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Steven L Giannotta, MD

Title(s)Chair and Professor of Neurological Surgery, Dr. Martin Weiss Chair in Neurological Surgery
Phone+1 323 409 7422
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    Steven L. Giannotta M.D., Chair of Neurological Surgery, joined the Department of Neurosurgery at USC in 1980.

    His research interests have always been related to cerebral blood flow and cerebral protection from ischemia. Based on some preliminary studies done in primates early in his career it was discovered that cerebral blood flow could be augmented by various manipulations of the cardiovascular system. This resulted in the adaptation of such techniques in the clinical realm especially as an effective means of counteracting the ischemic effects of cerebral vasospasm. This program ultimately evolved into what has come to be recognized as "hyperdynamic therapy". Subsequently his clinical interests have related to various surgical approaches to intracranial vascular and cranial base neoplastic disease. Recently his attention has turned to looking at ethnic differences in the presentation of cerebral vascular disorders.

    Dr. Giannotta has gained recognition for his work in cerebrovascular disease of the brain and spinal cord. He has surgically treated over 1000 intracranial aneurysms. In conjunction with his associates Dr. Giannotta has developed a comprehensive approach to the gamut of cerebrovascular conditions. Techniques utilized in this comprehensive program include but are not limited to microsurgical clip ligation for aneurysms, coil embolization for aneurysms, microvascular excision, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife for arteriovenous malformations, carotid endarterectomy and extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for cerebrovascular occlusive disease.

    Dr. Giannotta also has an interest and special expertise in surgical approaches to the cranial base. He has surgically removed more than 400 acoustic neuromas and along with several colleagues in otolaryngology has developed a team approach to complex cranial base lesions including acoustic neuromas, meningiomas of the cranial base, complex aneurysms that require cranial base approaches and other benign conditions affecting the base of the brain and skull. Complex conditions may require several modes of therapy including surgical excision, embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife and Cyberknife.

    Dr. Giannotta earned his medical degree and did his residency at University of Michigan.

    He is involved in many local, national and international committees and organizations.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Jarvis CA, Bakhsheshian J, Ding L, Wen T, Tang AM, Yuan E, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello FJ. Increased complication and mortality among non-index hospital readmissions after brain tumor resection is associated with low-volume readmitting hospitals. J Neurosurg. 2019 Oct 04; 1-13. PMID: 31585421.
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    2. Tang AM, Bakhsheshian J, Ding L, Jarvis CA, Yuan E, Strickland B, Giannotta SL, Amar A, Attenello FJ, Mack WJ. Nonindex Readmission After Ruptured Brain Aneurysm Treatment is Associated With Higher Morbidity and Repeat Readmission. World Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 05. PMID: 31284063.
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    3. Day AL, Branch CL, Giannotta SL. Commentary: Modern Training and Credentialing in Neuroendovascular Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy. Neurosurgery. 2019 Jul 01; 85(suppl_1):S58-S59. PMID: 31197343.
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    4. Elder JB, Sherman JH, Prevedello DM, Szerlip NJ, Spratt DE, Shaikhouni A, Mohyeldin A, Perez-Roman RJ, Buttrick SS, Ali SC, Komotar RJ, Todeschini A, Shahein M, Revuelta JM, Hardesty D, Carrau RL, Zada G, Giannotta S, Dornbos D, Lonser RR. Tumor. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 May 17. PMID: 31099848.
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    5. Buchanan IA, Min E, Pham MH, Donoho DA, Bakhsheshian J, Minneti M, Zada G, Giannotta SL, Hsieh PC, Liu JC. Simulation of Dural Repair in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery With the Use of a Perfusion-Based Cadaveric Model. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Mar 29. PMID: 30924502.
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    6. Donoho DA, Buchanan IA, Patel A, Ding L, Cen S, Wen T, Giannotta SL, Attenello F, Mack WJ. Early Readmission After Ventricular Shunting in Adults with Hydrocephalus: A Nationwide Readmission Database Analysis. World Neurosurg. 2019 Mar 28. PMID: 30930319.
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    7. Rangwala SD, Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Ravina K, Bakhsheshian J, Hurth K, Giannotta SL, Russin JJ. Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm of the Distal Circulation in a Patient with Mucormycosis Without Direct Skull Base Extension: Case Report. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Mar 01; 16(3):E101-E107. PMID: 29800469.
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    8. Babadjouni R, Wen T, Donoho DA, Buchanan IA, Cen SY, Friedman RA, Amar A, Russin JJ, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello FJ. Increased Hospital Surgical Volume Reduces Rate of 30- and 90-Day Readmission After Acoustic Neuroma Surgery. Neurosurgery. 2019 Mar 01; 84(3):726-732. PMID: 29889284.
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    9. Buchanan IA, Lin M, Donoho DA, Ding L, Giannotta SL, Attenello F, Mack WJ, Liu JC. Venous Thromboembolism After Degenerative Spine Surgery: A Nationwide Readmissions Database Analysis. World Neurosurg. 2019 Jan 23. PMID: 30684695.
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    10. Itamura K, Chang KE, Lucas J, Donoho DA, Giannotta S, Zada G. Prospective clinical validation of a meningioma consistency grading scheme: association with surgical outcomes and extent of tumor resection. J Neurosurg. 2018 Dec 01; 1-5. PMID: 30554187.
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    11. Buchanan IA, Lin M, Donoho DA, Patel A, Ding L, Amar AP, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello F. Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism After Nonemergent Craniotomy: A Nationwide Readmission Database Analysis. World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb; 122:e1102-e1110. PMID: 30465948.
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    12. Tucker DW, Gogia AS, Donoho DA, Yim B, Yu C, Fredrickson VL, Chang EL, Freidman RA, Zada G, Giannotta SL. Long-Term Tumor Control Rates Following Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuroma. World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb; 122:366-371. PMID: 30447465.
