Cheng T, Liu D, Fernández JA, Griffin JH, Castellino F, Rosen E, Fukudome K, Zlokovic BV (2003) Activated protein C blocks P53-mediated apoptosis in ischemic human brain endothelium and is neuroportective. Nature Medicine 9, 338-342.

    Domotor E, Benzakour O, Griffin JH, Yule D, Fukudome K, Zlokovic BV (2003) Activated protein C alters cytosolic Ca2+ flux in human brain endothelium via binding to endothelial protein C receptor and activation of protease-activated receptor-1. Blood 101, 4797-4801.

    Shibata M, Subramanyan RK, Amar A, Fernandez J, Griffin J, Zlokovic BV (2001) Anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and neuroprotective effects of activated protein C in a murine model of focal ischemic stroke with cerebrovascular thrombosis. Circulation 103, 1799-1805.

    Shibata M, Yamada S, Kumar RS, Calero M, Bading B, Frangione B, Holtzman DM, Miller CA, Strickland DK, Ghiso J, Zlokovic BV (2000) Clearance of Alzheimer’s amyloid-ß1-40 peptide from brain by LDL receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier. Journal of Clinical Investigation 106(12), 1489-1499.

    Zlokovic BV, Shinya Y, Holtzman D, Ghiso J, Frangione B (2000) Clearance of amyloid ß-peptide from brain: transport or metabolism? Nature Medicine 6, 718-719.

    Mackic JB, Stins M, McComb JG, Calero M, Ghiso J, Kim KS, Yan SD, Stern D, Schmidt AM, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV (1998) Human blood-brain barrier receptors for Alzheimer's amyloid-? 1-40: Asymmetrical binding, endocytosis and transcytosis at the apical side of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayer. Journal of Clinical Investigation 102, 734-743.

    Zlokovic BV, Martel CL, Matsubara E, McComb JG, Zheng G, McCluskey RT, Frangione B, Ghiso J (1996) Glycoprotein 330/megalin: Porbable role in receptor-mediated transport of apolipoprotein J alone and in a complex with Alzheimer's Disease amyloid-? at the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 4229-4236.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Activated protein C mechanisms of brain white matter protection and new therapies for brain white matter ischemic injury
    NIH/NINDS R01NS117827Jul 15, 2020 - Apr 30, 2025
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Interaction of the microbiome with the blood-brain barrier
    Open Philanthropy Nov 1, 2018 - Oct 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of PICALM mutations in Alzheimer’s disease
    Cure Alzheimer's Fund Dec 27, 2017 - Dec 28, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Vascular Contributions To Dementia and Amyloid and Tau Lesions in APOE4
    Alzheimer's Association Sep 30, 2017 - Aug 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Understanding the role of the perivascular space in cerebral small vessel disease
    Fondation Leducq Jan 1, 2017 - Jan 1, 2022
    Role: North American Coordinator
    The role of pericytes in white matter disease
    NIH/NINDS R01NS100459Sep 30, 2016 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Vascular Contributions to Dementia and Genetic Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease
    NIH/NIA P01AG052350Sep 30, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Activated protein C system in stroke models
    NIH/NINDS R01NS090904Sep 30, 2014 - Jul 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Caloric restriction and Alzheimers ABeta clearance pathway
    NIH/NIA R03AG046216Aug 15, 2013 - May 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of PICALM in vascular clearance of amyloid-b
    Cure Alzheimer's Fund Sep 1, 2012 - Nov 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of pericytes in the aging brain and pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and Alzheimer's A-beta and tau pathology
    NIH/NIA R01AG039452Aug 1, 2011 - Nov 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protein S: Neurovascular Protection in Stroke
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL081528Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cerebrovascular beta-Amyloidosis: A-beta CNS Transport Pathways
    NIH/NIA R01AG023084Dec 1, 2003 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cerebrovascular beta-Amyloidosis: A-beta CNS Transport Pathways
    NIH/NIA R37AG023084Dec 1, 2003 - Jan 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of Brain Thrombosis in Stroke Models
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL063290Jul 15, 1999 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AGING BRAIN--CEREBROVASCULAR MECHANISM &AMYLOID BETA
    NIH/NIA P01AG016223May 1, 1999 - Apr 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AGING AND BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER AB TRASPORT IN PRIMATES
    NIH/NIA R03AG014526Mar 1, 1997 - Feb 28, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Alzheimer's Abeta, Tau, Apolipoproteins and Blood-brain barrier
    NIH/NINDS R01NS034467Sep 1, 1995 - Mar 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Alzheimer's Abeta, apolipoproteins and blood-brain barrier
    NIH/NINDS R37NS034467Sep 1, 1995 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BLOOD-LENS TRANSFER OF GLUTATHIONE &SULFUR AMINO ACIDS
    NIH/NEI R01EY009399Aug 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BLOOD-LENS TRANSFER OF GLUTATHIONE &SULFUR AMINO ACIDS
    NIH/NEI R55EY009399Sep 30, 1992 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Clearance of interstitial fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group-part of Vascular Professional Interest Area (PIA): Cerebrovascular disease and the failure of elimination of Amyloid-ß from the brain and retina with age and Alzheimer's disease-Opportunities for Therapy. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2020; 12(1):e12053. Carare RO, Aldea R, Agarwal N, Bacskai BJ, Bechman I, Boche D, Bu G, Bulters D, Clemens A, Counts SE, de Leon M, Eide PK, Fossati S, Greenberg SM, Hamel E, Hawkes CA, Koronyo-Hamaoui M, Hainsworth AH, Holtzman D, Ihara M, Jefferson A, Kalaria RN, Kipps CM, Kanninen KM, Leinonen V, McLaurin J, Miners S, Malm T, Nicoll JAR, Piazza F, Paul G, Rich SM, Saito S, Shih A, Scholtzova H, Snyder H, Snyder P, Thormodsson FR, van Veluw SJ, Weller RO, Werring DJ, Wilcock D, Wilson MR, Zlokovic BV, Verma A. PMID: 32775596.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Therapeutic TVs for Crossing Barriers in the Brain. Cell. 2020 Jul 23; 182(2):267-269. Zhao Z, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32707092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. EBioMedicine. 2020 Jul 17; 102883. Arellanes IC, Choe N, Solomon V, He X, Kavin B, Martinez AE, Kono N, Buennagel DP, Hazra N, Kim G, D'Orazio LM, McCleary C, Sagare A, Zlokovic BV, Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Chui HC, Harrington MG, Braskie MN, Schneider LS, Yassine HN. PMID: 32690472.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Correction: Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness predicts CSF amyloid/tau before cognitive decline. PLoS One. 2020; 15(7):e0236379. Asanad S, Fantini M, Sultan W, Nassisi M, Felix CM, Wu J, Karanjia R, Ross-Cisneros FN, Sagare AP, Zlokovic BV, Chui HC, Pogoda JM, Arakaki X, Fonteh AN, Sadun AA, Harrington MG. PMID: 32663228.
