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Steven L Giannotta, MD

TitleChair and Professor of Neurological Surgery, Dr. Martin Weiss Chair in Neurological Surgery
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentNeurological Surgery
AddressGNH 3300
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-9314
Phone+1 323 409 7422
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    Steven L. Giannotta M.D., Chair of Neurological Surgery, joined the Department of Neurosurgery at USC in 1980.

    His research interests have always been related to cerebral blood flow and cerebral protection from ischemia. Based on some preliminary studies done in primates early in his career it was discovered that cerebral blood flow could be augmented by various manipulations of the cardiovascular system. This resulted in the adaptation of such techniques in the clinical realm especially as an effective means of counteracting the ischemic effects of cerebral vasospasm. This program ultimately evolved into what has come to be recognized as "hyperdynamic therapy". Subsequently his clinical interests have related to various surgical approaches to intracranial vascular and cranial base neoplastic disease. Recently his attention has turned to looking at ethnic differences in the presentation of cerebral vascular disorders.

    Dr. Giannotta has gained recognition for his work in cerebrovascular disease of the brain and spinal cord. He has surgically treated over 1000 intracranial aneurysms. In conjunction with his associates Dr. Giannotta has developed a comprehensive approach to the gamut of cerebrovascular conditions. Techniques utilized in this comprehensive program include but are not limited to microsurgical clip ligation for aneurysms, coil embolization for aneurysms, microvascular excision, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife for arteriovenous malformations, carotid endarterectomy and extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for cerebrovascular occlusive disease.

    Dr. Giannotta also has an interest and special expertise in surgical approaches to the cranial base. He has surgically removed more than 400 acoustic neuromas and along with several colleagues in otolaryngology has developed a team approach to complex cranial base lesions including acoustic neuromas, meningiomas of the cranial base, complex aneurysms that require cranial base approaches and other benign conditions affecting the base of the brain and skull. Complex conditions may require several modes of therapy including surgical excision, embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife and Cyberknife.

    Dr. Giannotta earned his medical degree and did his residency at University of Michigan.

    He is involved in many local, national and international committees and organizations.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Buchanan IA, Donoho DA, Patel A, Lin M, Wen T, Ding L, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello F. Predictors of Surgical Site Infection After Non-Emergent Craniotomy: A Nationwide Readmission Database Analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018 Aug 24. PMID: 30149164.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Bakhsheshian J, Ding L, Tang A, Wen T, Patel A, Strickland BA, Rennert R, Amar A, Gruen P, Giannotta S, Mack W, Attenello F. Safety-net hospitals have higher complication and mortality rates in the neurosurgical management of traumatic brain injuries. World Neurosurg. 2018 Jul 25. PMID: 30055361.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Bakhsheshian J, Ravina K, Fredrickson V, Giannotta SL, Russin JJ. Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass for Treatment of Blister Aneurysms: Efficacy and Analysis of Complications as Compared to Alternative Treatment Strategies. World Neurosurg. 2018 Jun 16. PMID: 29920386.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Babadjouni R, Wen T, Donoho DA, Buchanan IA, Cen SY, Friedman RA, Amar A, Russin JJ, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello FJ. Increased Hospital Surgical Volume Reduces Rate of 30- and 90-Day Readmission After Acoustic Neuroma Surgery. Neurosurgery. 2018 Jun 08. PMID: 29889284.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Rangwala SD, Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Ravina K, Bakhsheshian J, Hurth K, Giannotta SL, Russin JJ. Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm of the Distal Circulation in a Patient with Mucormycosis Without Direct Skull Base Extension: Case Report. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 May 24. PMID: 29800469.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Attenello FJ, Buchanan IA, Wen T, Donoho DA, McCartney S, Cen SY, Khalessi AA, Cohen-Gadol AA, Cheng JS, Mack WJ, Schirmer CM, Swartz KR, Prall JA, Stroink AR, Giannotta SL, Klimo P. Factors associated with burnout among US neurosurgery residents: a nationwide survey. J Neurosurg. 2018 Feb 09; 1-15. PMID: 29424650.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Buchanan IA, Lee B, Amar AP, Giannotta SL. In situ administration of abciximab for thrombus resolution during intracranial bypass surgery: case report. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jan 19; 1-5. PMID: 29350605.