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    13. Attenello FJ, Buchanan IA, Wen T, Donoho DA, McCartney S, Cen SY, Khalessi AA, Cohen-Gadol AA, Cheng JS, Mack WJ, Schirmer CM, Swartz KR, Prall JA, Stroink AR, Giannotta SL, Klimo P. Factors associated with burnout among US neurosurgery residents: a nationwide survey. J Neurosurg. 2018 11 01; 129(5):1349-1363. PMID: 29424650.
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    14. Fredrickson VL, Strickland BA, Ravina K, Rennert RC, Donoho DA, Buchanan IA, Russin JJ, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. State of the Union in Open Neurovascular Training. World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb; 122:e553-e560. PMID: 31108071.
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    15. Buchanan IA, Donoho DA, Patel A, Lin M, Wen T, Ding L, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ, Attenello F. Predictors of Surgical Site Infection After Nonemergent Craniotomy: A Nationwide Readmission Database Analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018 Dec; 120:e440-e452. PMID: 30149164.
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    16. Bakhsheshian J, Ding L, Tang A, Wen T, Patel A, Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Amar A, Gruen P, Giannotta S, Mack WJ, Attenello FJ. Safety-Net Hospitals Have Higher Complication and Mortality Rates in the Neurosurgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injuries. World Neurosurg. 2018 Nov; 119:e284-e293. PMID: 30055361.
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    17. Ravina K, Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Bakhsheshian J, Russin JJ, Giannotta SL. Revision Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm: Factors Associated with Surgical Failure. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2019 Feb; 80(1):31-39. PMID: 30733898.
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    18. Strickland BA, Rennert RC, Bakhsheshian J, Ravina K, Fredrickson V, Giannotta SL, Russin JJ. Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass for Treatment of Blister Aneurysms: Efficacy and Analysis of Complications Compared with Alternative Treatment Strategies. World Neurosurg. 2018 Sep; 117:e417-e424. PMID: 29920386.
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    19. Buchanan IA, Lee B, Amar AP, Giannotta SL. In situ administration of abciximab for thrombus resolution during intracranial bypass surgery: case report. J Neurosurg. 2018 01 19; 130(1):268-272. PMID: 29350605.
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    20. Zada G, Bakhsheshian J, Pham M, Minneti M, Christian E, Winer J, Robison A, Wrobel B, Russin J, Mack WJ, Giannotta S. Development of a Perfusion-Based Cadaveric Simulation Model Integrated into Neurosurgical Training: Feasibility Based On Reconstitution of Vascular and Cerebrospinal Fluid Systems. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 01 01; 14(1):72-80. PMID: 29117409.
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    21. Christian EA, Bakhsheshian J, Strickland BA, Fredrickson VL, Buchanan IA, Pham MH, Cervantes A, Minneti M, Wrobel BB, Giannotta S, Zada G. Perfusion-based human cadaveric specimen as a simulation training model in repairing cerebrospinal fluid leaks during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. J Neurosurg. 2018 09; 129(3):792-796. PMID: 29099299.
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    22. Day AL, Siddiqui AH, Meyers PM, Jovin TG, Derdeyn CP, Hoh BL, Riina H, Linfante I, Zaidat O, Turk A, Howington JU, Mocco J, Ringer AJ, Veznedaroglu E, Khalessi AA, Levy EI, Woo H, Harbaugh R, Giannotta S. Training Standards in Neuroendovascular Surgery: Program Accreditation and Practitioner Certification. Stroke. 2017 08; 48(8):2318-2325. PMID: 28706116.
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    23. Wen T, Attenello FJ, Cen SY, Khalessi AA, Kim-Tenser M, Sanossian N, Giannotta SL, Amar AP, Mack WJ. Impact of the 2003 ACGME Resident Duty Hour Reform on Hospital-Acquired Conditions: A National Retrospective Analysis. J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Apr; 9(2):215-221. PMID: 28439356.
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    24. Lavinsky J, Aaron KA, Christian E, Go JL, Hurth K, Giannotta SL, Friedman RA. Solitary Plasmacytoma in the Internal Auditory Canal and Cerebellopontine Angle Mimicking Meningioma. Otol Neurotol. 2016 Dec; 37(10):e400-e401. PMID: 26457817.
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    25. Winer JL, Kramer DR, Robison RA, Ohiorhenuan IE, Minneti M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Response. J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr; 124(4):1142-3. PMID: 27482586.
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    26. Cole T, Veeravagu A, Zhang M, Azad T, Swinney C, Li GH, Ratliff JK, Giannotta SL. Retrosigmoid Versus Translabyrinthine Approach for Acoustic Neuroma Resection: An Assessment of Complications and Payments in a Longitudinal Administrative Database. Cureus. 2015 Oct 30; 7(10):e369. PMID: 26623224.
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    27. Two A, Christian E, Mathew A, Giannotta S, Zada G. Giant, calcified colloid cyst of the lateral ventricle. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:6-9. PMID: 26358201.
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    28. Russin JJ, Kramer DR, Thomas D, Hasson D, Liu CY, Amar AP, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. The importance of preoperative diagnosis of blister aneurysms. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 22(9):1408-12. PMID: 25960141.
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    29. Winer JL, Kramer DR, Robison RA, Ohiorhenuan I, Minneti M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution via a perfusion-based cadaveric model: feasibility study demonstrating surgical simulation of neuroendoscopic procedures. J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov; 123(5):1316-21. PMID: 25859805.
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    30. Attenello FJ, Reid P, Wen T, Cen S, Kim-Tenser M, Sanossian N, Russin J, Amar A, Giannotta S, Mack WJ, Tenser M. Evaluation of time to aneurysm treatment following subarachnoid hemorrhage: comparison of patients treated with clipping versus coiling. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Apr; 8(4):373-7. PMID: 25765950.