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    5. 3K3A-Activated Protein C Variant Does Not Interfere With the Plasma Clot Lysis Activity of Tenecteplase. Stroke. 2020 Jul; 51(7):2236-2239. Mukherjee P, Lyden P, Fernández JA, Davis TP, Pryor KE, Zlokovic BV, Griffin JH. PMID: 32568648.
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    6. Building vascular roadmaps: A novel toolset for visualizing and annotating whole mouse brain vasculature. Lab Anim (NY). 2020 06; 49(6):175-176. Kisler K, Huuskonen MT, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32424313.
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    7. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness predicts CSF amyloid/tau before cognitive decline. PLoS One. 2020; 15(5):e0232785. Asanad S, Fantini M, Sultan W, Nassisi M, Felix CM, Wu J, Karanjia R, Ross-Cisneros FN, Sagare AP, Zlokovic BV, Chui HC, Pogoda JM, Arakaki X, Fonteh AN, Sadun AA, Harrington MG. PMID: 32469871.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. APOE4 leads to blood-brain barrier dysfunction predicting cognitive decline. Nature. 2020 05; 581(7806):71-76. Montagne A, Nation DA, Sagare AP, Barisano G, Sweeney MD, Chakhoyan A, Pachicano M, Joe E, Nelson AR, D'Orazio LM, Buennagel DP, Harrington MG, Benzinger TLS, Fagan AM, Ringman JM, Schneider LS, Morris JC, Reiman EM, Caselli RJ, Chui HC, Tcw J, Chen Y, Pa J, Conti PS, Law M, Toga AW, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32376954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. Channelrhodopsin Excitation Contracts Brain Pericytes and Reduces Blood Flow in the Aging Mouse Brain in vivo. Front Aging Neurosci. 2020; 12:108. Nelson AR, Sagare MA, Wang Y, Kisler K, Zhao Z, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32410982.
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    10. A novel sensitive assay for detection of a biomarker of pericyte injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Alzheimers Dement. 2020 06; 16(6):821-830. Sweeney MD, Sagare AP, Pachicano M, Harrington MG, Joe E, Chui HC, Schneider LS, Montagne A, Ringman JM, Fagan AM, Morris JC, Pa J, Nation DA, Toga AW, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32301266.
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    11. Perivascular spaces in the brain: anatomy, physiology and pathology. Nat Rev Neurol. 2020 03; 16(3):137-153. Wardlaw JM, Benveniste H, Nedergaard M, Zlokovic BV, Mestre H, Lee H, Doubal FN, Brown R, Ramirez J, MacIntosh BJ, Tannenbaum A, Ballerini L, Rungta RL, Boido D, Sweeney M, Montagne A, Charpak S, Joutel A, Smith KJ, Black SE. PMID: 32094487.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    12. APOE4 Accelerates Development of Dementia After Stroke: Is There a Role for Cerebrovascular Dysfunction? Stroke. 2020 03; 51(3):699-700. Montagne A, Nation DA, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32070225.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Acute Ablation of Cortical Pericytes Leads to Rapid Neurovascular Uncoupling. Front Cell Neurosci. 2020; 14:27. Kisler K, Nikolakopoulou AM, Sweeney MD, Lazic D, Zhao Z, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 32116568.
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    158. Role of the MEOX2 homeobox gene in neurovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer disease. Nat Med. 2005 Sep; 11(9):959-65. Wu Z, Guo H, Chow N, Sallstrom J, Bell RD, Deane R, Brooks AI, Kanagala S, Rubio A, Sagare A, Liu D, Li F, Armstrong D, Gasiewicz T, Zidovetzki R, Song X, Hofman F, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 16116430.
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    159. Neurovascular mechanisms of Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. Trends Neurosci. 2005 Apr; 28(4):202-8. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15808355.
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    160. Mechanism of amyloid peptide induced CCR5 expression in monocytes and its inhibition by siRNA for Egr-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Aug; 289(2):C264-76. Giri RK, Rajagopal V, Shahi S, Zlokovic BV, Kalra VK. PMID: 15743889.
