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Patrick Lyden

Title(s)Visiting Professor of Physiology and Neuroscience and Neurology
AddressZNI 201, 1501 San Pablo Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    UCLA, Los AngelesBS07/1974Biochemistry
    Baylor College of Medicine, HoustonMD061981Medicine
    Mercy Hospital, San Diego06/1982Internship
    UCSD, San Diego06/1985Neurology
    UCSD, San Diego06/1987Vascular Neurology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center2020Faculty Teaching Award
    UT Houston2019Gladys & George T. Abell Lecturship in Neurology
    American Heart Association/American Stroke Association2019AHA/ASA William M. Feinberg Award for Excellence in Clinical Stroke
    University of Iowa2011Adolf L. Sahs, MD Memorial Visiting Lecturer
    2001  - nowBest Doctors in America
    UCSD2014Department of Neurosciences Award for Outstanding Teaching
    American Heart Association, San Diego Affiliate2002Heart of Gold Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a neurologist with specialty board certification in Vascular Neurology. I have run large, multi-center clinical trials for industry and NIH. I have a laboratory effort that has been funded for over 30 years by NIH, VA and AHA focused on translational pre-clinical stroke modeling, pharmacology, and vascular biology. Our lab has recently focused on the role of thrombin mediating cytotoxicity and cytoprotection in the brain. Also, we have a long-standing interest in pre-clinical models of therapeutic hypothermia, motivated by my role as PI of the largest clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia for stroke, the ICTuS program. We have considerable experience with a variety of experimental models; behavioral testing; histology; and cell biology. My team and I were recently selected by NINDS to develop the Stroke Preclinical Assessment Network (SPAN) as the Coordinating Center. The SPAN will test 6 novel stroke treatments in a state-of-the-art, rigorous network of expert pre-clinical stroke testing centers. We have considerable experience with a variety of experimental stroke models; behavioral testing; histology; and cell biology. Details follow:

    I joined the Justin Zivin lab as a post-doctoral Fellow at the time he published his seminal demonstration that rt-PA powerfully protected neurological function after cerebral embolism (Zivin et al, 1985; Science 230:1289). During a 5-year R29 (NS267883) under Zivin, I created a model of post-embolic hemorrhage and contributed to the development of rt-PA as a clinical therapeutic. I was honored to be selected as the San Diego site PI of the NINDS for rt-PA Acute Stroke Trial (N01-N292332 and N01-NS02377), during which I helped draft the protocol and main results for that landmark trial. I wrote, produced and directed the NIH Stroke Scale training and certification video that has now been viewed by over 2M individuals around the world—I oversaw the clinimetric validation of these video tools. The rt-PA for stroke trial, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1995, is one of the most influential trials in the history of modern neurology.

    My earliest research focused on agonists of the GABA-A receptor as neuroprotectants, which I demonstrated were at least as powerful in vivo as glutamate channel antagonists. The combination of both classes of drug exhibited powerful synergism. These studies led to several clinical trials for which I was the San Diego site PI. Then, I was chosen to serve as the global principal investigator of the GABA-A agonist clomethiazole trial known as CLASS, the global PI of the CHANT trial, and the North American coordinating investigator for SAINT 1 and SAINT 2.

    In later studies, my lab studied angiogeneis, and the potential for angiogenic growth factors to serve as neuroprotectants. We noted a blood-brain barrier effect of VEGF, used in these studies, which led to several studies of angiogenesis (R01 NS43300) as we explored the role of putative neuroprotective growth factors. We eventually discovered that ischemic brain produces angiogenic growth factors to open capillaries and to promote entry of phagocytic macrophages, a phenomenon we labeled “the Clean-up hypothesis”. We showed convincingly that the angiogenesis documented around infarcts serves ONLY the clean-up of necrosis and is not a protective or neo-restorative effect.

    During the vascular leakage studies in the lab, we became aware of work showing that thrombin powerfully opens the BBB by a direct effect on endothelial cells and kills neurons and astrocytes. Given our interest in leakage, we began working with thrombin. We also were aware of the seemingly contradictory effect of very-low-dose thrombin to protect brain (pre-conditioning). One of my PhD students noted that neurons expressed prothrombin message, an effect we dismissed at first as lab error. After confirming his results and finding traces of a similar finding in the literature, we began to ask what the purpose could be of neuronal-expressed thrombin. We showed (R01 NS075930) that thrombin powerfully kills cells in a dose-dependent manner via the PAR-1 receptor. Thrombin activity is associated with direct neuron killing during stroke. Thrombin antagonists, such as argatroban, are powerful neuroprotectants, and a clinical trial studied PAR-1 agent 3K3A-APC for which I served as the national PI (U01 NS088312). Argatroban itself is under study as stroke therapy, and I served as the Los Angeles site PI (P50 NS044227, Grotta).

    Although these translational results were gratifying, we were left with the question, why does brain make the serum clotting factor prothrombin? We have used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cell culture to model cellular responses to stroke or cardiac arrest. In a series of elegant in vitro experiments, my colleague Padmesh Rajput and I have demonstrated the OGD stressed neurons secrete thrombin into the culture media; OGD neuronal conditioned-media causes astrocyte activation; such astrocyte activation can be reproduced with low doses of thrombin; and is blocked by thrombin inhibitors or by knocking down or knocking out PAR-1 from the astrocytes. We then created an inducible, neuron-targeted prothrombin knock out experimental. After inducing the neuronal prothrombin knock out, the region of induced infarction in these experimentals is significantly enlarged and there is greatly reduced evidence of astrocyte activation in the ischemic bed. Taken together, these results suggest the novel hypothesis that neurons produce prothrombin as a distress signal to adjacent astrocytes, which respond with the newly described astrocyte protective response. We are actively engaged in multiple studies to support/refute this hypothesis; extend it to other elements in the NVU; and identify the active agent(s) comprising the astrocyte protective response.

    Another area of interest in our laboratory is brain cooling, or therapeutic hypothermia, the most powerful neuroprotectant ever documented in stroke models. Therapeutic hypothermia is of proven benefit for victims of cardiac arrest or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. For over a decade I worked on the ICTuS program (P50 NS044148) to deliver therapeutic hypothermia to patients. In the first trial, ICTuS, we showed that therapeutic hypothermia could be safely delivered with an endovascular cooling catheter. In the ICTuS-L program, we safely combined endovascular cooling with rt-PA. In the ICTuS 2/3 trial we attempted to document efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia and thrombolysis. The trial was stopped early, however, after several other trials of intra-arterial neurothrombectomy were overwhelmingly positive. We revised the ICTuS 3 protocol to accommodate neurothrombectomy, but during analysis of the small ICTuS 2 dataset we noted a troubling trend (not statistically significant) toward pneumonia risk during cooling. Also, other trials were published showing lack of efficacy for therapeutic hypothermia in head trauma, and no discernible difference between 33ºC vs 36ºC target temperatures for hypothermia after cardiac arrest. We asked if we were using therapeutic hypothermia correctly in treating these illnesses. Based on our observations of astrocyte protection of neurons, we asked whether cooling could disrupt the astrocyte mediated protection of neurons. In fact, we showed that hypothermia interferes with the astrocytes, in a graded, temperature-dependent manner. We recently showed that ultra-fast cooling to 33ºC for a short time was more powerful in the MCAo model than longer cooling periods. These exciting and novel data, if confirmed, suggest a reason for the failures of therapeutic hypothermia in some clinical trials. Moreover, our data suggests testable hypotheses about the effects of temperature in modulating NVU protection during ischemia.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Sectoral segmentation of retinal amyloid imaging in subjects with cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2020; 12(1):e12109. Dumitrascu OM, Lyden PD, Torbati T, Sheyn J, Sherzai A, Sherzai D, Sherman DS, Rosenberry R, Cheng S, Johnson KO, Czeszynski AD, Verdooner S, Frautschy S, Black KL, Koronyo Y, Koronyo-Hamaoui M. PMID: 33015311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Stroke, Research and Science in the Time of COVID. Stroke. 