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    8. Zada G, Bakhsheshian J, Pham M, Minneti M, Christian E, Winer J, Robison A, Wrobel B, Russin J, Mack WJ, Giannotta S. Development of a Perfusion-Based Cadaveric Simulation Model Integrated into Neurosurgical Training: Feasibility Based On Reconstitution of Vascular and Cerebrospinal Fluid Systems. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 Jan 01; 14(1):72-80. PMID: 29117409.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Christian EA, Bakhsheshian J, Strickland BA, Fredrickson VL, Buchanan IA, Pham MH, Cervantes A, Minneti M, Wrobel BB, Giannotta S, Zada G. Perfusion-based human cadaveric specimen as a simulation training model in repairing cerebrospinal fluid leaks during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. J Neurosurg. 2017 Nov 03; 1-5. PMID: 29099299.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Day AL, Siddiqui AH, Meyers PM, Jovin TG, Derdeyn CP, Hoh BL, Riina H, Linfante I, Zaidat O, Turk A, Howington JU, Mocco J, Ringer AJ, Veznedaroglu E, Khalessi AA, Levy EI, Woo H, Harbaugh R, Giannotta S. Training Standards in Neuroendovascular Surgery: Program Accreditation and Practitioner Certification. Stroke. 2017 08; 48(8):2318-2325. PMID: 28706116.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Wen T, Attenello FJ, Cen SY, Khalessi AA, Kim-Tenser M, Sanossian N, Giannotta SL, Amar AP, Mack WJ. Impact of the 2003 ACGME Resident Duty Hour Reform on Hospital-Acquired Conditions: A National Retrospective Analysis. J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Apr; 9(2):215-221. PMID: 28439356.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Lavinsky J, Aaron KA, Christian E, Go JL, Hurth K, Giannotta SL, Friedman RA. Solitary Plasmacytoma in the Internal Auditory Canal and Cerebellopontine Angle Mimicking Meningioma. Otol Neurotol. 2016 Dec; 37(10):e400-e401. PMID: 26457817.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Winer JL, Kramer DR, Robison RA, Ohiorhenuan IE, Minneti M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Response. J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr; 124(4):1142-3. PMID: 27482586.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Cole T, Veeravagu A, Zhang M, Azad T, Swinney C, Li GH, Ratliff JK, Giannotta SL. Retrosigmoid Versus Translabyrinthine Approach for Acoustic Neuroma Resection: An Assessment of Complications and Payments in a Longitudinal Administrative Database. Cureus. 2015 Oct 30; 7(10):e369. PMID: 26623224; PMCID: PMC4659577.
    15. Two A, Christian E, Mathew A, Giannotta S, Zada G. Giant, calcified colloid cyst of the lateral ventricle. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:6-9. PMID: 26358201.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Russin JJ, Kramer DR, Thomas D, Hasson D, Liu CY, Amar AP, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. The importance of preoperative diagnosis of blister aneurysms. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 22(9):1408-12. PMID: 25960141.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Winer JL, Kramer DR, Robison RA, Ohiorhenuan I, Minneti M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution via a perfusion-based cadaveric model: feasibility study demonstrating surgical simulation of neuroendoscopic procedures. J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov; 123(5):1316-21. PMID: 25859805.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Attenello FJ, Reid P, Wen T, Cen S, Kim-Tenser M, Sanossian N, Russin J, Amar A, Giannotta S, Mack WJ, Tenser M. Evaluation of time to aneurysm treatment following subarachnoid hemorrhage: comparison of patients treated with clipping versus coiling. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Apr; 8(4):373-7. PMID: 25765950.
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    19. Aaron KA, Lavinsky J, Tuchman A, Go JL, Giannotta SL, Friedman RA. A case report of two different skull base pathologies causing hearing loss in the same ear: vestibular schwannoma and superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Am J Otolaryngol. 2015 May-Jun; 36(3):488-91. PMID: 25720919.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Lee B, Chen BR, Chen BB, Lu JY, Giannotta SL. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system. Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun; 29(3):371-3. PMID: 25620087.
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    21. Peterson A, Pham MH, Lee B, Commins D, Cadden J, Giannotta SL, Zada G. Intracranial fusarium fungal abscess in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature. J Neurol Surg Rep. 2014 Dec; 75(2):e241-5. PMID: 25485222; PMCID: PMC4242827.