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    161. Neurovascular pathways and Alzheimer amyloid beta-peptide. Brain Pathol. 2005 Jan; 15(1):78-83. Zlokovic BV, Deane R, Sallstrom J, Chow N, Miano JM. PMID: 15779240.
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    162. Tissue plasminogen activator neurovascular toxicity is controlled by activated protein C. Nat Med. 2004 Dec; 10(12):1379-83. Liu D, Cheng T, Guo H, Fernández JA, Griffin JH, Song X, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15516929.
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    163. Method for measurement of the blood-brain barrier permeability in the perfused mouse brain: application to amyloid-beta peptide in wild type and Alzheimer's Tg2576 mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Sep 30; 138(1-2):233-42. LaRue B, Hogg E, Sagare A, Jovanovic S, Maness L, Maurer C, Deane R, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15325132.
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    164. RAGE (yin) versus LRP (yang) balance regulates alzheimer amyloid beta-peptide clearance through transport across the blood-brain barrier. Stroke. 2004 Nov; 35(11 Suppl 1):2628-31. Deane R, Wu Z, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15459432.
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    165. LRP/amyloid beta-peptide interaction mediates differential brain efflux of Abeta isoforms. Neuron. 2004 Aug 05; 43(3):333-44. Deane R, Wu Z, Sagare A, Davis J, Du Yan S, Hamm K, Xu F, Parisi M, LaRue B, Hu HW, Spijkers P, Guo H, Song X, Lenting PJ, Van Nostrand WE, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15294142.
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    166. Presence and functional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in isolated murine cerebral vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Jun; 25(4):605-16. Filbrandt CR, Wu Z, Zlokovic B, Opanashuk L, Gasiewicz TA. PMID: 15183014.
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    167. Clearing amyloid through the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem. 2004 May; 89(4):807-11. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15140180.
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    168. Activated protein C and ischemic stroke. Crit Care Med. 2004 May; 32(5 Suppl):S247-53. Griffin JH, Fernández JA, Liu D, Cheng T, Guo H, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15118526.
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    169. Early-onset and robust cerebral microvascular accumulation of amyloid beta-protein in transgenic mice expressing low levels of a vasculotropic Dutch/Iowa mutant form of amyloid beta-protein precursor. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 07; 279(19):20296-306. Davis J, Xu F, Deane R, Romanov G, Previti ML, Zeigler K, Zlokovic BV, Van Nostrand WE. PMID: 14985348.
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    170. Activated protein C prevents neuronal apoptosis via protease activated receptors 1 and 3. Neuron. 2004 Feb 19; 41(4):563-72. Guo H, Liu D, Gelbard H, Cheng T, Insalaco R, Fernández JA, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 14980205.
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    171. Brain capillary endothelium and choroid plexus epithelium regulate transport of transferrin-bound and free iron into the rat brain. J Neurochem. 2004 Feb; 88(4):813-20. Deane R, Zheng W, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 14756801.
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    172. A simple method for isolation and characterization of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Neurosci Methods. 2003 Nov 30; 130(1):53-63. Wu Z, Hofman FM, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 14583404.
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    173. RAGE mediates amyloid-beta peptide transport across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation in brain. Nat Med. 2003 Jul; 9(7):907-13. Deane R, Du Yan S, Submamaryan RK, LaRue B, Jovanovic S, Hogg E, Welch D, Manness L, Lin C, Yu J, Zhu H, Ghiso J, Frangione B, Stern A, Schmidt AM, Armstrong DL, Arnold B, Liliensiek B, Nawroth P, Hofman F, Kindy M, Stern D, Zlokovic B. PMID: 12808450.
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    174. Recombinant murine-activated protein C is neuroprotective in a murine ischemic stroke model. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2003 May-Jun; 30(3):271-6. Fernández JA, Xu X, Liu D, Zlokovic BV, Griffin JH. PMID: 12737945.
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    175. Protein S confers neuronal protection during ischemic/hypoxic injury in mice. Circulation. 2003 Apr 08; 107(13):1791-6. Liu D, Guo H, Griffin JH, Fernández JA, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12665496.
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    176. Activated protein C alters cytosolic calcium flux in human brain endothelium via binding to endothelial protein C receptor and activation of protease activated receptor-1. Blood. 2003 Jun 15; 101(12):4797-801. Dömötör E, Benzakour O, Griffin JH, Yule D, Fukudome K, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12586611.
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    177. Activated protein C blocks p53-mediated apoptosis in ischemic human brain endothelium and is neuroprotective. Nat Med. 2003 Mar; 9(3):338-42. Cheng T, Liu D, Griffin JH, Fernández JA, Castellino F, Rosen ED, Fukudome K, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12563316.
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    178. Endovascular restorative neurosurgery: a novel concept for molecular and cellular therapy of the nervous system. Neurosurgery. 2003 Feb; 52(2):402-12; discussion 412-3. Amar AP, Zlokovic BV, Apuzzo ML. PMID: 12535371.
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    179. Current treatments and therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002 Dec 07; 54(12):1533-7. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12453670.
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    180. Vascular disorder in Alzheimer's disease: role in pathogenesis of dementia and therapeutic targets. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002 Dec 07; 54(12):1553-9. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12453672.
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    181. Effect of endothelial cell polarity on beta-amyloid-induced migration of monocytes across normal and AD endothelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Sep; 283(3):C895-904. Giri R, Selvaraj S, Miller CA, Hofman F, Yan SD, Stern D, Zlokovic BV, Kalra VK. PMID: 12176746.