2020 09; 51(9):2613-2614. Lyden PD. PMID: 32755344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    3. 3K3A-Activated Protein C Variant Does Not Interfere With the Plasma Clot Lysis Activity of Tenecteplase. Stroke. 2020 Jul; 51(7):2236-2239. Mukherjee P, Lyden P, Fernández JA, Davis TP, Pryor KE, Zlokovic BV, Griffin JH. PMID: 32568648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. COVID-19 hypothesis: Activated protein C for therapy of virus-induced pathologic thromboinflammation. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2020 May; 4(4):506-509. Griffin JH, Lyden P. PMID: 32548551.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Hemodynamic latency is associated with reduced intelligence across the lifespan: an fMRI DCM study of aging, cerebrovascular integrity, and cognitive ability. Brain Struct Funct. 2020 Jul; 225(6):1705-1717. Anderson AE, Diaz-Santos M, Frei S, Dang BH, Kaur P, Lyden P, Buxton R, Douglas PK, Bilder RM, Esfandiari M, Friston KJ, Nookala U, Bookheimer SY. PMID: 32474754.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. Acute ophthalmic artery occlusion in a COVID-19 patient on apixaban. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Aug; 29(8):104982. Dumitrascu OM, Volod O, Bose S, Wang Y, Biousse V, Lyden PD. PMID: 32689586.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    7. Selective cerebral cooling for acute ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2020 Jul; 40(7):1365-1367. Lyden P. PMID: 32423332.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    8. Temperature Management in Neurological and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2020 Jun; 10(2):86-90. Lyden P, Kapinos G, Sekhon MS, Levi AD. PMID: 32326850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    9. Measuring Outcome After Stroke: More Lessons Learned Again. Stroke. 2020 Apr; 51(4):1053-1054. Lyden PD. PMID: 32102628.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Assessing Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics Using Transcranial Doppler in Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. J Neuroimaging. 2020 May; 30(3):297-302. Melmed KR, Schlick KH, Rinsky B, Dumitrascu OM, Volod O, Nezhad M, Padrick MM, Runyan C, Arabia FA, Moriguchi JD, Lyden PD, Song SS. PMID: 32037621.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    11. Training and Certifying Users of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Stroke. 2020 03; 51(3):990-993. Anderson A, Klein J, White B, Bourgeois M, Leonard A, Pacino A, Hill J, Lyden P. PMID: 31986988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Therapeutic hypothermia and Type II errors: Do not throw out the baby with the ice water. Brain Circ. 2019 Oct-Dec; 5(4):203-210. Lyden P, Anderson A, Rajput P. PMID: 31950096.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    13. Differential expression of circulating exosomal microRNAs in refractory intracranial atherosclerosis associated with antiangiogenesis. Sci Rep. 2019 12 19; 9(1):19429. Jiang H, Toscano JF, Song SS, Schlick KH, Dumitrascu OM, Pan J, Lyden PD, Saver JL, Gonzalez NR. PMID: 31857618.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    14. Neuron-generated thrombin induces a protective astrocyte response via protease activated receptors. Glia. 2020 02; 68(2):246-262. Rajput PS, Lamb J, Kothari S, Pereira B, Soetkamp D, Wang Y, Tang J, Van Eyk JE, Mullins ES, Lyden PD. PMID: 31453648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2019 09; 50(9):2597-2603. Lyden PD. PMID: 31327316.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Neuroprotection and vasculoprotection using genetically targeted protease-ligands. Brain Res. 2019 07 15; 1715:13-20. Rajput PS, Lamb JA, Fernández JÁ, Bai J, Pereira BR, Lei IF, Leung J, Griffin JH, Lyden PD. PMID: 30880117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Acute neuropathological consequences of short-term mechanical ventilation in wild-type and Alzheimer's disease mice. Crit Care. 2019 02 22; 23(1):63. Lahiri S, Regis GC, Koronyo Y, Fuchs DT, Sheyn J, Kim EH, Mastali M, Van Eyk JE, Rajput PS, Lyden PD, Black KL, Ely EW, D Jones H, Koronyo-Hamaoui M. PMID: 30795776.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    18. Final Results of the RHAPSODY Trial: A Multi-Center, Phase 2 Trial Using a Continual Reassessment Method to Determine the Safety and Tolerability of 3K3A-APC, A Recombinant Variant of Human Activated Protein C, in Combination with Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Mechanical Thrombectomy or both in Moderate to Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke. Ann Neurol. 2019 01; 85(1):125-136. Lyden P, Pryor KE, Coffey CS, Cudkowicz M, Conwit R, Jadhav A, Sawyer RN, Claassen J, Adeoye O, Song S, Hannon P, Rost NS, Hinduja A, Torbey M, Lee JM, Benesch C, Rippee M, Rymer M, Froehler MT, Clarke Haley E, Johnson M, Yankey J, Magee K, Qidwai J, Levy H, Mark Haacke E, Fawaz M, Davis TP, Toga AW, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 30450637.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    19. Differential effects of hypothermia on neurovascular unit determine protective or toxic results: Toward optimized therapeutic hypothermia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2019 09; 39(9):1693-1709. Lyden PD, Lamb J, Kothari S, Toossi S, Boitano P, Rajput PS. PMID: 30461327.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Differential Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165 Isoforms Between Intracranial Atherosclerosis and Moyamoya Disease. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Feb; 28(2):360-368. Jiang H, Toscano JF, Schiraldi M, Song SS, Schlick KH, Dumitrascu OM, Liou R, Lyden PD, Pan J, Zhan R, Saver JL, Gonzalez NR. PMID: 30392834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Absolute risk and predictors of the growth of acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Neurol. 2018 10; 17(10):885-894. Al-Shahi Salman R, Frantzias J, Lee RJ, Lyden PD, Battey TWK, Ayres AM, Goldstein JN, Mayer SA, Steiner T, Wang X, Arima H, Hasegawa H, Oishi M, Godoy DA, Masotti L, Dowlatshahi D, Rodriguez-Luna D, Molina CA, Jang DK, Davalos A, Castillo J, Yao X, Claassen J, Volbers B, Kazui S, Okada Y, Fujimoto S, Toyoda K, Li Q, Khoury J, Delgado P, Sabín JÁ, Hernández-Guillamon M, Prats-Sánchez L, Cai C, Kate MP, McCourt R, Venkatasubramanian C, Diringer MN, Ikeda Y, Worthmann H, Ziai WC, d'Esterre CD, Aviv RI, Raab P, Murai Y, Zazulia AR, Butcher KS, Seyedsaadat SM, Grotta JC, Martí-Fàbregas J, Montaner J, Broderick J, Yamamoto H, Staykov D, Connolly ES, Selim M, Leira R, Moon BH, Demchuk AM, Di Napoli M, Fujii Y, Anderson CS, Rosand J. PMID: 30120039.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Unique Uses of Cooling Strategies. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2018 09; 8(3):126-130. Lyden P, Paul J, Yokobori S, Cuschieri J. PMID: 30096262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    23. Can an anticoagulant reduce brain hemorrhage: Invited comment on "Dabigatran reduces endothelial permeability through inhibition of thrombin-induced cytoskeleton reorganization". Thromb Res. 2018 Jun 12. Lyden PD. PMID: 29935770.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    24. Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities as Surrogate Markers of Cerebrovascular Ischemic Disease: A Meta-Analysis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Jul; 27(7):1960-1968. Dumitrascu OM, Demaerschalk BM, Valencia Sanchez C, Almader-Douglas D, O'Carroll CB, Aguilar MI, Lyden PD, Kumar G. PMID: 29571764.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Treatment Modality and Quality Benchmarks of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage at a Comprehensive Stroke Center. Front Neurol. 2018; 9:152. Yu W, Kavi T, Majic T, Alva K, Moheet A, Lyden P, Schievink W, Lekovic G, Alexander M. PMID: 29599745.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    26. When less is more (brain)-comment on "Rivaroxaban plasma levels in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage". Ann Neurol. 2018 03; 83(3):446-448. Lyden PD. PMID: 29394506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke therapy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018; 157:823-837. Basto FM, Lyden P. PMID: 30459043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. Effects of alteplase for acute stroke according to criteria defining the European Union and United States marketing authorizations: Individual-patient-data meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Stroke. 2018 02; 13(2):175-189. Hacke W, Lyden P, Emberson J, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Albers G, Bluhmki E, Brott T, Cohen G, Davis SM, Donnan GA, Grotta JC, Howard G, Kaste M, Koga M, von Kummer R, Lansberg MG, Lindley RI, Olivot JM, Parsons M, Sandercock PA, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wahlgren N, Wardlaw JM, Whiteley WN, Del Zoppo G, Lees KR. PMID: 29171359.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Perspectives on Temperature Management. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2017 Dec; 7(4):188-192. Lyden P, Rittenberger J, Rincon F. PMID: 29027874.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Cerebral microemboli detection for monitoring structural cardiac disease. Neurol Clin Pract. 2017 Oct; 7(5):409-412. Shafie M, Song S, Nezhad M, Lamberti J, Cocalis M, Cavallaro M, Rinsky B, Lyden P. PMID: 29620085.