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    31. Aaron KA, Lavinsky J, Tuchman A, Go JL, Giannotta SL, Friedman RA. A case report of two different skull base pathologies causing hearing loss in the same ear: vestibular schwannoma and superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Am J Otolaryngol. 2015 May-Jun; 36(3):488-91. PMID: 25720919.
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    32. Lee B, Chen BR, Chen BB, Lu JY, Giannotta SL. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system. Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun; 29(3):371-3. PMID: 25620087.
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    33. Peterson A, Pham MH, Lee B, Commins D, Cadden J, Giannotta SL, Zada G. Intracranial fusarium fungal abscess in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature. J Neurol Surg Rep. 2014 Dec; 75(2):e241-5. PMID: 25485222.
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    34. Russin JJ, Spetzler RF, Giannotta S, Meyer FB, Lawton MT, Cohen-Gadol AA. Introduction: Strategies for management and outcomes of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):Introduction. PMID: 25175448.
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    35. Attenello FJ, Wang K, Wen T, Cen SY, Kim-Tenser M, Amar AP, Sanossian N, Giannotta SL, Mack WJ. Health disparities in time to aneurysm clipping/coiling among aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: a national study. World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec; 82(6):1071-6. PMID: 25175276.
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    36. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Gong A, Chen TC, Tahara SM, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Argonaute-2 promotes miR-18a entry in human brain endothelial cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 16; 3(3):e000968. PMID: 24837588.
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    37. Pham M, Kale A, Marquez Y, Winer J, Lee B, Harris B, Minnetti M, Carey J, Giannotta S, Zada G. A Perfusion-based Human Cadaveric Model for Management of Carotid Artery Injury during Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Oct; 75(5):309-13. PMID: 25301092.
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    38. Lee B, Marquez YD, Giannotta SL. Resection of a cystic brainstem hemangioblastoma via a retrosigmoid approach. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Jan; 36(1 Suppl):1. PMID: 24380524.
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    39. Zada G, Yashar P, Robison A, Winer J, Khalessi A, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E1. PMID: 24289117.
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    40. Giannotta SL, Chin LS, Selman WR. Meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):Introduction. PMID: 24289135.
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    41. He S, Pham MH, Pease M, Zada G, Giannotta SL, Wang K, Mack WJ. A review of epigenetic and gene expression alterations associated with intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E5. PMID: 24289130.
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    42. Chang X, Shi L, Gao F, Russin J, Zeng L, He S, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Wang K, Mack WJ. Genomic and transcriptome analysis revealing an oncogenic functional module in meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E3. PMID: 24289128.
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    43. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Tahara SM, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. MicroRNA-18a improves human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cell function. Stroke. 2014 Jan; 45(1):293-7. PMID: 24203843.
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    44. Khalessi AA, Giannotta S. Proposed Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score checklist. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Sep; 35(3):E4. PMID: 23991817.
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    45. He S, Russin JJ, Adamczyk P, Giannotta SL, Amar AP, Mack WJ. A persistent primitive hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2014 Jul-Aug; 82(1-2):239.e1-3. PMID: 23851212.
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    46. Tuchman A, Platt A, Winer J, Pham M, Giannotta S, Zada G. Endoscopic-assisted resection of intracranial epidermoid tumors. World Neurosurg. 2014 Sep-Oct; 82(3-4):450-4. PMID: 23548848.
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    47. Gao F, Shi L, Russin J, Zeng L, Chang X, He S, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Weisenberger DJ, Zada G, Mack WJ, Wang K. DNA methylation in the malignant transformation of meningiomas. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54114. PMID: 23349797.
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    48. Russin JJ, Mack WJ, Carey JN, Minneti M, Giannotta SL. Simulation of a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass using a radial artery graft in a novel fresh tissue model. Neurosurgery. 2012 Dec; 71(2 Suppl Operative):ons315-19; discussion ons 319-20. PMID: 22791034.
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    49. Yashar P, Zada G, Harris B, Giannotta SL. Extent of resection and early postoperative outcomes following removal of cystic vestibular schwannomas: surgical experience over a decade and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Sep; 33(3):E13. PMID: 22937847.
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    50. Lucas JW, Jones J, Farin A, Kim P, Giannotta SL. Cervical spine dural arteriovenous fistula with coexisting spinal radiculopial artery aneurysm presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jan; 70(1):E259-63; discussion E263. PMID: 21795862.
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    51. Russin JJ, Giannotta SL. The putative role of pericytes in tumor angiogenesis. World Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 76(6):535-6. PMID: 22251501.
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    52. Zada G, Bond AE, Wang YP, Giannotta SL, Deapen D. Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. World Neurosurg. 2012 Mar-Apr; 77(3-4):518-24. PMID: 22120376.
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    53. Russin J, Giannotta SL. The value of translational models for microvascular anastamosis. World Neurosurg. 2012 Feb; 77(2):289-90. PMID: 22120358.
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    54. Yashar P, Amar AP, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Pagnini PG, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: issues of the interplay between stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular surgical therapy. World Neurosurg. 2011 May-Jun; 75(5-6):638-47. PMID: 21704930.
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    55. Pham MH, Zada G, Mosich GM, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Wang K, Mack WJ. Molecular genetics of meningiomas: a systematic review of the current literature and potential basis for future treatment paradigms. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 May; 30(5):E7. PMID: 21529178.
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    56. Stapleton CJ, Armstrong DL, Zidovetzki R, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Thrombospondin-1 modulates the angiogenic phenotype of human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2011 May; 68(5):1342-53; discussion 1353. PMID: 21307796.
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    57. Giannotta SL, Barrow DL. Cavernous malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Sep; 29(3):Introduction. PMID: 20827863.