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    182. Activated protein C: potential therapy for severe sepsis, thrombosis, and stroke. Semin Hematol. 2002 Jul; 39(3):197-205. Griffin JH, Zlokovic B, Fernández JA. PMID: 12124682.
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    183. Circulating amyloid-beta peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier in aged monkeys and contributes to Alzheimer's disease lesions. Vascul Pharmacol. 2002 Jun; 38(6):303-13. Mackic JB, Bading J, Ghiso J, Walker L, Wisniewski T, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12529925.
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    184. Brain clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta40 in the squirrel monkey: a SPECT study in a primate model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Drug Target. 2002 Jun; 10(4):359-68. Bading JR, Yamada S, Mackic JB, Kirkman L, Miller C, Calero M, Ghiso J, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 12164385.
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    185. The cerebromicrovasculature: a key player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2002 Jun; 4(3):217-23. Grammas P, Yamada M, Zlokovic B. PMID: 12226540.
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    186. Substitution at codon 22 reduces clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide from the cerebrospinal fluid and prevents its transport from the central nervous system into blood. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 May-Jun; 23(3):405-12. Monro OR, Mackic JB, Yamada S, Segal MB, Ghiso J, Maurer C, Calero M, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 11959403.
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    187. Endothelin-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 modulation in ischemia and human brain-derived endothelial cell cultures. J Neuroimmunol. 2001 May 01; 116(1):62-73. Chen P, Shibata M, Zidovetzki R, Fisher M, Zlokovic BV, Hofman FM. PMID: 11311331.
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    188. Lower cognitive performance of older football players possessing apolipoprotein E epsilon4. Neurosurgery. 2001 May; 48(5):1196-7. Zlokovic BV, Cox C. PMID: 11334298.
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    189. Anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and neuroprotective effects of activated protein C in a murine model of focal ischemic stroke. Circulation. 2001 Apr 03; 103(13):1799-805. Shibata M, Kumar SR, Amar A, Fernandez JA, Hofman F, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 11282913.
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    190. Preferential susceptibility of brain tumors to the antiangiogenic effects of an alpha(v) integrin antagonist. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jan; 48(1):151-7. MacDonald TJ, Taga T, Shimada H, Tabrizi P, Zlokovic BV, Cheresh DA, Laug WE. PMID: 11152340.
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    191. beta-amyloid-induced migration of monocytes across human brain endothelial cells involves RAGE and PECAM-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Dec; 279(6):C1772-81. Giri R, Shen Y, Stins M, Du Yan S, Schmidt AM, Stern D, Kim KS, Zlokovic B, Kalra VK. PMID: 11078691.
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    192. Clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-ss(1-40) peptide from brain by LDL receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier. J Clin Invest. 2000 Dec; 106(12):1489-99. Shibata M, Yamada S, Kumar SR, Calero M, Bading J, Frangione B, Holtzman DM, Miller CA, Strickland DK, Ghiso J, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 11120756.
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    193. Apolipoprotein J (clusterin) and Alzheimer's disease. Microsc Res Tech. 2000 Aug 15; 50(4):305-15. Calero M, Rostagno A, Matsubara E, Zlokovic B, Frangione B, Ghiso J. PMID: 10936885.
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    194. Cellular cofactors potentiating induction of stress and cytotoxicity by amyloid beta-peptide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jul 26; 1502(1):145-57. Yan SD, Roher A, Chaney M, Zlokovic B, Schmidt AM, Stern D. PMID: 10899440.
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    195. Clearance of amyloid beta-peptide from brain: transport or metabolism? Nat Med. 2000 Jul; 6(7):718-9. Zlokovic BV, Yamada S, Holtzman D, Ghiso J, Frangione B. PMID: 10888892.
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    196. Lipidation of apolipoprotein E influences its isoform-specific interaction with Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptides. Biochem J. 2000 Jun 01; 348 Pt 2:359-65. Tokuda T, Calero M, Matsubara E, Vidal R, Kumar A, Permanne B, Zlokovic B, Smith JD, Ladu MJ, Rostagno A, Frangione B, Ghiso J. PMID: 10816430.
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    197. Brain injury and cerebrovascular fibrin deposition correlate with reduced antithrombotic brain capillary functions in a hypertensive stroke model. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000 Jun; 20(6):998-1009. Ninomia T, Wang L, Kumar SR, Kim A, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10894183.
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    198. Differential regulation of leptin transport by the choroid plexus and blood-brain barrier and high affinity transport systems for entry into hypothalamus and across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Endocrinology. 2000 Apr; 141(4):1434-41. Zlokovic BV, Jovanovic S, Miao W, Samara S, Verma S, Farrell CL. PMID: 10746647.
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    199. Functional and structural properties of lipid-associated apolipoprotein J (clusterin). Biochem J. 1999 Dec 01; 344 Pt 2:375-83. Calero M, Tokuda T, Rostagno A, Kumar A, Zlokovic B, Frangione B, Ghiso J. PMID: 10567218.
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    200. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) deficiency exacerbates cerebrovascular fibrin deposition and brain injury in a murine stroke model: studies in tPA-deficient mice and wild-type mice on a matched genetic background. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999 Nov; 19(11):2801-6. Tabrizi P, Wang L, Seeds N, McComb JG, Yamada S, Griffin JH, Carmeliet P, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10559029.