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    31. Translational Stroke Research: Vision and Opportunities. Stroke. 2017 09; 48(9):2632-2637. Bosetti F, Koenig JI, Ayata C, Back SA, Becker K, Broderick JP, Carmichael ST, Cho S, Cipolla MJ, Corbett D, Corriveau RA, Cramer SC, Ferguson AR, Finklestein SP, Ford BD, Furie KL, Hemmen TM, Iadecola C, Jakeman LB, Janis S, Jauch EC, Johnston KC, Kochanek PM, Kohn H, Lo EH, Lyden PD, Mallard C, McCullough LD, McGavern LM, Meschia JF, Moy CS, Perez-Pinzon MA, Ramadan I, Savitz SI, Schwamm LH, Steinberg GK, Stenzel-Poore MP, Tymianski M, Warach S, Wechsler LR, Zhang JH, Koroshetz W. PMID: 28751554.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. Rethinking Training and Distribution of Vascular Neurology Interventionists in the Era of Thrombectomy. Stroke. 2017 08; 48(8):2313-2317. Grotta JC, Lyden P, Brott T. PMID: 28706124.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Brain Transforming Growth Factor-ß Resists Hypertension Via Regulating Microglial Activation. Stroke. 2017 09; 48(9):2557-2564. Li Y, Shen XZ, Li L, Zhao TV, Bernstein KE, Johnson AK, Lyden P, Fang J, Shi P. PMID: 28698257.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure. J Neuroimaging. 2018 01; 28(1):95-98. Lahiri S, Schlick KH, Padrick MM, Rinsky B, Gonzalez N, Jones H, Mayer SA, Lyden PD. PMID: 28670797.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Expansion Occurs in Patients Using Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants Comparable with Patients Using Warfarin. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Aug; 26(8):1874-1882. Melmed KR, Lyden P, Gellada N, Moheet A. PMID: 28647419.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Temperature Management in Neurological and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2017 Jun; 7(2):70-74. Lyden P, Mayer SA, Lurie K, Schmutzhard E. PMID: 28586295.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. Migraine and the Risk of Carotid Artery Dissection in the IPSYS Registry: Are They Related? JAMA Neurol. 2017 05 01; 74(5):503-504. Lyden PD. PMID: 28264078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves: an observational study. Lancet. 2017 Jun 17; 389(10087):2383-2392. Chakravarty T, Søndergaard L, Friedman J, De Backer O, Berman D, Kofoed KF, Jilaihawi H, Shiota T, Abramowitz Y, Jørgensen TH, Rami T, Israr S, Fontana G, de Knegt M, Fuchs A, Lyden P, Trento A, Bhatt DL, Leon MB, Makkar RR. PMID: 28330690.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 80     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Clinical Studies Targeting Stroke and Ischemic Insults. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2017 03; 7(1):12-15. Lundbye J, Lyden PD, Polderman KH, Schwab S. PMID: 28253089.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: A Cautionary Tale. Stroke. 2017 02; 48(2):513-519. Lyden P. PMID: 28077454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Meta-Analysis of Pre-Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2017 Sep; 7(3):141-146. Melmed KR, Lyden PD. PMID: 27906602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. In Response. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Feb; 26(2):454. Lahiri S, Lyden PD. PMID: 27887790.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    43. Results of the ICTuS 2 Trial (Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke 2). Stroke. 2016 12; 47(12):2888-2895. Lyden P, Hemmen T, Grotta J, Rapp K, Ernstrom K, Rzesiewicz T, Parker S, Concha M, Hussain S, Agarwal S, Meyer B, Jurf J, Altafullah I, Raman R. PMID: 27834742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Temperature Management in Neurological and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016 Dec; 6(4):164-168. Lyden P, Brophy GM, Deye N, Horn CM. PMID: 27828761.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Selecting Patients for Intra-Arterial Therapy in the Context of a Clinical Trial for Neuroprotection. Stroke. 2016 12; 47(12):2979-2985. Lyden P, Weymer S, Coffey C, Cudkowicz M, Berg S, O'Brien S, Fisher M, Haley EC, Khatri P, Saver J, Levine S, Levy H, Rymer M, Wechsler L, Jadhav A, McNeil E, Waddy S, Pryor K. PMID: 27803392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    46. Transcranial Doppler Changes in Patients Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Dec; 25(12):2882-2885. Kavi T, Esch M, Rinsky B, Rosengart A, Lahiri S, Lyden PD. PMID: 27576213.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Optimizing Outcomes for Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an Era of Endovascular Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy. J Intensive Care Med. 2017 Sep; 32(8):467-472. Lahiri S, Schlick K, Kavi T, Song S, Moheet AM, Yusufali T, Rosengart A, Alexander MJ, Lyden PD. PMID: 27543141.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Effects of Alteplase for Acute Stroke on the Distribution of Functional Outcomes: A Pooled Analysis of 9 Trials. Stroke. 2016 09; 47(9):2373-9. Lees KR, Emberson J, Blackwell L, Bluhmki E, Davis SM, Donnan GA, Grotta JC, Kaste M, von Kummer R, Lansberg MG, Lindley RI, Lyden P, Murray GD, Sandercock PA, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wardlaw JM, Whiteley WN, Baigent C, Hacke W, Howard G. PMID: 27507856.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Risk of intracerebral haemorrhage with alteplase after acute ischaemic stroke: a secondary analysis of an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Aug; 15(9):925-933. Whiteley WN, Emberson J, Lees KR, Blackwell L, Albers G, Bluhmki E, Brott T, Cohen G, Davis S, Donnan G, Grotta J, Howard G, Kaste M, Koga M, von Kummer R, Lansberg MG, Lindley RI, Lyden P, Olivot JM, Parsons M, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wahlgren N, Wardlaw J, Del Zoppo GJ, Sandercock P, Hacke W, Baigent C. PMID: 27289487.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Activated protein C promotes neuroprotection: mechanisms and translation to the clinic. Thromb Res. 2016 May; 141 Suppl 2:S62-4. Griffin JH, Fernández JA, Lyden PD, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 27207428.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Novel method for inducing rapid, controllable therapeutic hypothermia in rats using a perivascular implanted closed-loop cooling circuit. J Neurosci Methods. 2016 07 15; 267:55-61. Lamb JA, Rajput PS, Lyden PD. PMID: 27090948.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Still cooling after all these years: Meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2016 07; 36(7):1157-64. Dumitrascu OM, Lamb J, Lyden PD. PMID: 27089911.
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    56. Arabic cross cultural adaptation and validation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. J Neurol Sci. 2015 Oct 15; 357(1-2):152-6. Hussein HM, Abdel Moneim A, Emara T, Abd-Elhamid YA, Salem HH, Abd-Allah F, Farrag MA, Tork MA, Shalash AS, Ezz El Dein KH, Osman G, Georgy SS, Ghali PG, Lyden PD, Moustafa RR. PMID: 26210056.
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    57. Seizures and Meperidine: Overstated and Underutilized. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2015 Dec; 5(4):223-7. Schlick KH, Hemmen TM, Lyden PD. PMID: 26087278.
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    58. Microglia participate in neurogenic regulation of hypertension. Hypertension. 2015 Aug; 66(2):309-16. Shen XZ, Li Y, Li L, Shah KH, Bernstein KE, Lyden P, Shi P. PMID: 26056339.
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    59. Why don't more patients receive intravenous rt-PA for acute stroke? Expert Rev Neurother. 2015 Jun; 15(6):571-4. Lyden P. PMID: 25938622.
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    60. Teaching neuroImages: short stature, imperforate anus, and polydactyly: When is a hypothalamic mass an incidentaloma? Neurology. 2015 Apr 14; 84(15):e117. Dumitrascu O, Lyden P, Danielpour M, Moser F. PMID: 25870458.
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    61. Thrombolysis in acute stroke--authors' reply. Lancet. 2015 Apr 11; 385(9976):1396. Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, Baigent C, Sandercock P, Hacke W. PMID: 25890422.
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    62. Clinical studies targeting stroke. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2015 Mar; 5(1):4-8. Lyden PD, Rincon F, Staykov D, Lyden PD. PMID: 25692220.
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    63. Revisiting cerebral postischemic reperfusion injury: new insights in understanding reperfusion failure, hemorrhage, and edema. Int J Stroke. 2015 Feb; 10(2):143-52. Bai J, Lyden PD. PMID: 25598025.
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    64. Protease activated receptor-1 mediates cytotoxicity during ischemia using in vivo and in vitro models. Neuroscience. 2014 Dec 05; 281:229-40. Rajput PS, Lyden PD, Chen B, Lamb JA, Pereira B, Lamb A, Zhao L, Lei IF, Bai J. PMID: 25261684.
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    65. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2014 Nov 29; 384(9958):1929-35. Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, Blackwell L, Albers G, Bluhmki E, Brott T, Cohen G, Davis S, Donnan G, Grotta J, Howard G, Kaste M, Koga M, von Kummer R, Lansberg M, Lindley RI, Murray G, Olivot JM, Parsons M, Tilley B, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wahlgren N, Wardlaw J, Whiteley W, del Zoppo GJ, Baigent C, Sandercock P, Hacke W. PMID: 25106063.