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    58. Bond AE, Zada G, Gonzalez AA, Hansen C, Giannotta SL. Operative strategies for minimizing hearing loss and other major complications associated with microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. World Neurosurg. 2010 Jul; 74(1):172-7. PMID: 21300010.
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    59. Terterov S, Taghva A, MacDougall M, Giannotta S. Posttraumatic human cerebral myiasis. World Neurosurg. 2010 May; 73(5):557-9. PMID: 20920942.
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    60. Zada G, Terterov S, Russin J, Clavijo L, Giannotta S. Cerebral vasospasm and concurrent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: requirement for modification of hyperdynamic therapy regimen. Neurocrit Care. 2010 Apr; 12(2):265-8. PMID: 19816811.
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    61. Davidson L, Zada G, Yu C, Petrovich Z, Pagnini PG, Zee CS, Giannotta SL, Zelman V, Apuzzo ML. Delayed toxicity from gamma knife radiosurgery to lesions in and adjacent to the brainstem. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Sep; 16(9):1139-47. PMID: 19576781.
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    62. Sivakumar W, Zada G, Yashar P, Giannotta SL, Teitelbaum G, Larsen DW. Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E15. PMID: 19408993.
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    63. Zada G, Christian E, Liu CY, Giannotta SL. Fenestrated aneurysm clips in the surgical management of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: operative techniques and strategy. Clinical article. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E7. PMID: 19409008.
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    64. Jabbour MN, Elder JB, Samuelson CG, Khashabi S, Hofman FM, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Aberrant angiogenic characteristics of human brain arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):139-46; discussion 146-8. PMID: 19145162.
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    65. Christian E, Zada G, Sung G, Giannotta SL. A review of selective hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008 Oct; 25(4):E9. PMID: 18828707.
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    66. Yanni DS, Beshara M, Ebersole K, Giannotta S, Schulder M. Digital photography using the intraoperative microscope in neurosurgery. Surg Neurol. 2009 Aug; 72(2):153-6. PMID: 18617255.
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    67. Zada G, Breault J, Liu CY, Khalessi AA, Larsen DW, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL. Internal carotid artery aneurysms occurring at the origin of fetal variant posterior cerebral arteries: surgical and endovascular experience. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jul; 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS55-61; discussion ONS61-2. PMID: 18728604.
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    68. Hoh DJ, Larsen DW, Elder JB, Kim PE, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Novel use of an endovascular embolectomy device for retrograde suction decompression-assisted clip ligation of a large paraclinoid aneurysm: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5 Suppl 2):ONSE412-3; discussion ONSE413-4. PMID: 18596535.
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    69. Farin A, Chakrabarti I, Giannotta SL, Vaynman S, Samudrala S. Microvascular decompression for intractable singultus: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5):E1180-1; discussion E1181. PMID: 18580793.
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    70. Elijovich L, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Duckwiler G, Giannotta S, Johnston SC. Predictors and outcomes of intraprocedural rupture in patients treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the CARAT study. Stroke. 2008 May; 39(5):1501-6. PMID: 18323484.
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    71. Zada G, Day JD, Giannotta SL. The extradural temporopolar approach: a review of indications and operative technique. Neurosurg Focus. 2008; 25(6):E3. PMID: 19035701.
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    72. Zada G, Pezeshkian P, Giannotta S. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension and immediate improvement following epidural blood patch placement demonstrated by intracranial pressure monitoring. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jun; 106(6):1089-90. PMID: 17564185.
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    73. Watridge CB, Solomon RA, Grady MS, Popp AJ, Quest DO, Kondziolka D, Giannotta SL. Access to emergency care. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr; 92(4):44; author reply 44-5. PMID: 17427593.
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    74. Zada G, Solomon TC, Giannotta SL. A review of ocular manifestations in intracranial hypotension. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(5):E8. PMID: 18004970.
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    75. Davidson L, Fishback D, Russin JJ, Weiss MH, Yu C, Pagnini PG, Zelman V, Apuzzo ML, Giannotta SL. Postoperative Gamma Knife surgery for benign meningiomas of the cranial base. Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(4):E6. PMID: 17961043.
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    76. Aryan HE, Giannotta SL, Fukushima T, Park MS, Ozgur BM, Levy ML. Aneurysms in children: review of 15 years experience. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Feb; 13(2):188-92. PMID: 16446095.
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    77. Kim KA, Wang MY, McNatt SA, Pinsky G, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Apuzzo ML. Vector analysis correlating bullet trajectory to outcome after civilian through-and-through gunshot wound to the head: using imaging cues to predict fatal outcome. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):737-47; discussion 737-47. PMID: 16239886.
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    78. McNatt SA, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Zee CS, Apuzzo ML, Petrovich Z. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jun; 56(6):1295-301; discussion 1301-3. PMID: 15918946.
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    79. Kattner KA, Roth TC, Nardone EM, Giannotta SL. The treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulae through cranial base techniques. Neurol India. 2004 Sep; 52(3):325-31. PMID: 15472420.
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    80. Steinberg GK, Ogilvy CS, Shuer LM, Connolly ES, Solomon RA, Lam A, Kassell NF, Baker CJ, Giannotta SL, Cockroft KM, Bell-Stephens TE, Allgren RL. Comparison of endovascular and surface cooling during unruptured cerebral aneurysm repair. Neurosurgery. 2004 Aug; 55(2):307-14; discussion 314-5. PMID: 15271236.
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    81. Kuo JS, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Petrovich Z, Apuzzo ML. The Leksell gamma knife Model U versus Model C: a quantitative comparison of radiosurgical treatment parameters. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jul; 55(1):168-72; discussion 172-3. PMID: 15214986.