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    201. Retroviral vector-mediated transfer and expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA in bovine brain endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 1999 Oct; 45(4):962-8; discussion 968-70. Yu H, Wang Y, Eton D, Stins M, Wang L, Apuzzo ML, Weaver FA, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10515502.
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    202. Exogenous microglia enter the brain and migrate into ischaemic hippocampal lesions. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Sep 10; 272(2):127-30. Imai F, Sawada M, Suzuki H, Zlokovic BV, Kojima J, Kuno S, Nagatsu T, Nitatori T, Uchiyama Y, Kanno T. PMID: 10507558.
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    203. Cereport (RMP-7) increases the permeability of human brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. Pharm Res. 1999 Sep; 16(9):1360-5. Mackic JB, Stins M, Jovanovic S, Kim KS, Bartus RT, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10496650.
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    204. Corneal transport of circulating glutathione in normal and galactosemic guinea pigs. Cornea. 1999 May; 18(3):321-7. Kannan R, Mackic JB, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10336036.
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    205. Glycoprotein 330/megalin (LRP-2) has low prevalence as mRNA and protein in brain microvessels and choroid plexus. Exp Neurol. 1999 May; 157(1):194-201. Chun JT, Wang L, Pasinetti GM, Finch CE, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 10222122.
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    206. Rat brain capillary thrombomodulin: structure and function. Thromb Res. 1998 Dec 01; 92(5):213-9. Wang L, Tran ND, Schreiber SS, Fisher M, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9851812.
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    207. Detection of brain tumor invasion and micrometastasis in vivo by expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1437-42; discussion 1442-3. MacDonald TJ, Tabrizi P, Shimada H, Zlokovic BV, Laug WE. PMID: 9848858.
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    208. Immunohistochemical localization of tissue plasminogen activator in vascular endothelium of stroke-prone regions of the rat brain. Neurosurgery. 1998 Oct; 43(4):909-13. Schreiber SS, Tan Z, Sun N, Wang L, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9766319.
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    209. Strategies to circumvent vascular barriers of the central nervous system. Neurosurgery. 1998 Oct; 43(4):877-8. Zlokovic BV, Apuzzo ML. PMID: 9766315.
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    210. Measurement of thrombomodulin mRNA expression in brain capillaries by polymerase chain reaction. Thromb Res. 1998 Aug 15; 91(4):191-7. Tran ND, Wang L, Schreiber SS, Zlokovic B, Fisher M. PMID: 9736422.
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    211. Human blood-brain barrier receptors for Alzheimer's amyloid-beta 1- 40. Asymmetrical binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis at the apical side of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayer. J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 15; 102(4):734-43. Mackic JB, Stins M, McComb JG, Calero M, Ghiso J, Kim KS, Yan SD, Stern D, Schmidt AM, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9710442.
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    212. Intravenous RMP-7 increases delivery of ganciclovir into rat brain tumors and enhances the effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 1998 May 01; 9(7):989-95. LeMay DR, Kittaka M, Gordon EM, Gray B, Stins MF, McComb JG, Jovanovic S, Tabrizi P, Weiss MH, Bartus R, Anderson WF, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9607410.
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    213. Cerebrovascular accumulation and increased blood-brain barrier permeability to circulating Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide in aged squirrel monkey with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Neurochem. 1998 Jan; 70(1):210-5. Mackic JB, Weiss MH, Miao W, Kirkman E, Ghiso J, Calero M, Bading J, Frangione B, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9422364.
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    214. Circulating antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects rat brain from reperfusion injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998 Jan; 18(1):52-8. Lavine SD, Hofman FM, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9428305.
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    215. Attenuation of brain injury and reduction of neuron-specific enolase by nicardipine in systemic circulation following focal ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model. J Neurosurg. 1997 Nov; 87(5):731-7. Kittaka M, Giannotta SL, Zelman V, Correale JD, DeGiorgio CM, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9347982.
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    216. Thrombomodulin expression in bovine brain capillaries. Anticoagulant function of the blood-brain barrier, regional differences, and regulatory mechanisms. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Nov; 17(11):3139-46. Wang L, Tran ND, Kittaka M, Fisher MJ, Schreiber SS, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9409303.
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    217. Isoform-specific effects of apolipoproteins E2, E3, and E4 on cerebral capillary sequestration and blood-brain barrier transport of circulating Alzheimer's amyloid beta. J Neurochem. 1997 Nov; 69(5):1995-2004. Martel CL, Mackic JB, Matsubara E, Governale S, Miguel C, Miao W, McComb JG, Frangione B, Ghiso J, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9349544.
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    218. Antithrombotic, procoagulant, and fibrinolytic mechanisms in cerebral circulation: implications for brain injury and protection. Neurosurg Focus. 1997 Jun 15; 2(6):e5. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 15099052.
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    219. Low de novo glutathione synthesis from circulating sulfur amino acids in the lens epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 1997 Apr; 64(4):615-26. Mackic JB, Kannan R, Kaplowitz N, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9227280.
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    220. Cellular and molecular neurosurgery: pathways from concept to reality--part I: target disorders and concept approaches to gene therapy of the central nervous system. Neurosurgery. 1997 Apr; 40(4):789-803; discussion 803-4. Zlokovic BV, Apuzzo ML. PMID: 9092853.
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    221. Cellular and molecular neurosurgery: pathways from concept to reality--part II: vector systems and delivery methodologies for gene therapy of the central nervous system. Neurosurgery. 1997 Apr; 40(4):805-12; discussion 812-3. Zlokovic BV, Apuzzo ML. PMID: 9092854.