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    66. Challenges of decision making regarding futility in a randomized trial: the Interventional Management of Stroke III experience. Stroke. 2014 May; 45(5):1408-14. Yeatts SD, Martin RH, Coffey CS, Lyden PD, Foster LD, Woolson RF, Broderick JP, Di Tullio MR, Jungreis CA, Palesch YY. PMID: 24699059.
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    67. Direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban reduces stroke damage in 2 different models. Stroke. 2014 Mar; 45(3):896-9. Lyden P, Pereira B, Chen B, Zhao L, Lamb J, Lei IF, Rajput P. PMID: 24473182.
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    68. Endovascular therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke: ICTuS 2/3 protocol. Int J Stroke. 2014 Jan; 9(1):117-25. Lyden PD, Hemmen TM, Grotta J, Rapp K, Raman R. PMID: 24206528.
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    70. Activated protein C analog protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tissue-type plasminogen activator in aged female mice and hypertensive rats. Stroke. 2013 Dec; 44(12):3529-36. Wang Y, Zhao Z, Chow N, Rajput PS, Griffin JH, Lyden PD, Zlokovic BV. PMID: 24159062.
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    71. Preclinical and clinical studies targeting stroke. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2013 Sep; 3(3):114-9. Lyden MP, Gupta PR, Kollmar R, Lyden PD. PMID: 24834840.
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    74. Pooled assessment of computed tomography interpretation by vascular neurologists in the STRokE DOC telestroke network. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Mar; 23(3):511-5. Spokoyny I, Raman R, Ernstrom K, Demaerschalk BM, Lyden PD, Hemmen TM, Guzik AK, Chen JY, Meyer BC. PMID: 23697761.
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    75. Representation of people with aphasia in randomized controlled trials of acute stroke interventions. Int J Stroke. 2014 Feb; 9(2):174-82. Ali M, Bath PM, Lyden PD, Bernhardt J, Brady M. PMID: 23506193.
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    76. Type of admission is associated with outcome of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Int J Stroke. 2015 Jun; 10(4):529-33. Drazin D, Rosner J, Nuño M, Alexander MJ, Schievink WI, Palestrant D, Lyden PD, Miller C. PMID: 23489935.
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    77. Determinants of Pneumonia Risk During Endovascular Hypothermia. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2013 Mar; 3(1):24-27. Lyden P, Ernstrom K, Raman R. PMID: 23667781.
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    79. Hemorrhagic transformation during thrombolytic therapy and reperfusion: effects of age, blood pressure, and matrix metalloproteinases. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 May; 22(4):532-8. Lyden PD. PMID: 23453556.
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    80. Thrombolysis in stroke despite contraindications or warnings? Stroke. 2013 Mar; 44(3):727-33. Frank B, Grotta JC, Alexandrov AV, Bluhmki E, Lyden P, Meretoja A, Mishra NK, Shuaib A, Wahlgren NG, Weimar C, Lees KR. PMID: 23391774.
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    81. Phase 1 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of 3K3A-APC in healthy adult volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. 2013; 19(42):7479-85. Lyden P, Levy H, Weymer S, Pryor K, Kramer W, Griffin JH, Davis TP, Zlokovic B. PMID: 24372304.
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    82. Concurrent middle cerebral artery occlusion and intra-arterial drug infusion via ipsilateral common carotid artery catheter in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 2013 Feb 15; 213(1):63-9. Van Winkle JA, Chen B, Lei IF, Pereira B, Rajput PS, Lyden PD. PMID: 23261656.
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    83. The smallest stroke: occlusion of one penetrating vessel leads to infarction and a cognitive deficit. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(1):55-63. Shih AY, Blinder P, Tsai PS, Friedman B, Stanley G, Lyden PD, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 23242312.
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    84. Clinical use of computed tomographic perfusion for the diagnosis and prediction of lesion growth in acute ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Jan; 23(1):114-22. Huisa BN, Neil WP, Schrader R, Maya M, Pereira B, Bruce NT, Lyden PD. PMID: 23253533.
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    85. The effect of transfer and hospital volume in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Neurocrit Care. 2012 Dec; 17(3):312-23. Nuño M, Patil CG, Lyden P, Drazin D. PMID: 22843190.
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    86. Overview of therapeutic hypothermia. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2012 Dec; 14(6):541-8. Song SS, Lyden PD. PMID: 23007950.
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    88. Sisyphus and translational stroke research. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Oct 17; 4(156):156ps20. Lyden P, Lapchak P. PMID: 23076354.
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    89. Does the cognitive measure Cog-4 show improvement among patients treated with thrombolysis after acute stroke? Int J Stroke. 2013 Dec; 8(8):652-6. Hajjar K, Fulton RL, Diener HC, Lees KR, Alexandrov A, Bath PM, Bluhmki E, Claesson L, Curram J, Davis SM, Donnan G, Diener HC, Fisher M, Gregson B, Grotta J, Hacke W, Hennerici MG, Hommel M, Kaste M, Lees KR, Lyden P, Marler J, Muir K, Sacco R, Shuaib A, Teal P, Wahlgren NG, Warach S, Weimar C. PMID: 22813096.
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    90. Too old for cold? Editorial commentary on Busch and Søreide, 2011. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2012 Jun; 2(2):51-2. Lyden PD. PMID: 24717159.
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    91. Eagle syndrome revisited: cerebrovascular complications. Ann Vasc Surg. 2012 Jul; 26(5):729.e1-5. Todo T, Alexander M, Stokol C, Lyden P, Braunstein G, Gewertz B. PMID: 22664285.
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    92. ß-adrenergic receptor inhibition affects cerebral glucose metabolism, motor performance, and inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Jul; 73(1):33-40. Ley EJ, Clond MA, Bukur M, Park R, Chervonski M, Dagliyan G, Margulies DR, Lyden PD, Conti PS, Salim A. PMID: 22743370.
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    93. Determinants of effective cooling during endovascular hypothermia. Neurocrit Care. 2012 Jun; 16(3):413-20. Lyden P, Ernstrom K, Cruz-Flores S, Gomes J, Grotta J, Mullin A, Rapp K, Raman R, Wijman C, Hemmen T. PMID: 22466971.
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    94. Thrombin activity associated with neuronal damage during acute focal ischemia. J Neurosci. 2012 May 30; 32(22):7622-31. Chen B, Friedman B, Whitney MA, Winkle JA, Lei IF, Olson ES, Cheng Q, Pereira B, Zhao L, Tsien RY, Lyden PD. PMID: 22649241.
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    95. In anticipation of International Stroke Trial-3 (IST-3). Stroke. 2012 Jun; 43(6):1691-4. Lyden PD. PMID: 22556196.
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    97. The argatroban and tissue-type plasminogen activator stroke study: final results of a pilot safety study. Stroke. 2012 Mar; 43(3):770-5. Barreto AD, Alexandrov AV, Lyden P, Lee J, Martin-Schild S, Shen L, Wu TC, Sisson A, Pandurengan R, Chen Z, Rahbar MH, Balucani C, Barlinn K, Sugg RM, Garami Z, Tsivgoulis G, Gonzales NR, Savitz SI, Mikulik R, Demchuk AM, Grotta JC. PMID: 22223235.
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    98. Tenecteplase for acute ischemic stroke. Int J Stroke. 2011 Dec; 6(6):509-10. Lyden P. PMID: 22111795.
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    99. Response of blood pressure and blood glucose to treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: evidence from the virtual international stroke trials archive. Stroke. 2012 Feb; 43(2):399-404. Kerr DM, Fulton RL, Higgins P, Bath PM, Shuaib A, Lyden P, Lees KR. PMID: 22075999.
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    100. Frequent early cardiac complications contribute to worse stroke outcome in atrial fibrillation. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011; 32(5):454-60. Tu HT, Campbell BC, Churilov L, Kalman JM, Lees KR, Lyden PD, Shuaib A, Donnan GA, Davis SM. PMID: 22005390.
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    101. The future of basic science research and stroke: hubris and translational stroke research. Int J Stroke. 2011 Oct; 6(5):412-3. Lyden P. PMID: 21951405.
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    102. Advanced brain imaging studies should not be performed in patients with suspected stroke presenting within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Stroke. 2011 Sep; 42(9):2668-9. Lyden PD. PMID: 21817141.
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    103. Commentary: The endovascular procedure-specific neurological examination scheme. J Endovasc Ther. 2011 Aug; 18(4):538-9. Lyden PD. PMID: 21861744.
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    104. Low body temperature does not compromise the treatment effect of alteplase. Stroke. 2011 Sep; 42(9):2618-21. Lees JS, Mishra NK, Saini M, Lyden PD, Shuaib A. PMID: 21757664.
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    105. Home time is extended in patients with ischemic stroke who receive thrombolytic therapy: a validation study of home time as an outcome measure. Stroke. 2011 Apr; 42(4):1046-50. Mishra NK, Shuaib A, Lyden P, Diener HC, Grotta J, Davis S, Davalos A, Ashwood T, Wasiewski W, Lees KR. PMID: 21350199.