    22. Russin JJ, Spetzler RF, Giannotta S, Meyer FB, Lawton MT, Cohen-Gadol AA. Introduction: Strategies for management and outcomes of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):Introduction. PMID: 25175448.
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    23. Attenello FJ, Wang K, Wen T, Cen SY, Kim-Tenser M, Amar AP, Sanossian N, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ. Health disparities in time to aneurysm clipping/coiling among aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: a national study. World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec; 82(6):1071-6. PMID: 25175276.
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    24. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Gong A, Chen TC, Tahara SM, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Argonaute-2 promotes miR-18a entry in human brain endothelial cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 16; 3(3):e000968. PMID: 24837588; PMCID: PMC4309089.
    25. Pham M, Kale A, Marquez Y, Winer J, Lee B, Harris B, Minnetti M, Carey J, Giannotta S, Zada G. A Perfusion-based Human Cadaveric Model for Management of Carotid Artery Injury during Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Oct; 75(5):309-13. PMID: 25301092; PMCID: PMC4176542.
    26. Lee B, Marquez YD, Giannotta SL. Resection of a cystic brainstem hemangioblastoma via a retrosigmoid approach. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Jan; 36(1 Suppl):1. PMID: 24380524.
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    27. Zada G, Yashar P, Robison A, Winer J, Khalessi A, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E1. PMID: 24289117.
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    28. Giannotta SL, Chin LS, Selman WR. Meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):Introduction. PMID: 24289135.
      View in: PubMed
    29. He S, Pham MH, Pease M, Zada G, Giannotta SL, Wang K, Mack WJ. A review of epigenetic and gene expression alterations associated with intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E5. PMID: 24289130.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Chang X, Shi L, Gao F, Russin J, Zeng L, He S, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Wang K, Mack WJ. Genomic and transcriptome analysis revealing an oncogenic functional module in meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E3. PMID: 24289128.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Tahara SM, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. MicroRNA-18a improves human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cell function. Stroke. 2014 Jan; 45(1):293-7. PMID: 24203843.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Khalessi AA, Giannotta S. Proposed Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score checklist. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Sep; 35(3):E4. PMID: 23991817.
      View in: PubMed
    33. He S, Russin JJ, Adamczyk P, Giannotta SL, Amar AP, Mack WJ. A persistent primitive hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2014 Jul-Aug; 82(1-2):239.e1-3. PMID: 23851212.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Tuchman A, Platt A, Winer J, Pham M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Endoscopic-assisted resection of intracranial epidermoid tumors. World Neurosurg. 2014 Sep-Oct; 82(3-4):450-4. PMID: 23548848.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Gao F, Shi L, Russin J, Zeng L, Chang X, He S, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Mack WJ, Wang K. DNA methylation in the malignant transformation of meningiomas. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54114. PMID: 23349797; PMCID: PMC3551961.
    36. Russin JJ, Mack WJ, Carey JN, Minneti M, Giannotta SL. Simulation of a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass using a radial artery graft in a novel fresh tissue model. Neurosurgery. 2012 Dec; 71(2 Suppl Operative):ons315-19; discussion ons 319-20. PMID: 22791034.
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    37. Yashar P, Zada G, Harris B, Giannotta SL. Extent of resection and early postoperative outcomes following removal of cystic vestibular schwannomas: surgical experience over a decade and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Sep; 33(3):E13. PMID: 22937847.
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    38. Lucas JW, Jones J, Farin A, Kim P, Giannotta SL. Cervical spine dural arteriovenous fistula with coexisting spinal radiculopial artery aneurysm presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jan; 70(1):E259-63; discussion E263. PMID: 21795862.
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    39. Russin JJ, Giannotta SL. The putative role of pericytes in tumor angiogenesis. World Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 76(6):535-6. PMID: 22251501.
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    40. Zada G, Bond AE, Wang YP, Giannotta SL, Deapen D. Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. World Neurosurg. 2012 Mar-Apr; 77(3-4):518-24. PMID: 22120376.
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    41. Russin J, Giannotta SL. The value of translational models for microvascular anastamosis. World Neurosurg. 2012 Feb; 77(2):289-90. PMID: 22120358.
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    42. Yashar P, Amar AP, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Pagnini PG, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: issues of the interplay between stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular surgical therapy. World Neurosurg. 2011 May-Jun; 75(5-6):638-47. PMID: 21704930.