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    222. Liver and lens glutathione and cysteine regulation in galactose-fed guinea pigs. Curr Eye Res. 1997 Apr; 16(4):365-71. Kannan R, Fernández-Checa JC, García-Ruiz C, Mackic JB, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9134326.
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    223. Chronic nicotine treatment enhances focal ischemic brain injury and depletes free pool of brain microvascular tissue plasminogen activator in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1997 Feb; 17(2):136-46. Wang L, Kittaka M, Sun N, Schreiber SS, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9040492.
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    224. Intravenous infusion of RMP-7 increases ocular uptake of ganciclovir. Pharm Res. 1997 Jan; 14(1):80-5. Elliot PJ, Bartus RT, Mackic JB, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 9034225.
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    225. Can blood-brain barrier play a role in the development of cerebral amyloidosis and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurobiol Dis. 1997; 4(1):23-6. Zlokovic B. PMID: 9258908.
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    226. Identification of a novel, sodium-dependent, reduced glutathione transporter in the rat lens epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Oct; 37(11):2269-75. Kannan R, Yi JR, Tang D, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. PMID: 8843923.
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    227. Glycoprotein 330/megalin: probable role in receptor-mediated transport of apolipoprotein J alone and in a complex with Alzheimer disease amyloid beta at the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 30; 93(9):4229-34. Zlokovic BV, Martel CL, Matsubara E, McComb JG, Zheng G, McCluskey RT, Frangione B, Ghiso J. PMID: 8633046.
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    228. Evidence for the existence of a sodium-dependent glutathione (GSH) transporter. Expression of bovine brain capillary mRNA and size fractions in Xenopus laevis oocytes and dissociation from gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and facilitative GSH transporters. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19; 271(16):9754-8. Kannan R, Yi JR, Tang D, Li Y, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. PMID: 8621654.
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    229. Brain capillary tissue plasminogen activator in a diabetes stroke model. Stroke. 1996 Apr; 27(4):712-9. Kittaka M, Wang L, Sun N, Schreiber SS, Seeds NW, Fisher M, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8614937.
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    230. Blood-brain barrier uptake of the 40 and 42 amino acid sequences of circulating Alzheimer's amyloid beta in guinea pigs. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 15; 206(2-3):157-60. Martel CL, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Ghiso J, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8710175.
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    231. Transport of dopamine at the blood-brain barrier of the guinea pig: inhibition by psychotropic drugs and nicotine. Pharm Res. 1996 Feb; 13(2):290-5. Martel CL, Mackic JB, Adams JD, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8932451.
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    232. Cellular uptake and transport of methylprednisolone at the blood-brain barrier. Neurosurgery. 1996 Feb; 38(2):348-54. Chen TC, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8869063.
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    233. Transport of circulating reduced glutathione at the basolateral side of the anterior lens epithelium: physiologic importance and manipulations. Exp Eye Res. 1996 Jan; 62(1):29-37. Mackic JB, Jinagouda S, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Kannan R, Kaplowitz N, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8674510.
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    234. Cerebrovascular transport of Alzheimer's amyloid beta and apolipoproteins J and E: possible anti-amyloidogenic role of the blood-brain barrier. Life Sci. 1996; 59(18):1483-97. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8890929.
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    235. Expression of tissue plasminogen activator in cerebral capillaries: possible fibrinolytic function of the blood-brain barrier. Neurosurgery. 1995 Nov; 37(5):955-61. Zlokovic BV, Wang L, Sun N, Haffke S, Verrall S, Seeds NW, Fisher MJ, Schreiber SS. PMID: 8559345.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    236. RMP-7, a bradykinin agonist, increases permeability of blood-ocular barriers in the guinea pig. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Nov; 36(12):2542-7. Elliott PJ, Mackic JB, Graney WF, Bartus RT, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 7591644.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    237. Cerebrovascular permeability to peptides: manipulations of transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Pharm Res. 1995 Oct; 12(10):1395-406. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8584471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    238. Molecular characterization of a reduced glutathione transporter in the lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Aug; 36(9):1785-92. Kannan R, Yi JR, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. PMID: 7635653.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    239. Slow penetration of [3H] tiazofurin into guinea pig brain by a saturable mechanism. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Jul-Aug; 17(6):407-14. Redzic ZB, Markovic ID, Jovanovic SS, Mitrovic DM, Zlokovic BV, Rakic LM. PMID: 8642902.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    240. Penetration of [3H] tiazofurin into guinea pig eye by a saturable mechanism. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1995 Apr-Jun; 5(2):131-5. Redzic ZB, Markovic ID, Jovanovic SS, Zlokovic BV, Rakic LM. PMID: 7549442.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    241. Brain uptake of circulating apolipoproteins J and E complexed to Alzheimer's amyloid beta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Dec 15; 205(2):1431-7. Zlokovic BV, Martel CL, Mackic JB, Matsubara E, Wisniewski T, McComb JG, Frangione B, Ghiso J. PMID: 7802679.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    242. Blood-to-lens transport of reduced glutathione in an in situ perfused guinea-pig eye. Exp Eye Res. 1994 Oct; 59(4):487-96. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Kaplowitz N, Weiss MH, Kannan R. PMID: 7859824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    243. Evidence for transcapillary transport of reduced glutathione in vascular perfused guinea-pig brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 May 30; 201(1):402-8. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Kaplowitz N, Kannan R. PMID: 8198602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    244. Nicotine downregulates alpha 2 isoform of Na,K-ATPase at the blood-brain barrier and brain in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 30; 199(3):1422-7. Wang L, McComb JG, Weiss MH, McDonough AA, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8147886.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    245. Galactose-induced cataract formation in guinea pigs: morphologic changes and accumulation of galactitol. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Mar; 35(3):804-10. Mackic JB, Ross-Cisneros FN, McComb JG, Bekhor I, Weiss MH, Kannan R, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8125742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    246. Blood-brain barrier transport of circulating Alzheimer's amyloid beta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Dec 30; 197(3):1034-40. Zlokovic BV, Ghiso J, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Frangione B. PMID: 8280117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    247. The blood-brain barrier in vitro: recent progress. Neurochem Int. 1993 Dec; 23(6):523. Zlokovic BV. PMID: 8281120.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    248. Differential expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha and beta subunit isoforms at the blood-brain barrier and the choroid plexus. J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 15; 268(11):8019-25. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, Wang L, McComb JG, McDonough A. PMID: 8385133.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    249. Metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in mice: II. Studies on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, GABA, and sodium channel receptors and on the disposition of metaphit in the brain. Epilepsia. 1993 Mar-Apr; 34(2):211-9. Lipovac MN, Debler EA, Zlokovic BV, Jacobson AE, Rice KC, de Costa B, Selmeci G, Chi L, Reith ME. PMID: 8384107.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    250. Metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in mice: I. Pharmacologic characterization. Epilepsia. 1993 Mar-Apr; 34(2):201-10. Debler EA, Lipovac MN, Lajtha A, Zlokovic BV, Dunlop DS, Jacobson AE, Rice KC, de Costa B, Reith ME. PMID: 8384106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    251. Expression of Na,K-ATPase at the blood-brain interface. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 331:55-60. Zlokovic BV, Wang L, Mackic JB, Saraj AJ, McComb JG, McDonough A. PMID: 8392783.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    252. A simple technique to determine glutathione (GSH) levels and synthesis in ocular tissues as GSH-bimane adduct: application to normal and galactosemic guinea-pigs. Exp Eye Res. 1993 Jan; 56(1):45-50. Kannan R, Tang D, Mackic JB, Zlokovic BV, Fernandez-Checa JC. PMID: 8432334.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    253. Differential brain penetration of cerebroprotective drugs. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 331:117-20. Zlokovic BV, McComb JG, Lipovac MN, Chen TC, Mackic JB, Schneider J, Gianotta SL, Weiss MH. PMID: 8333325.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    254. Blood-brain transport of vasopressin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 331:143-7. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, Lipovac MN, McComb JG, Weiss MH. PMID: 8333329.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    255. Transport, uptake, and metabolism of blood-borne vasopressin by the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 1992 Sep 11; 590(1-2):213-8. Zlokovic BV, Banks WA, el Kadi H, Erchegyi J, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Kastin AJ. PMID: 1422832.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    256. An in situ perfused guinea-pig eye model for blood-ocular transport studies: application to amino acids. Exp Eye Res. 1992 Mar; 54(3):471-7. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Kannan R, Weiss MH. PMID: 1381681.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    257. Neuroactive peptides and amino acids at the blood-brain barrier: possible implications for drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr. 1992; 120:26-42. Zlokovic BV, McComb JG, Perlmutter L, Weiss MH, Davson H. PMID: 1501689.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    258. Electroencephalographic characteristics of audiogenic seizures induced in metaphit-treated small rodents. Epilepsia. 1991 Nov-Dec; 32(6):783-90. Susic V, Reith ME, Zlokovic BV, Lajtha A, Jacobson AE, Rice KC, Lipovac MN. PMID: 1743149.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    259. Vasopressin uptake by hypothalamopituitary axis and pineal gland in guinea pigs. Am J Physiol. 1991 Apr; 260(4 Pt 1):E633-40. Zlokovic BV, Hyman S, McComb JG, Tang G, Rezai AR, Weiss MH. PMID: 1902062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    260. Kinetics of circulating vasopressin uptake by choroid plexus. Am J Physiol. 1991 Feb; 260(2 Pt 2):F216-24. Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, McComb JG, Hyman S, Weiss MH, Davson H. PMID: 1899978.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    261. The effects of (R) alpha-methyl histamine on the isolated guinea pig aorta. Agents Actions Suppl. 1991; 33:283-7. Rosic M, Collis CS, Anjelkovic IZ, Segal MB, Djuric D, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 1647128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    262. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to the immunosuppressive cyclic peptide cyclosporin A. J Neurochem. 1990 Oct; 55(4):1222-30. Begley DJ, Squires LK, Zlokovic BV, Mitrovic DM, Hughes CC, Revest PA, Greenwood J. PMID: 2398356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    263. Kinetics of arginine-vasopressin uptake at the blood-brain barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jun 27; 1025(2):191-8. Zlokovic BV, Hyman S, McComb JG, Lipovac MN, Tang G, Davson H. PMID: 2364078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    264. Kinetics and Na independence of amino acid uptake by blood side of perfused sheep choroid plexus. Am J Physiol. 1990 May; 258(5 Pt 2):F1288-94. Segal MB, Preston JE, Collis CS, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 2186633.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    265. Comparison between blood and saline perfusion on the uptake of amino acids by choroid plexus of the sheep. Endocrinol Exp. 1990 Mar; 24(1-2):29-36. Segal MB, Preston JE, Zlokovic B. PMID: 2361466.