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    107. Therapeutic hypothermia is associated with a decrease in urine output in acute stroke patients. Resuscitation. 2010 Dec; 81(12):1642-7. Guluma KZ, Liu L, Hemmen TM, Acharya AB, Rapp KS, Raman R, Lyden PD. PMID: 20817376.
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    108. Influence of age on outcome from thrombolysis in acute stroke: a controlled comparison in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke. 2010 Dec; 41(12):2840-8. Mishra NK, Diener HC, Lyden PD, Bluhmki E, Lees KR. PMID: 21030710.
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    109. Thrombolysis is associated with consistent functional improvement across baseline stroke severity: a comparison of outcomes in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke. 2010 Nov; 41(11):2612-7. Mishra NK, Lyden P, Grotta JC, Lees KR. PMID: 20947852.
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    110. ACCESS: acute cerebrovascular care in emergency stroke systems. Arch Neurol. 2010 Oct; 67(10):1210-8. Albright KC, Branas CC, Meyer BC, Matherne-Meyer DE, Zivin JA, Lyden PD, Carr BG. PMID: 20937948.
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    111. Strokes with minor symptoms: an exploratory analysis of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials. Stroke. 2010 Nov; 41(11):2581-6. Khatri P, Kleindorfer DO, Yeatts SD, Saver JL, Levine SR, Lyden PD, Moomaw CJ, Palesch YY, Jauch EC, Broderick JP. PMID: 20814000.
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    112. Disability status at 1 month is a reliable proxy for final ischemic stroke outcome. Neurology. 2010 Aug 24; 75(8):688-92. Ovbiagele B, Lyden PD, Saver JL. PMID: 20733143.
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    113. Intravenous thrombolysis plus hypothermia for acute treatment of ischemic stroke (ICTuS-L): final results. Stroke. 2010 Oct; 41(10):2265-70. Hemmen TM, Raman R, Guluma KZ, Meyer BC, Gomes JA, Cruz-Flores S, Wijman CA, Rapp KS, Grotta JC, Lyden PD. PMID: 20724711.
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    121. Evolution of the thrombolytic treatment window for acute ischemic stroke. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010 Jan; 10(1):29-33. Stemer A, Lyden P. PMID: 20425223.
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    124. Delayed detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Nov-Dec; 18(6):453-7. Kamel H, Lees KR, Lyden PD, Teal PA, Shuaib A, Ali M, Johnston SC. PMID: 19900647.
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    125. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic effects of a targeted exposure of intravenous repinotan in patients with acute ischemic stroke: modified Randomized Exposure Controlled Trial (mRECT). Stroke. 2009 Nov; 40(11):3518-25. Teal P, Davis S, Hacke W, Kaste M, Lyden PD, Fierus M. PMID: 19745176.
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    129. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale certification is reliable across multiple venues. Stroke. 2009 Jul; 40(7):2507-11. Lyden P, Raman R, Liu L, Emr M, Warren M, Marler J. PMID: 19520998.
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    130. Development of the Italian version of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: It-NIHSS. Stroke. 2009 Jul; 40(7):2557-9. Pezzella FR, Picconi O, De Luca A, Lyden PD, Fiorelli M. PMID: 19520997.
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    131. Acute vascular disruption and aquaporin 4 loss after stroke. Stroke. 2009 Jun; 40(6):2182-90. Friedman B, Schachtrup C, Tsai PS, Shih AY, Akassoglou K, Kleinfeld D, Lyden PD. PMID: 19372455.
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    132. Is the NIHSS certification process too lenient? Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 27(5):426-32. Hills NK, Josephson SA, Lyden PD, Johnston SC. PMID: 19295205.
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    133. Hypothermia after acute ischemic stroke. J Neurotrauma. 2009 Mar; 26(3):387-91. Hemmen TM, Lyden PD. PMID: 19231919.
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    134. Active dilation of penetrating arterioles restores red blood cell flux to penumbral neocortex after focal stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):738-51. Shih AY, Friedman B, Drew PJ, Tsai PS, Lyden PD, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 19174826.
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    135. Selecting a measurement model for the analysis of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Int J Neurosci. 2009; 119(7):1042-59. Iramaneerat C, Smith EV, Millis SR, Lyden PD. PMID: 19466638.
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    136. Multimodal neuroprotective therapy with induced hypothermia after ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2009 Mar; 40(3 Suppl):S126-8. Hemmen TM, Lyden PD. PMID: 19064802.
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    137. Can comprehensive stroke centers erase the 'weekend effect'? Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 27(2):107-13. Albright KC, Raman R, Ernstrom K, Hallevi H, Martin-Schild S, Meyer BC, Meyer DM, Morales MM, Grotta JC, Lyden PD, Savitz SI. PMID: 19039213.
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    138. Does hemispheric lateralization influence functional and cardiovascular outcomes after stroke?: an analysis of placebo-treated patients from prospective acute stroke trials. Stroke. 2008 Dec; 39(12):3335-40. Fink JN, Frampton CM, Lyden P, Lees KR. PMID: 18988910.
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    139. Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries. Stroke. 2009 Jan; 40(1):35-40. Ali M, Atula S, Bath PM, Grotta J, Hacke W, Lyden P, Marler JR, Sacco RL, Lees KR. PMID: 18927457.
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    140. Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke--not a moment to lose. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 25; 359(13):1393-5. Lyden P. PMID: 18815401.
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    141. Efficacy of site-independent telemedicine in the STRokE DOC trial: a randomised, blinded, prospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Sep; 7(9):787-95. Meyer BC, Raman R, Hemmen T, Obler R, Zivin JA, Rao R, Thomas RG, Lyden PD. PMID: 18676180.
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    142. Hematoma growth in oral anticoagulant related intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 2008 Nov; 39(11):2993-6. Cucchiara B, Messe S, Sansing L, Kasner S, Lyden P. PMID: 18703803.
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    143. Metabolic downregulation: a key to successful neuroprotection? Stroke. 2008 Oct; 39(10):2910-7. Yenari M, Kitagawa K, Lyden P, Perez-Pinzon M. PMID: 18658035.
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    144. Serum calcium as prognosticator in ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2008 Aug; 39(8):2231-6. Ovbiagele B, Starkman S, Teal P, Lyden P, Kaste M, Davis SM, Hacke W, Fierus M, Saver JL. PMID: 18583560.
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    145. NXY-059 for the treatment of acute stroke: pooled analysis of the SAINT I and II Trials. Stroke. 2008 Jun; 39(6):1751-8. Diener HC, Lees KR, Lyden P, Grotta J, Davalos A, Davis SM, Shuaib A, Ashwood T, Wasiewski W, Alderfer V, Hårdemark HG, Rodichok L. PMID: 18369171.
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    146. Effect of endovascular hypothermia on acute ischemic edema: morphometric analysis of the ICTuS trial. Neurocrit Care. 2008; 8(1):42-7. Guluma KZ, Oh H, Yu SW, Meyer BC, Rapp K, Lyden PD. PMID: 17922082.
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    147. Identification of nonischemic stroke mimics among 411 code strokes at the University of California, San Diego, Stroke Center. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008 Jan-Feb; 17(1):23-5. Hemmen TM, Meyer BC, McClean TL, Lyden PD. PMID: 18190817.
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    148. The STRokE DOC trial technique: 'video clip, drip, and/or ship'. Int J Stroke. 2007 Nov; 2(4):281-7. Meyer BC, Raman R, Rao R, Fellman RD, Beer J, Werner J, Zivin JA, Lyden PD. PMID: 18705930.
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    149. NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 09; 357(6):562-71. Shuaib A, Lees KR, Lyden P, Grotta J, Davalos A, Davis SM, Diener HC, Ashwood T, Wasiewski WW, Emeribe U. PMID: 17687131.
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    150. Safety and tolerability of NXY-059 for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: the CHANT Trial. Stroke. 2007 Aug; 38(8):2262-9. Lyden PD, Shuaib A, Lees KR, Davalos A, Davis SM, Diener HC, Grotta JC, Ashwood TJ, Hardemark HG, Svensson HH, Rodichok L, Wasiewski WW, Ahlberg G. PMID: 17569876.
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    151. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Circulation. 2007 May 22; 115(20):e478-534. Adams HP, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Brass L, Furlan A, Grubb RL, Higashida RT, Jauch EC, Kidwell C, Lyden PD, Morgenstern LB, Qureshi AI, Rosenwasser RH, Scott PA, Wijdicks EF. PMID: 17515473.
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    152. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke. 2007 May; 38(5):1655-711. Adams HP, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Brass L, Furlan A, Grubb RL, Higashida RT, Jauch EC, Kidwell C, Lyden PD, Morgenstern LB, Qureshi AI, Rosenwasser RH, Scott PA, Wijdicks EF. PMID: 17431204.