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    82. Kuo JS, Chen JC, Yu C, Zelman V, Giannotta SL, Petrovich Z, MacPherson D, Apuzzo ML. Gamma knife radiosurgery for benign cavernous sinus tumors: quantitative analysis of treatment outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jun; 54(6):1385-93; discussion 1393-4. PMID: 15157295.
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    83. Yu C, Petrovich Z, Apuzzo ML, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Study of magnetic resonance imaging-based arteriovenous malformation delineation without conventional angiography. Neurosurgery. 2004 May; 54(5):1104-; discussion 1108-10. PMID: 15113464.
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    84. Kim KA, Gonzalez I, McComb JG, Giannotta SL. Unusual presentations of cerebral solitary fibrous tumors: report of four cases. Neurosurgery. 2004 Apr; 54(4):1004-9; discussion 1009. PMID: 15046670.
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    85. Petrovich Z, Yu C, Giannotta SL, Zee CS, Apuzzo ML. Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: early results. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):51-9; discussion 59-61. PMID: 12823873.
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    86. Petrovich Z, Yu C, Giannotta SL, O'Day S, Apuzzo ML. Survival and pattern of failure in brain metastasis treated with stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2002 Dec; 97(5 Suppl):499-506. PMID: 12507085.
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    87. Amar AP, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL, Larsen DW. Covered stent-graft repair of the brachiocephalic arteries: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2002 Jul; 51(1):247-52; discussion 252-3. PMID: 12182427.
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    88. Kattner KA, Roth TC, Giannotta SL. Cranial base approaches for the surgical treatment of aggressive posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistulae with leptomeningeal drainage: report of four technical cases. Neurosurgery. 2002 May; 50(5):1156-60; discussion 1160-1. PMID: 11950423.
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    89. Yu C, Chen JC, Apuzzo ML, O'Day S, Giannotta SL, Weber JS, Petrovich Z. Metastatic melanoma to the brain: prognostic factors after gamma knife radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Apr 01; 52(5):1277-87. PMID: 11955740.
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    90. Giannotta SL. Ophthalmic segment aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar; 50(3):558-62. PMID: 11841724.
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    91. Giannotta SL. The sizer-dissector for aneurysm clip selection: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar; 50(3):669-70; discussion 670-1. PMID: 11841741.
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    92. Atkinson RP, Awad IA, Batjer HH, Dowd CF, Furlan A, Giannotta SL, Gomez CR, Gress D, Hademenos G, Halbach V, Hemphill JC, Higashida RT, Hopkins LN, Horowitz MB, Johnston SC, Lawton MW, McDermott MW, Malek AM, Mohr JP, Qureshi AI, Riina H, Smith WS, Pile-Spellman J, Spetzler RF, Tomsick TA, Young WL. Reporting terminology for brain arteriovenous malformation clinical and radiographic features for use in clinical trials. Stroke. 2001 Jun; 32(6):1430-42. PMID: 11387510.
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    93. Chen JC, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Petrovich Z, Levy ML, Apuzzo ML. Radiosurgical management of benign cavernous sinus tumors: dose profiles and acute complications. Neurosurgery. 2001 May; 48(5):1022-30; discussion 1030-2. PMID: 11334268.
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    94. Wang MY, Lavine SD, Soukiasian H, Tabrizi R, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Treating stroke as a medical emergency: a survey of resident physicians' attitudes toward "brain attack" and carotid endarterectomy. Neurosurgery. 2001 May; 48(5):1109-15; discussion 1115-7. PMID: 11334278.
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    95. Tropea D, Capsoni S, Tongiorgi E, Giannotta S, Cattaneo A, Domenici L. Mismatch between BDNF mRNA and protein expression in the developing visual cortex: the role of visual experience. Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Feb; 13(4):709-21. PMID: 11207806.
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    96. Chen JC, Petrovich Z, O'Day S, Morton D, Essner R, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Apuzzo ML. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of metastatic disease to the brain. Neurosurgery. 2000 Aug; 47(2):268-79; discussion 279-81. PMID: 10942000.
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    97. Lavine SD, Larsen DW, Giannotta SL, Teitelbaum GP. Parent vessel Guglielmi detachable coil herniation during wide-necked aneurysm embolization: treatment with intracranial stent placement: two technical case reports. Neurosurgery. 2000 Apr; 46(4):1013-7. PMID: 10764283.
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    98. Chen JC, Petrovich Z, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Apuzzo ML. Radiosurgical salvage therapy for patients presenting with recurrence of metastatic disease to the brain. Neurosurgery. 2000 Apr; 46(4):860-6; discussion 866-7. PMID: 10764259.
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    99. Albuquerque FC, Teitelbaum GP, Lavine SD, Larsen DW, Giannotta SL. Balloon-protected carotid angioplasty. Neurosurgery. 2000 Apr; 46(4):918-21; discussion 922-3. PMID: 10764265.
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    100. Wang MY, Mimran R, Mohit A, Lavine SD, Giannotta S. Carotid stenosis in a multiethnic population. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr; 9(2):64-9. PMID: 17895198.
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    101. Rousche PJ, Petersen RS, Battiston S, Giannotta S, Diamond ME. Examination of the spatial and temporal distribution of sensory cortical activity using a 100-electrode array. J Neurosci Methods. 1999 Aug 01; 90(1):57-66. PMID: 10517274.
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    102. Ghosh S, Levy ML, Stanley P, Nelson M, Giannotta SL, McComb JG. Intraoperative angiography in the management of pediatric vascular disorders. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999 Jan; 30(1):16-22. PMID: 10202302.
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    103. Chen JC, O'Day S, Morton D, Essner R, Cohen-Gadol A, MacPherson D, Giannotta SL, Petrovich Z, Yu C, Apuzzo ML. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of metastatic disease to the brain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999; 73(1-4):60-3. PMID: 10853099.