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    266. A saturable mechanism for transport of immunoglobulin G across the blood-brain barrier of the guinea pig. Exp Neurol. 1990 Mar; 107(3):263-70. Zlokovic BV, Skundric DS, Segal MB, Lipovac MN, Mackic JB, Davson H. PMID: 1689666.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    267. Circulating neuroactive peptides and the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Endocrinol Exp. 1990 Mar; 24(1-2):9-17. Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, Davson H, Lipovac MN, Hyman S, McComb JG. PMID: 2193795.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    268. Immunoneurology: a serum protein afferent limb to the CNS. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990; 274:345-70. Kozlowski GP, Nilaver G, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 2239432.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    269. Chronic amphetamine intoxication and the blood-brain barrier permeability to inert polar molecules studied in the vascularly perfused guinea pig brain. J Neurol Sci. 1989 Dec; 94(1-3):41-50. Rakic LM, Zlokovic BV, Davson H, Segal MB, Begley DJ, Lipovac MN, Mitrovic DM. PMID: 2515257.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    270. Kinetic analysis of leucine-enkephalin cellular uptake at the luminal side of the blood-brain barrier of an in situ perfused guinea-pig brain. J Neurochem. 1989 Nov; 53(5):1333-40. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, Djuricic B, Davson H. PMID: 2795003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    271. Metaphit, an isothiocyanate analog of PCP, induces audiogenic seizures in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Jun 08; 165(1):155-9. Debler EA, Lipovac MN, Lajtha A, Zlokovic BV, Jacobson AE, Rice KC, Reith ME. PMID: 2548879.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    272. Blood-brain barrier permeability changes during acute allergic encephalomyelitis induced in the guinea pig. Metab Brain Dis. 1989 Mar; 4(1):33-40. Zlokovic BV, Skundric DS, Segal MB, Colover J, Jankov RM, Pejnovic N, Lackovic V, Mackic J, Lipovac MN, Davson H. PMID: 2495422.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    273. Saturable mechanism for delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) at the blood-brain barrier of the vascularly perfused guinea pig brain. Peptides. 1989 Mar-Apr; 10(2):249-54. Zlokovic BV, Susic VT, Davson H, Begley DJ, Jankov RM, Mitrovic DM, Lipovac MN. PMID: 2547200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    274. Effects of sensory-motor cortical lesions on blood-brain permeability in guinea pigs. Metab Brain Dis. 1989 Mar; 4(1):9-15. Rakic LM, Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, Lipovac MH, Mitrovic DM, Veskov R, Mackic JB, Davson H. PMID: 2495423.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    275. Neutral amino acid uptake by the isolated perfused sheep choroid plexus. J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 408:31-43. Preston JE, Segal MB, Walley GJ, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 2506339.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    276. Slow penetration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone across the blood-brain barrier of an in situ perfused guinea pig brain. J Neurochem. 1988 Jul; 51(1):252-7. Zlokovic BV, Lipovac MN, Begley DJ, Davson H, Rakic L. PMID: 3132534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    277. Passage of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Peptides. 1988 May-Jun; 9(3):533-8. Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, Davson H, Jankov RM. PMID: 3420012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    278. Glucagon effect on myocardial transport and utilization of energy-metabolites from the coronary microcirculation in the perfused rabbit heart. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1988 Mar; 96(1):7-16. Zlokovic BV, Andjelkovic IZ. PMID: 2460051.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    279. Unidirectional uptake of enkephalins at the blood-tissue interface of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a saturable mechanism. Regul Pept. 1988 Jan; 20(1):33-44. Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, Davson H, Mitrovic DM. PMID: 3127863.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    280. The effects of aluminum chloride on the rate of secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid. Exp Neurol. 1987 Nov; 98(2):436-52. Zlokovic BV, Davson H, Preston JE, Segal MB. PMID: 2444450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    281. Transport of leucine-enkephalin across the blood-brain barrier in the perfused guinea pig brain. J Neurochem. 1987 Jul; 49(1):310-5. Zlokovic BV, Lipovac MN, Begley DJ, Davson H, Rakic L. PMID: 3585338.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    
    282. Measurement of solute transport across the blood-brain barrier in the perfused guinea pig brain: method and application to N-methyl-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. J Neurochem. 1986 May; 46(5):1444-51. Zlokovic BV, Begley DJ, Djuricic BM, Mitrovic DM. PMID: 3083044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    283. Permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid and blood-brain barriers to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Brain Res. 1985 Dec 09; 358(1-2):191-9. Zlokovic BV, Segal MB, Begley DJ, Davson H, Rakic L. PMID: 3935272.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    284. Evidence for a lactate transport system in the sarcolemmal membrane of the perfused rabbit heart: kinetics of unidirectional influx, carrier specificity and effects of glucagon. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Oct 10; 819(2):241-8. Mann GE, Zlokovic BV, Yudilevich DL. PMID: 4041458.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    285. Blood-brain barrier permeability to leucine-enkephalin, D-alanine2-D-leucine5-enkephalin and their N-terminal amino acid (tyrosine). Brain Res. 1985 Jun 10; 336(1):125-32. Zlokovic BV, Begley DJ, Chain-Eliash DG. PMID: 3891014.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    286. Blood-brain barrier permeability to dipeptides and their constituent amino acids. Brain Res. 1983 Jul 18; 271(1):65-71. Zlokovic BV, Begley DJ, Chain DG. PMID: 6883121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    287. Protective effects of glucagon during the anaphylactic response in guinea-pig isolated heart. Br J Pharmacol. 1982 Jul; 76(3):483-9. Andjelkovic I, Zlokovic B. PMID: 6179557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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