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    153. Real-time cerebral angiography: sensitivity of a new contrast-specific ultrasound technique. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Apr; 28(4):635-9. Hölscher T, Sattin JA, Raman R, Wilkening W, Fanale CV, Olson SE, Mattrey RF, Lyden PD. PMID: 17416812.
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    154. Induced hypothermia for acute stroke. Stroke. 2007 Feb; 38(2 Suppl):794-9. Hemmen TM, Lyden PD. PMID: 17261741.
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    155. Penetrating arterioles are a bottleneck in the perfusion of neocortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 02; 104(1):365-70. Nishimura N, Schaffer CB, Friedman B, Lyden PD, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 17190804.
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    156. An expedited code stroke protocol is feasible and safe. Stroke. 2006 Dec; 37(12):2935-9. Sattin JA, Olson SE, Liu L, Raman R, Lyden PD. PMID: 17095736.
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    157. Additional outcomes and subgroup analyses of NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke in the SAINT I trial. Stroke. 2006 Dec; 37(12):2970-8. Lees KR, Davalos A, Davis SM, Diener HC, Grotta J, Lyden P, Shuaib A, Ashwood T, Hardemark HG, Wasiewski W, Emeribe U, Zivin JA. PMID: 17068304.
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    158. Alteplase for acute stroke revisited: the first 10 years. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Sep; 5(9):722-4. Lyden PD, Lees KR, Davis SM. PMID: 16914399.
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    159. Stroke-evoked angiogenesis results in a transient population of microvessels. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Apr; 27(4):755-63. Yu SW, Friedman B, Cheng Q, Lyden PD. PMID: 16883352.
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    160. A trial of therapeutic hypothermia via endovascular approach in awake patients with acute ischemic stroke: methodology. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Aug; 13(8):820-7. Guluma KZ, Hemmen TM, Olsen SE, Rapp KS, Lyden PD. PMID: 16766740.
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    161. Should all stroke patients receive tissue plasminogen activator therapy, despite mild or improving symptoms? Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2006 Apr; 3(4):184-5. Lyden PD. PMID: 16568123.
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    162. Contraindications of VEGF-based therapeutic angiogenesis: effects on macrophage density and histology of normal and ischemic brains. Vascul Pharmacol. 2006 May; 44(5):316-25. Manoonkitiwongsa PS, Schultz RL, Whitter EF, Lyden PD. PMID: 16530019.
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    163. NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 09; 354(6):588-600. Lees KR, Zivin JA, Ashwood T, Davalos A, Davis SM, Diener HC, Grotta J, Lyden P, Shuaib A, Hårdemark HG, Wasiewski WW. PMID: 16467546.
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    164. Targeted insult to subsurface cortical blood vessels using ultrashort laser pulses: three models of stroke. Nat Methods. 2006 Feb; 3(2):99-108. Nishimura N, Schaffer CB, Friedman B, Tsai PS, Lyden PD, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 16432519.
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    165. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke. Int J Stroke. 2006 Feb; 1(1):9-19. Lyden PD, Krieger D, Yenari M, Dietrich WD. PMID: 18706063.
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    166. Two-photon imaging of cortical surface microvessels reveals a robust redistribution in blood flow after vascular occlusion. PLoS Biol. 2006 Feb; 4(2):e22. Schaffer CB, Friedman B, Nishimura N, Schroeder LF, Tsai PS, Ebner FF, Lyden PD, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 16379497.
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    167. Stroke thrombolysis in the elderly: risk or benefit? Neurology. 2005 Dec 13; 65(11):1690-1. Hemphill JC, Lyden P. PMID: 16344508.
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    168. NIHSS training and certification using a new digital video disk is reliable. Stroke. 2005 Nov; 36(11):2446-9. Lyden P, Raman R, Liu L, Grotta J, Broderick J, Olson S, Shaw S, Spilker J, Meyer B, Emr M, Warren M, Marler J. PMID: 16224093.
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    169. Real-time flow dynamics of a giant aneurysm. Neurology. 2005 Aug 23; 65(4):E8. Hölscher T, Olson SE, Lyden PD, Mattrey RF, Wilkening WG, Kerber CW. PMID: 16116102.
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    170. Transcranial ultrasound angiography (T USA): a new approach for contrast specific imaging of intracranial arteries. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005 Aug; 31(8):1001-6. Hölscher T, Wilkening WG, Lyden PD, Mattrey RF. PMID: 16085089.
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    171. Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke (ICTuS): early clinical experience. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005 May-Jun; 14(3):107-14. Lyden PD, Allgren RL, Ng K, Akins P, Meyer B, Al-Sanani F, Lutsep H, Dobak J, Matsubara BS, Zivin J. PMID: 17904009.
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    172. The impact of imbalances in baseline stroke severity on outcome in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Stroke Study. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Apr; 45(4):377-84. Kwiatkowski T, Libman R, Tilley BC, Lewandowski C, Grotta JC, Lyden P, Levine SR, Brott T. PMID: 15795715.
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    173. Prospective reliability of the STRokE DOC wireless/site independent telemedicine system. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22; 64(6):1058-60. Meyer BC, Lyden PD, Al-Khoury L, Cheng Y, Raman R, Fellman R, Beer J, Rao R, Zivin JA. PMID: 15781827.
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    174. Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction does not worsen long-term outcome. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005 Mar-Apr; 14(2):50-4. Libman R, Kwiakowski T, Lyden P, Grotta JC, Tilley BC, Fagen SC, Levine SR, Broderick JP, Lin Y, Lewandowski C, Frankel MR. PMID: 17904000.
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    175. A pilot dose-escalation safety study of tenecteplase in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2005 Mar; 36(3):607-12. Haley EC, Lyden PD, Johnston KC, Hemmen TM. PMID: 15692126.
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    176. Beyond subgroup analysis: improving the clinical interpretation of treatment effects in stroke research. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 Apr 30; 143(2):209-16. Lu M, Lyden PD, Brott TG, Hamilton S, Broderick JP, Grotta JC. PMID: 15814153.
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    177. Thrombosis of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) visualized on computed tomography: the dense PCA sign. Arch Neurol. 2004 Dec; 61(12):1960-1. Bettle N, Lyden PD. PMID: 15596621.
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    178. Factor analysis of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in patients with large strokes. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov; 61(11):1677-80. Lyden P, Claesson L, Havstad S, Ashwood T, Lu M. PMID: 15534178.
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    179. Neuroprotection of ischemic brain by vascular endothelial growth factor is critically dependent on proper dosage and may be compromised by angiogenesis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Jun; 24(6):693-702. Manoonkitiwongsa PS, Schultz RL, McCreery DB, Whitter EF, Lyden PD. PMID: 15181377.
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    180. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet. 2004 Mar 06; 363(9411):768-74. Hacke W, Donnan G, Fieschi C, Kaste M, von Kummer R, Broderick JP, Brott T, Frankel M, Grotta JC, Haley EC, Kwiatkowski T, Levine SR, Lewandowski C, Lu M, Lyden P, Marler JR, Patel S, Tilley BC, Albers G, Bluhmki E, Wilhelm M, Hamilton S. PMID: 15016487.
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    181. Early impairment in consciousness predicts mortality after hemispheric ischemic stroke. Crit Care Med. 2004 Jan; 32(1):241-5. Cucchiara BL, Kasner SE, Wolk DA, Lyden PD, Knappertz VA, Ashwood T, Odergren T, Nordlund A. PMID: 14707586.
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    182. Population pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its effect on the natural course of sedation in acute stroke patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Aug; 56(2):173-83. Zingmark PH, Ekblom M, Odergren T, Ashwood T, Lyden P, Karlsson MO, Jonsson EN. PMID: 12895190.
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    183. Lack of hemispheric dominance for consciousness in acute ischaemic stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Jul; 74(7):889-92. Cucchiara B, Kasner SE, Wolk DA, Lyden PD, Knappertz VA, Ashwood T, Odergren T, Nordlund A. PMID: 12810773.
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    184. Early major ischemic changes on computed tomography should not preclude use of tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke. 2003 Mar; 34(3):821-2. Lyden P. PMID: 12624317.
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    185. Admission glucose level and clinical outcomes in the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Trial. Neurology. 2002 Sep 10; 59(5):669-74. Bruno A, Levine SR, Frankel MR, Brott TG, Lin Y, Tilley BC, Lyden PD, Broderick JP, Kwiatkowski TG, Fineberg SE. PMID: 12221155.
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    186. Inter-relationships between spinal cord blood flow, neuronal death and neurological function in rabbit spinal cord ischemia. Brain Res. 2002 Aug 09; 946(1):43-51. Weir CJ, Zivin JA, Lyden PD. PMID: 12133593.