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    104. Albuquerque FC, Teitelbaum GP, Larsen DW, Giannotta SL. Carotid endarterectomy compared with angioplasty and stenting: the status of the debate. Neurosurg Focus. 1998 Dec 15; 5(6):e2. PMID: 17112201.
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    105. Amar AP, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Iatrogenic vertebrobasilar insufficiency after surgery of the subclavian or brachial artery: review of three cases. Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1450-7; discussion 1457-8. PMID: 9848860.
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    106. Lefkowitz M, Giannotta SL, Hieshima G, Higashida R, Halbach V, Dowd C, Teitelbaum GP. Embolization of neurosurgical lesions involving the ophthalmic artery. Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1298-303. PMID: 9848842.
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    107. LeMay DR, Sun JK, Fishback D, Locke GE, Giannotta SL. Hypervascular acoustic neuroma. Neurol Res. 1998 Dec; 20(8):748-50. PMID: 9864742.
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    108. Bernstein K, Teitelbaum GP, Herman B, Giannotta SL. Coil embolization of a trigeminal-cavernous fistula. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Nov-Dec; 19(10):1953-4. PMID: 9874555.
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    109. Teitelbaum GP, Lefkowitz MA, Giannotta SL. Carotid angioplasty and stenting in high-risk patients. Surg Neurol. 1998 Oct; 50(4):300-11; discussion 311-2. PMID: 9817451.
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    110. Teitelbaum GP, Bernstein K, Choi S, Giannotta SL. Endovascular coil occlusion of a traumatic basilar-cavernous fistula: technical report. Neurosurgery. 1998 Jun; 42(6):1394-7; discussion 1397-8. PMID: 9632204.
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    111. Giannotta SL. The future of aneurysm surgery. Surg Neurol. 1998 Jun; 49(6):584-5. PMID: 9637616.
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    112. Lavine SD, Masri LS, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in intracranial aneurysm surgery: time limitation and advantage of brain protection. J Neurosurg. 1997 Dec; 87(6):817-24. PMID: 9384389.
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    113. Kittaka M, Giannotta SL, Zelman V, Correale JD, DeGiorgio CM, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. Attenuation of brain injury and reduction of neuron-specific enolase by nicardipine in systemic circulation following focal ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model. J Neurosurg. 1997 Nov; 87(5):731-7. PMID: 9347982.
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    114. Albuquerque FC, Giannotta SL. Arachnoid cyst rupture producing subdural hygroma and intracranial hypertension: case reports. Neurosurgery. 1997 Oct; 41(4):951-5; discussion 955-6. PMID: 9316060.
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    115. Day JD, Fukushima T, Giannotta SL. Cranial base approaches to posterior circulation aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1997 Oct; 87(4):544-54. PMID: 9322845.
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    116. LeMay DR, Sun JK, Mendel E, Hinton DR, Giannotta SL. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the temporal bone. Surg Neurol. 1997 Aug; 48(2):148-52. PMID: 9242240.
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    117. Lavine SD, Masri LS, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in intracranial aneurysm surgery: time limitation and advantage of brain protection. Neurosurg Focus. 1997 Jun 15; 2(6):e4. PMID: 15099051.
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    118. Thomas JE, Nemirovsky A, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Rapid reversal of endothelin-1-induced cerebral vasoconstriction by intrathecal administration of nitric oxide donors. Neurosurgery. 1997 Jun; 40(6):1245-9. PMID: 9179898.
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    119. Couldwell WT, Sabit I, Weiss MH, Giannotta SL, Rice D. Transmaxillary approach to the anterior cavernous sinus: a microanatomic study. Neurosurgery. 1997 Jun; 40(6):1307-11. PMID: 9179908.
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    120. Lefkowitz MA, Hinton DR, Weiss MH, Giannotta SL, Couldwell WT. Prognostic variables in surgery for skull base meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 1997 Apr 15; 2(4):e2. PMID: 15096006.
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    121. Wilberger JE, Hoffman HJ, Fabi RA, Reilly GD, Tahmouresie A, Alexander E, Shuey HM, Sonntag VK, Pelofsky S, Goodman JM, Awad IA, Giannotta SL, Van Gilder JC, Herz DA, Collins WF. Subspecialty certification. Surg Neurol. 1997 Apr; 47(4):403-11. PMID: 9122849.
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    122. Levy ML, Day JD, Albuquerque F, Schumaker G, Giannotta SL, McComb JG. Heads-up intraoperative endoscopic imaging: a prospective evaluation of techniques and limitations. Neurosurgery. 1997 Mar; 40(3):526-30; discussion 530-1. PMID: 9055292.
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    123. Lefkowitz MA, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL. Endovascular treatment of a dissecting posteroinferior cerebellar artery aneurysm: case report. Neurosurgery. 1996 Nov; 39(5):1036-8; discussion 1038-9. PMID: 8905762.
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    124. Gunel M, Awad IA, Finberg K, Anson JA, Steinberg GK, Batjer HH, Kopitnik TA, Morrison L, Giannotta SL, Nelson-Williams C, Lifton RP. A founder mutation as a cause of cerebral cavernous malformation in Hispanic Americans. N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 11; 334(15):946-51. PMID: 8596595.
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    125. Chen TC, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH, Zlokovic BV. Cellular uptake and transport of methylprednisolone at the blood-brain barrier. Neurosurgery. 1996 Feb; 38(2):348-54. PMID: 8869063.
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    126. Day JD, Fukushima T, Giannotta SL. Innovations in surgical approach: lateral cranial base approaches. Clin Neurosurg. 1996; 43:72-90. PMID: 9247796.
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    127. Couldwell WT, Fukushima T, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH. Petroclival meningiomas: surgical experience in 109 cases. J Neurosurg. 1996 Jan; 84(1):20-8. PMID: 8613831.