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    43. Pham MH, Zada G, Mosich GM, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Wang K, Mack WJ. Molecular genetics of meningiomas: a systematic review of the current literature and potential basis for future treatment paradigms. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 May; 30(5):E7. PMID: 21529178.
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    44. Stapleton CJ, Armstrong DL, Zidovetzki R, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Thrombospondin-1 modulates the angiogenic phenotype of human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2011 May; 68(5):1342-53; discussion 1353. PMID: 21307796.
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    45. Giannotta SL, Barrow DL. Cavernous malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Sep; 29(3):Introduction. PMID: 20827863.
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    46. Bond AE, Zada G, Gonzalez AA, Hansen C, Giannotta SL. Operative strategies for minimizing hearing loss and other major complications associated with microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. World Neurosurg. 2010 Jul; 74(1):172-7. PMID: 21300010.
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    47. Terterov S, Taghva A, MacDougall M, Giannotta S. Posttraumatic human cerebral myiasis. World Neurosurg. 2010 May; 73(5):557-9. PMID: 20920942.
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    48. Zada G, Terterov S, Russin J, Clavijo L, Giannotta S. Cerebral vasospasm and concurrent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: requirement for modification of hyperdynamic therapy regimen. Neurocrit Care. 2010 Apr; 12(2):265-8. PMID: 19816811.
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    49. Davidson L, Zada G, Yu C, Petrovich Z, Pagnini PG, Zee CS, Giannotta SL, Zelman V, Apuzzo ML. Delayed toxicity from gamma knife radiosurgery to lesions in and adjacent to the brainstem. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Sep; 16(9):1139-47. PMID: 19576781.
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    50. Sivakumar W, Zada G, Yashar P, Giannotta SL, Teitelbaum G, Larsen DW. Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E15. PMID: 19408993.
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    51. Zada G, Christian E, Liu CY, Giannotta SL. Fenestrated aneurysm clips in the surgical management of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: operative techniques and strategy. Clinical article. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E7. PMID: 19409008.
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    52. Jabbour MN, Elder JB, Samuelson CG, Khashabi S, Hofman FM, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Aberrant angiogenic characteristics of human brain arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):139-46; discussion 146-8. PMID: 19145162.
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    53. Christian E, Zada G, Sung G, Giannotta SL. A review of selective hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008 Oct; 25(4):E9. PMID: 18828707.
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    54. Yanni DS, Beshara M, Ebersole K, Giannotta S, Schulder M. Digital photography using the intraoperative microscope in neurosurgery. Surg Neurol. 2009 Aug; 72(2):153-6. PMID: 18617255.
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    55. Zada G, Breault J, Liu CY, Khalessi AA, Larsen DW, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL. Internal carotid artery aneurysms occurring at the origin of fetal variant posterior cerebral arteries: surgical and endovascular experience. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jul; 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS55-61; discussion ONS61-2. PMID: 18728604.
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    56. Hoh DJ, Larsen DW, Elder JB, Kim PE, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Novel use of an endovascular embolectomy device for retrograde suction decompression-assisted clip ligation of a large paraclinoid aneurysm: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5 Suppl 2):ONSE412-3; discussion ONSE413-4. PMID: 18596535.
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    57. Farin A, Chakrabarti I, Giannotta SL, Vaynman S, Samudrala S. Microvascular decompression for intractable singultus: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5):E1180-1; discussion E1181. PMID: 18580793.
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    58. Elijovich L, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Duckwiler G, Giannotta S, Johnston SC. Predictors and outcomes of intraprocedural rupture in patients treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the CARAT study. Stroke. 2008 May; 39(5):1501-6. PMID: 18323484.
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    59. Zada G, Day JD, Giannotta SL. The extradural temporopolar approach: a review of indications and operative technique. Neurosurg Focus. 2008; 25(6):E3. PMID: 19035701.
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    60. Zada G, Pezeshkian P, Giannotta S. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension and immediate improvement following epidural blood patch placement demonstrated by intracranial pressure monitoring. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jun; 106(6):1089-90. PMID: 17564185.
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    61. Watridge CB, Solomon RA, Grady MS, Popp AJ, Quest DO, Kondziolka D, Giannotta SL. Access to emergency care. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr; 92(4):44; author reply 44-5. PMID: 17427593.