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    187. Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for use in stroke clinical trials: prospective reliability and validity. Stroke. 2002 May; 33(5):1261-6. Meyer BC, Hemmen TM, Jackson CM, Lyden PD. PMID: 11988601.
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    188. Systematic review of nimodipine. Stroke. 2002 Feb; 33(2):639-40. Lyden PD. PMID: 11823683.
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    189. Clomethiazole Acute Stroke Study in ischemic stroke (CLASS-I): final results. Stroke. 2002 Jan; 33(1):122-8. Lyden P, Shuaib A, Ng K, Levin K, Atkinson RP, Rajput A, Wechsler L, Ashwood T, Claesson L, Odergren T, Salazar-Grueso E. PMID: 11779900.
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    190. Lack of clinical significance of early ischemic changes on computed tomography in acute stroke. JAMA. 2001 Dec 12; 286(22):2830-8. Patel SC, Levine SR, Tilley BC, Grotta JC, Lu M, Frankel M, Haley EC, Brott TG, Broderick JP, Horowitz S, Lyden PD, Lewandowski CA, Marler JR, Welch KM. PMID: 11735758.
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    191. Thrombolysis in patients with transient neurologic deficits. Neurology. 2001 Dec 11; 57(11):2125-8. Lyden P, Lu M, Kwiatkowski T, Frankel M, Levine S, Broderick J, Brott T. PMID: 11739841.
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    192. Further randomized controlled trials of tPA within 3 hours are required-not! Stroke. 2001 Nov; 32(11):2709-10. Lyden PD. PMID: 11692041.
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    193. The Clomethiazole Acute Stroke Study in tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated stroke (CLASS-T): final results. Neurology. 2001 Oct 09; 57(7):1199-205. Lyden P, Jacoby M, Schim J, Albers G, Mazzeo P, Ashwood T, Nordlund A, Odergren T. PMID: 11591835.
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    195. Angiogenesis after stroke is correlated with increased numbers of macrophages: the clean-up hypothesis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001 Oct; 21(10):1223-31. Manoonkitiwongsa PS, Jackson-Friedman C, McMillan PJ, Schultz RL, Lyden PD. PMID: 11598500.
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    196. A simple stereologic method for analysis of cerebral cortical microvessels using image analysis. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2001 Aug; 8(1):45-57. Manoonkitiwongsa PS, McMillan PJ, Schultz RL, Jackson-Friedman C, Lyden PD. PMID: 11522527.
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    197. A modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for use in stroke clinical trials: preliminary reliability and validity. Stroke. 2001 Jun; 32(6):1310-7. Lyden PD, Lu M, Levine SR, Brott TG, Broderick J. PMID: 11387492.
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    198. Apolipoprotein E phenotype and the efficacy of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 2001 Jun; 49(6):736-44. Broderick J, Lu M, Jackson C, Pancioli A, Tilley BC, Fagan SC, Kothari R, Levine SR, Marler JR, Lyden PD, Haley EC, Brott T, Grotta JC. PMID: 11409425.
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    199. Quantitative effects of nefiracetam on spatial learning of rats after cerebral embolism. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2001 May-Jun; 10(3):99-105. Le DT, Shin C, Jackson-Friedman C, Lyden PD. PMID: 17903808.
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    200. Comparison of TNK with wild-type tissue plasminogen activator in a rabbit embolic stroke model. Stroke. 2001 Mar; 32(3):748-52. Chapman DF, Lyden P, Lapchak PA, Nunez S, Thibodeaux H, Zivin J. PMID: 11239197.
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    201. Clinical deterioration following improvement in the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Trial. Stroke. 2001 Mar; 32(3):661-8. Grotta JC, Welch KM, Fagan SC, Lu M, Frankel MR, Brott T, Levine SR, Lyden PD. PMID: 11239184.
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    202. Mechanisms of action of neuroprotectants in stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Nov; 9(6 Pt 2):9-14. Lyden P, Wahlgren NG. PMID: 17895214.
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    203. Finding the most powerful measures of the effectiveness of tissue plasminogen activator in the NINDS tPA stroke trial. Stroke. 2000 Oct; 31(10):2335-41. Broderick JP, Lu M, Kothari R, Levine SR, Lyden PD, Haley EC, Brott TG, Grotta J, Tilley BC, Marler JR, Frankel M. PMID: 11022060.
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    204. Synergistic combinatorial stroke therapy: A quantal bioassay of a GABA agonist and a glutamate antagonist. Exp Neurol. 2000 Jun; 163(2):477-89. Lyden PD, Jackson-Friedman C, Shin C, Hassid S. PMID: 10833323.
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    205. Effect of ganaxolone in a rodent model of cerebral hematoma. Stroke. 2000 Jan; 31(1):169-75. Lyden P, Shin C, Jackson-Friedman C, Hassid S, Chong A, Macdonald RL. PMID: 10625734.
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    206. Criteria for selection of older patients for thrombolytic therapy. Clin Geriatr Med. 1999 Nov; 15(4):721-39. Brockington CD, Lyden PD. PMID: 10499932.
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    207. Thrombolysis for acute stroke. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec; 42(3):175-83. Lyden PD. PMID: 10598919.
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    208. Underlying structure of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: results of a factor analysis. NINDS tPA Stroke Trial Investigators. Stroke. 1999 Nov; 30(11):2347-54. Lyden P, Lu M, Jackson C, Marler J, Kothari R, Brott T, Zivin J. PMID: 10548669.
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    209. Does the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale favor left hemisphere strokes? NINDS t-PA Stroke Study Group. Stroke. 1999 Nov; 30(11):2355-9. Woo D, Broderick JP, Kothari RU, Lu M, Brott T, Lyden PD, Marler JR, Grotta JC. PMID: 10548670.
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    210. Agreement and variability in the interpretation of early CT changes in stroke patients qualifying for intravenous rtPA therapy. Stroke. 1999 Aug; 30(8):1528-33. Grotta JC, Chiu D, Lu M, Patel S, Levine SR, Tilley BC, Brott TG, Haley EC, Lyden PD, Kothari R, Frankel M, Lewandowski CA, Libman R, Kwiatkowski T, Broderick JP, Marler JR, Corrigan J, Huff S, Mitsias P, Talati S, Tanne D. PMID: 10436095.
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    211. Spatial attention deficits in patients with acquired or developmental cerebellar abnormality. J Neurosci. 1999 Jul 01; 19(13):5632-43. Townsend J, Courchesne E, Covington J, Westerfield M, Harris NS, Lyden P, Lowry TP, Press GA. PMID: 10377369.
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    212. Acute medical therapy. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1999 May-Jun; 8(3):139-45. Lyden PD, Marler JR. PMID: 17895156.
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    213. The clomethiazole acute stroke study in ischemic, hemorrhagic, and t-PA treated stroke: Design of a phase III trial in the united states and canada. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Nov-Dec; 7(6):435-41. Lyden PD, Ashwood T, Claesson L, Odergren T, Friday GH, Martin-Munley S. PMID: 17895123.
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    214. The diagnostic accuracy of bedside and laboratory coagulation: procedures used to monitor the anticoagulation status of patients treated with heparin. Am J Clin Pathol. 1998 Apr; 109(4):371-8. Solomon HM, Mullins RE, Lyden P, Thompson P, Hudoff S. PMID: 9535388.
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    215. Assessment scales for the evaluation of stroke patients. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Mar-Apr; 7(2):113-27. Lyden PD, Hantson L. PMID: 17895068.
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    216. Medical and neurological complications of ischemic stroke: experience from the RANTTAS trial. RANTTAS Investigators. Stroke. 1998 Feb; 29(2):447-53. Johnston KC, Li JY, Lyden PD, Hanson SK, Feasby TE, Adams RJ, Faught RE, Haley EC. PMID: 9472888.
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    217. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on neurologic outcome for cerebral ischemia in rats. Acad Emerg Med. 1998 Jan; 5(1):18-24. Roos JA, Jackson-Friedman C, Lyden P. PMID: 9444337.
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    218. Total quality improvement method for reduction of delays between emergency department admission and treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Arch Neurol. 1997 Dec; 54(12):1466-74. Tilley BC, Lyden PD, Brott TG, Lu M, Levine SR, Welch KM. PMID: 9400355.
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    219. High dose baclofen is neuroprotective but also causes intracerebral hemorrhage: a quantal bioassay study using the intraluminal suture occlusion method. Exp Neurol. 1997 Oct; 147(2):346-52. Jackson-Friedman C, Lyden PD, Nunez S, Jin A, Zweifler R. PMID: 9344559.
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    220. Intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke. Neurology. 1997 Jul; 49(1):14-20. Lyden PD, Grotta JC, Levine SR, Marler JR, Frankel MR, Brott TG. PMID: 9222164.