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    128. Day JD, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. The management of penetrating vascular injuries. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1995 Oct; 6(4):799-808. PMID: 8527919.
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    129. Giannotta SL, Litofsky NS. Reoperative management of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1995 Sep; 83(3):387-93. PMID: 7666212.
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    130. Levy ML, Aranda M, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Propylene glycol toxicity following continuous etomidate infusion for the control of refractory cerebral edema. Neurosurgery. 1995 Aug; 37(2):363-9; discussion 369-71. PMID: 7477798.
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    131. Pulec JL, Giannotta SL. Acoustic neuroma surgery in patients over 65 years of age. Ear Nose Throat J. 1995 Jan; 74(1):21-7. PMID: 7867527.
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    132. Levy ML, Day JD, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Cardiac performance enhancement and hypervolemic therapy. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1994 Oct; 5(4):725-39. PMID: 7827481.
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    133. Chen TC, Maceri DR, Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Brain stem compression secondary to adipose graft prolapse after translabyrinthine craniotomy: case report. Neurosurgery. 1994 Sep; 35(3):521-3; discussion 523-4. PMID: 7800146.
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    134. Day JD, Giannotta SL, Fukushima T. Extradural temporopolar approach to lesions of the upper basilar artery and infrachiasmatic region. J Neurosurg. 1994 Aug; 81(2):230-5. PMID: 8027806.
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    135. Day JD, Kellogg JX, Fukushima T, Giannotta SL. Microsurgical anatomy of the inner surface of the petrous bone: neuroradiological and morphometric analysis as an adjunct to the retrosigmoid transmeatal approach. Neurosurgery. 1994 Jun; 34(6):1003-8. PMID: 8084384.
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    136. Day JD, Fukushima T, Giannotta SL. Microanatomical study of the extradural middle fossa approach to the petroclival and posterior cavernous sinus region: description of the rhomboid construct. Neurosurgery. 1994 Jun; 34(6):1009-16; discussion 1016. PMID: 8084385.
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    137. Litofsky NS, Chin LS, Tang G, Baker S, Giannotta SL, Apuzzo ML. The use of lobectomy in the management of severe closed-head trauma. Neurosurgery. 1994 Apr; 34(4):628-32; discussion 632-3. PMID: 8008159.
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    138. Litofsky NS, ViƱuela F, Giannotta SL. Progressive visual loss after electrothrombosis treatment of a giant intracranial aneurysm: case report. Neurosurgery. 1994 Mar; 34(3):548-50; discussion 551. PMID: 8190235.
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    139. Rabb CH, Tang G, Chin LS, Giannotta SL. A statistical analysis of factors related to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994; 127(1-2):27-31. PMID: 7942177.
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    140. Couldwell WT, Giannotta SL, Zelman V, DeGiorgio CM. Life-threatening reactions to propofol. Neurosurgery. 1993 Dec; 33(6):1116-7. PMID: 8134005.
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    141. Levy ML, Zelman V, Day J, Giannotta SL. Complications of hypervolemic therapy. J Neurosurg. 1993 Nov; 79(5):798-800. PMID: 8410266.
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    142. Levy ML, Rabb CH, Zelman V, Giannotta SL. Cardiac performance enhancement from dobutamine in patients refractory to hypervolemic therapy for cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg. 1993 Oct; 79(4):494-9. PMID: 8410216.
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    143. Levy ML, Rezai A, Masri LS, Litofsky SN, Giannotta SL, Apuzzo ML, Weiss MH. The significance of subarachnoid hemorrhage after penetrating craniocerebral injury: correlations with angiography and outcome in a civilian population. Neurosurgery. 1993 Apr; 32(4):532-40. PMID: 8474643.
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    144. Tang G, Hyman S, Schneider JH, Giannotta SL. Application of photodynamic therapy to the treatment of atherosclerotic plaques. Neurosurgery. 1993 Mar; 32(3):438-43; discussion 443. PMID: 8455769.
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    145. Ahmadi J, Tung H, Giannotta SL, Destian S. Monitoring of infectious intracranial aneurysms by sequential computed tomographic/magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neurosurgery. 1993 Jan; 32(1):45-9; discussion 49-50. PMID: 8421556.
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    146. Chin LS, Raffel C, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Giannotta SL, McComb JG. Diffuse arteriovenous malformations: a clinical, radiological, and pathological description. Neurosurgery. 1992 Nov; 31(5):863-8; discussion 868-9. PMID: 1436409.
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    147. Ameriso SF, Wong VL, Ishii H, Quismorio FP, Giannotta SL, Meiselman HJ, Fisher M. Hematogenous factors and prediction of delayed ischemic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1992 Oct; 23(10):1404-9. PMID: 1412575.
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    148. Jiang HX, Chen PC, Sobin SS, Giannotta SL. Age related alterations in the response of the pial arterioles to adenosine in the rat. Mech Ageing Dev. 1992 Sep; 65(2-3):257-76. PMID: 1434952.
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    149. Chen TC, Maceri DR, Giannotta SL, Shih L, McComb JG. Unilateral acoustic neuromas in childhood without evidence of neurofibromatosis: case report and review of the literature. Am J Otol. 1992 Jul; 13(4):318-22. PMID: 1415493.
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    150. Giannotta SL. Translabyrinthine approach for removal of medium and large tumors of the cerebellopontine angle. Clin Neurosurg. 1992; 38:589-602. PMID: 1537205.
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    151. Rabinowicz AL, Ginsburg DL, DeGiorgio CM, Gott PS, Giannotta SL. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: seizures and antiepileptic drug treatment following surgery. J Neurosurg. 1991 Sep; 75(3):371-3. PMID: 1869935.
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    152. Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Cardiac performance indices during hypervolemic therapy for cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg. 1991 Jul; 75(1):27-31. PMID: 2045914.