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    62. Zada G, Solomon TC, Giannotta SL. A review of ocular manifestations in intracranial hypotension. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(5):E8. PMID: 18004970.
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    63. Davidson L, Fishback D, Russin JJ, Weiss MH, Yu C, Pagnini PG, Zelman V, Apuzzo ML, Giannotta SL. Postoperative Gamma Knife surgery for benign meningiomas of the cranial base. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(4):E6. PMID: 17961043.
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    64. Aryan HE, Giannotta SL, Fukushima T, Park MS, Ozgur BM, Levy ML. Aneurysms in children: review of 15 years experience. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Feb; 13(2):188-92. PMID: 16446095.
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    65. Kim KA, Wang MY, McNatt SA, Pinsky G, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Apuzzo ML. Vector analysis correlating bullet trajectory to outcome after civilian through-and-through gunshot wound to the head: using imaging cues to predict fatal outcome. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):737-47; discussion 737-47. PMID: 16239886.
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    66. McNatt SA, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Zee CS, Apuzzo ML, Petrovich Z. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jun; 56(6):1295-301; discussion 1301-3. PMID: 15918946.
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    67. Kattner KA, Roth TC, Nardone EM, Giannotta SL. The treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulae through cranial base techniques. Neurol India. 2004 Sep; 52(3):325-31. PMID: 15472420.
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    68. Steinberg GK, Ogilvy CS, Shuer LM, Connolly ES, Solomon RA, Lam A, Kassell NF, Baker CJ, Giannotta SL, Cockroft KM, Bell-Stephens TE, Allgren RL. Comparison of endovascular and surface cooling during unruptured cerebral aneurysm repair. Neurosurgery. 2004 Aug; 55(2):307-14; discussion 314-5. PMID: 15271236.
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    69. Kuo JS, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Petrovich Z, Apuzzo ML. The Leksell gamma knife Model U versus Model C: a quantitative comparison of radiosurgical treatment parameters. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jul; 55(1):168-72; discussion 172-3. PMID: 15214986.
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    70. Kuo JS, Chen JC, Yu C, Zelman V, Giannotta SL, Petrovich Z, MacPherson D, Apuzzo ML. Gamma knife radiosurgery for benign cavernous sinus tumors: quantitative analysis of treatment outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jun; 54(6):1385-93; discussion 1393-4. PMID: 15157295.
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    71. Yu C, Petrovich Z, Apuzzo ML, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Study of magnetic resonance imaging-based arteriovenous malformation delineation without conventional angiography. Neurosurgery. 2004 May; 54(5):1104-; discussion 1108-10. PMID: 15113464.
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    72. Kim KA, Gonzalez I, McComb JG, Giannotta SL. Unusual presentations of cerebral solitary fibrous tumors: report of four cases. Neurosurgery. 2004 Apr; 54(4):1004-9; discussion 1009. PMID: 15046670.
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    73. Petrovich Z, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Zee CS, Apuzzo ML. Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: early results. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):51-9; discussion 59-61. PMID: 12823873.
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    74. Petrovich Z, Yu C, Giannotta SL, O'Day S, Apuzzo ML. Survival and pattern of failure in brain metastasis treated with stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2002 Dec; 97(5 Suppl):499-506. PMID: 12507085.
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    75. Amar AP, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL, Larsen DW. Covered stent-graft repair of the brachiocephalic arteries: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2002 Jul; 51(1):247-52; discussion 252-3. PMID: 12182427.
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    76. Kattner KA, Roth TC, Giannotta SL. Cranial base approaches for the surgical treatment of aggressive posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistulae with leptomeningeal drainage: report of four technical cases. Neurosurgery. 2002 May; 50(5):1156-60; discussion 1160-1. PMID: 11950423.
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    77. Yu C, Chen JC, Apuzzo ML, O'Day S, Giannotta SL, Weber JS, Petrovich Z. Metastatic melanoma to the brain: prognostic factors after gamma knife radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Apr 01; 52(5):1277-87. PMID: 11955740.
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    78. Giannotta SL. Ophthalmic segment aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar; 50(3):558-62. PMID: 11841724.
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    79. Giannotta SL. The sizer-dissector for aneurysm clip selection: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar; 50(3):669-70; discussion 670-1. PMID: 11841741.
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