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    221. Medical therapy for intracerebral hematoma with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A agonist muscimol. Stroke. 1997 Feb; 28(2):387-91. Lyden PD, Jackson-Friedman C, Lonzo-Doktor L. PMID: 9040695.
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    222. GABA and neuroprotection. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1997; 40:233-58. Lyden PD. PMID: 8989623.
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    223. Visualization of the cerebral circulation using three-dimensional transcranial power Doppler ultrasound imaging. J Neuroimaging. 1997 Jan; 7(1):35-9. Lyden PD, Nelson TR. PMID: 9038430.
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    224. Use of a global test for multiple outcomes in stroke trials with application to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke t-PA Stroke Trial. Stroke. 1996 Nov; 27(11):2136-42. Tilley BC, Marler J, Geller NL, Lu M, Legler J, Brott T, Lyden P, Grotta J. PMID: 8898828.
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    225. Guidelines for thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke: a supplement to the guidelines for the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke. A statement for healthcare professionals from a Special Writing Group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996 Sep 01; 94(5):1167-74. Adams HP, Brott TG, Furlan AJ, Gomez CR, Grotta J, Helgason CM, Kwiatkowski T, Lyden PD, Marler JR, Torner J, Feinberg W, Mayberg M, Thies W. PMID: 8790069.
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    226. Guidelines for Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Stroke: a Supplement to the Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. A statement for healthcare professionals from a Special Writing Group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke. 1996 Sep; 27(9):1711-8. Adams HP, Brott TG, Furlan AJ, Gomez CR, Grotta J, Helgason CM, Kwiatkowski T, Lyden PD, Marler JR, Torner J, Feinberg W, Mayberg M, Thies W. PMID: 8784157.
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    227. Spontaneous early improvement following ischemic stroke. Stroke. 1995 Aug; 26(8):1358-60. Rothrock JF, Clark WM, Lyden PD. PMID: 7631337.
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    228. Combination chemotherapy extends the therapeutic window to 60 minutes after stroke. J Neurotrauma. 1995 Apr; 12(2):223-30. Lyden P, Lonzo L, Nunez S. PMID: 7629868.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    229. Impact of race and ethnicity on ischemic stroke. The University of California at San Diego Stroke Data Bank. Stroke. 1995 Feb; 26(2):245-8. Zweifler RM, Lyden PD, Taft B, Kelly N, Rothrock JF. PMID: 7831696.
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    230. Gait parameters following stroke: a practical assessment. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1995 Feb; 32(1):25-31. von Schroeder HP, Coutts RD, Lyden PD, Billings E, Nickel VL. PMID: 7760264.
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    231. A rapid, reliable, and valid method for measuring infarct and brain compartment volumes from computed tomographic scans. Stroke. 1994 Dec; 25(12):2421-8. Lyden PD, Zweifler R, Mahdavi Z, Lonzo L. PMID: 7974584.
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    232. Improved reliability of the NIH Stroke Scale using video training. NINDS TPA Stroke Study Group. Stroke. 1994 Nov; 25(11):2220-6. Lyden P, Brott T, Tilley B, Welch KM, Mascha EJ, Levine S, Haley EC, Grotta J, Marler J. PMID: 7974549.
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    233. Combination therapy protects ischemic brain in rats. A glutamate antagonist plus a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist. Stroke. 1994 Jan; 25(1):189-96. Lyden PD, Lonzo L. PMID: 7903492.
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    234. Migraine and migrainous stroke: risk factors and prognosis. Neurology. 1993 Dec; 43(12):2473-6. Rothrock J, North J, Madden K, Lyden P, Fleck P, Dittrich H. PMID: 8255442.
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    235. Protective effect of synaptic inhibition during cerebral ischemia in rats and rabbits. Stroke. 1992 Oct; 23(10):1463-9; discussion 1469-70. Lyden PD, Hedges B. PMID: 1357785.
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    236. Quantitative effects of cerebral infarction on spatial learning in rats. Exp Neurol. 1992 May; 116(2):122-32. Lyden PD, Zivin JA, Chabolla DR, Jacobs MA, Gage FH. PMID: 1577120.
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    237. A critical appraisal of stroke evaluation and rating scales. Stroke. 1991 Nov; 22(11):1345-52. Lyden PD, Lau GT. PMID: 1750040.
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    238. Cerebral hemorrhagic risk of aspirin or heparin therapy with thrombolytic treatment in rabbits. Stroke. 1991 Jul; 22(7):872-6. Clark WM, Madden KP, Lyden PD, Zivin JA. PMID: 1906646.
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    239. Incidence of cerebral hemorrhage after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator or streptokinase following embolic stroke in rabbits [corrected]. Stroke. 1990 Nov; 21(11):1589-93. Lyden PD, Madden KP, Clark WM, Sasse KC, Zivin JA. PMID: 2122552.
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    240. Duplex carotid sonography. Peak systolic velocity in quantifying internal carotid artery stenosis. J Ultrasound Med. 1990 Jun; 9(6):345-9. Withers CE, Gosink BB, Keightley AM, Casola G, Lee AA, vanSonnenberg E, Rothrock JF, Lyden PD. PMID: 2192084.
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    241. The ferret as an animal model in cerebrovascular research. Stroke. 1989 Aug; 20(8):1085-8. Atkinson CS, Press GA, Lyden P, Katz B. PMID: 2756540.
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    242. Carotid endarterectomy in a teaching hospital. Stroke. 1989 Jul; 20(7):968-9. Lyden PD, Rothrock JF, Taft BJ. PMID: 2749857.
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    243. Acute anticoagulation following cardioembolic stroke. Stroke. 1989 Jun; 20(6):730-4. Rothrock JF, Dittrich HC, McAllen S, Taft BJ, Lyden PD. PMID: 2728037.
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    244. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated thrombolysis of cerebral emboli and its effect on hemorrhagic infarction in rabbits. Neurology. 1989 May; 39(5):703-8. Lyden PD, Zivin JA, Clark WA, Madden K, Sasse KC, Mazzarella VA, Terry RD, Press GA. PMID: 2496332.
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    245. Delayed emergence of striatal dopaminergic hyperactivity after anterolateral ischemic cortical lesions in humans; evidence from turning behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 1989 Feb 01; 25(3):265-74. Bracha HS, Lyden PD, Khansarinia S. PMID: 2914151.
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    246. Migrainous stroke. Stroke. 1988 Oct; 19(10):1306. Rothrock JF, Swenson MR, Lyden PD. PMID: 3176091.
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    247. Effects of calcium channel blockers on neurologic outcome after focal ischemia in rabbits. Stroke. 1988 Aug; 19(8):1020-6. Lyden PD, Zivin JA, Kochhar A, Mazzarella V. PMID: 3400100.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    248. Ischemic stroke associated with methamphetamine inhalation. Neurology. 1988 Apr; 38(4):589-92. Rothrock JF, Rubenstein R, Lyden PD. PMID: 3352918.
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    249. Tissue plasminogen activator. Reduction of neurologic damage after experimental embolic stroke. Arch Neurol. 1988 Apr; 45(4):387-91. Zivin JA, Lyden PD, DeGirolami U, Kochhar A, Mazzarella V, Hemenway CC, Johnston P. PMID: 3128254.
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    250. Prostaglandin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits under normal and ischemic conditions. Stroke. 1988 Mar; 19(3):349-51. Katz B, Sofonio M, Lyden PD, Mitchell MD. PMID: 3354021.
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    251. Glutamate antagonist therapy reduces neurologic deficits produced by focal central nervous system ischemia. Arch Neurol. 1988 Feb; 45(2):148-53. Kochhar A, Zivin JA, Lyden PD, Mazzarella V. PMID: 3277597.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    252. Hemodilution with low-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch after experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Stroke. 1988 Feb; 19(2):223-7. Lyden PD, Alving LI, Zivin JA, Rothrock JF. PMID: 2449746.
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    253. 'Crescendo' transient ischemic attacks: clinical and angiographic correlations. Neurology. 1988 Feb; 38(2):198-201. Rothrock JF, Lyden PD, Yee J, Wiederholt WC. PMID: 3340280.
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    254. Migrainous stroke. Arch Neurol. 1988 Jan; 45(1):63-7. Rothrock JF, Walicke P, Swenson MR, Lyden PD, Logan WR. PMID: 3337678.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    255. A model for quantitative evaluation of embolic stroke therapy. Brain Res. 1987 Dec 01; 435(1-2):305-9. Zivin JA, DeGirolami U, Kochhar A, Lyden PD, Mazzarella V, Hemenway CC, Henry ME. PMID: 3427458.
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    256. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of lacunar stroke. Stroke. 1987 Jul-Aug; 18(4):781-6. Rothrock JF, Lyden PD, Hesselink JR, Brown JJ, Healy ME. PMID: 3603605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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