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    153. Giannotta SL, Oppenheimer JH, Levy ML, Zelman V. Management of intraoperative rupture of aneurysm without hypotension. Neurosurgery. 1991 Apr; 28(4):531-5; discussion 535-6. PMID: 2034347.
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    154. Tung H, Giannotta SL, Chandrasoma PT, Zee CS. Recurrent intraparenchymal hemorrhages from angiographically occult vascular malformations. J Neurosurg. 1990 Aug; 73(2):174-80. PMID: 2366073.
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    155. Levy ML, Giannotta SL. Induced hypertension and hypervolemia for treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1990 Apr; 1(2):357-65. PMID: 2136148.
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    156. Wong DW, Hyman S, Reese I, Brown JE, Vasinrapee P, Siegler R, Giannotta S. Scintigraphic detection of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits with 111In-labeled hematoporphyrin derivative. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1989; 16(5):511-7. PMID: 2530194.
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    157. Neave V, Giannotta S, Hyman S, Schneider J. Hematoporphyrin uptake in atherosclerotic plaques: therapeutic potentials. Neurosurgery. 1988 Sep; 23(3):307-12. PMID: 2976125.
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    158. Giannotta SL, Maceri DR. Retrolabyrinthine transsigmoid approach to basilar trunk and vertebrobasilar artery junction aneurysms. Technical note. J Neurosurg. 1988 Sep; 69(3):461-6. PMID: 3404245.
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    159. Giannotta SL, Pulec JL. Tumors of the cerebellopontine angle: combined management by neurological and otological surgeons. Clin Neurosurg. 1988; 34:457-66. PMID: 3288407.
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    160. Fredericks CA, Giannotta SL, Sadun AA. Dilantin-induced long-term bilateral total external ophthalmoplegia. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1986 Mar; 6(1):22-6. PMID: 2939108.
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    161. Giannotta SL, Daniels J, Golde SH, Zelman V, Bayat A. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy. A report of four cases. J Reprod Med. 1986 Feb; 31(2):139-47. PMID: 3959019.
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    162. Giannotta SL, Pulec JL, Goodkin R. Translabyrinthine removal of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. Neurosurgery. 1985 Oct; 17(4):620-5. PMID: 3877251.
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    163. Ahmadi J, Weiss MH, Segall HD, Schultz DH, Zee CS, Giannotta SL. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea by metrizamide computed tomographic cisternography. Neurosurgery. 1985 Jan; 16(1):54-60. PMID: 3974813.
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    164. Giannotta SL, Weiss MH, Apuzzo ML, Martin E. High dose glucocorticoids in the management of severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1984 Oct; 15(4):497-501. PMID: 6333649.
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    165. Apuzzo ML, Chandrasoma PT, Zelman V, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH. Computed tomographic guidance stereotaxis in the management of lesions of the third ventricular region. Neurosurgery. 1984 Oct; 15(4):502-8. PMID: 6387527.
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    166. Giannotta SL. Long-term results of extracranial to intracranial bypass for ischemic vascular disease. West J Med. 1984 May; 140(5):814. PMID: 6730502.
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    167. Miller RE, Hieshima GB, Giannotta SL, Grinnell VS, Mehringer CM, Kerin DS. Acute traumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistula: balloon occlusion with the use of a contralateral approach. Neurosurgery. 1984 Feb; 14(2):225-9. PMID: 6231488.
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    168. Apuzzo ML, Dobkin WR, Zee CS, Chan JC, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH. Surgical considerations in treatment of intraventricular cysticercosis. An analysis of 45 cases. J Neurosurg. 1984 Feb; 60(2):400-7. PMID: 6607328.
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    169. Giannotta SL, Hirtz SK, Hyman S. Effect of heparin reversal following endarterectomy in an atherosclerotic animal model. Bull Clin Neurosci. 1984; 49:52-62. PMID: 6546040.
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    170. Traeger SM, Henning RJ, Dobkin W, Giannotta S, Weil MH, Weiss M. Hemodynamic effects of pentobarbital therapy for intracranial hypertension. Crit Care Med. 1983 Sep; 11(9):697-701. PMID: 6884049.
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    171. McCormick GF, Giannotta S, Zee C, Fisher M. Carotid occlusion in cysticercosis. Neurology. 1983 Aug; 33(8):1078-80. PMID: 6683808.
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    172. Weiss MH, Teal J, Gott P, Wycoff R, Yadley R, Apuzzo ML, Giannotta SL, Kletzky O, March C. Natural history of microprolactinomas: six-year follow-up. Neurosurgery. 1983 Feb; 12(2):180-3. PMID: 6682188.
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    173. Apuzzo ML, Chikovani OK, Gott PS, Teng EL, Zee CS, Giannotta SL, Weiss MH. Transcallosal, interfornicial approaches for lesions affecting the third ventricle: surgical considerations and consequences. Neurosurgery. 1982 May; 10(5):547-54. PMID: 7099406.
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    174. Giannotta SL, Weiss MH. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of head injury. Clin Neurosurg. 1982; 29:288-99. PMID: 7172552.
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    175. Frazee JG, Giannotta SL, Stern WE. Intravenous nitroglycerin for the treatment of chronic cerebral vasoconstriction in the primate. J Neurosurg. 1981 Dec; 55(6):865-8. PMID: 6795315.
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    176. Giannotta SL, Dicks RE, Kindt GW. Carotid endarterectomy: technical improvements. Neurosurgery. 1980 Oct; 7(4):309-12. PMID: 7442973.
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    177. Feldman RA, Hieshima G, Giannotta SL, Gade GF. Traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula supplied by scalp, meningeal, and cortical arteries: case report. Neurosurgery. 1980 Jun; 6(6):670-4. PMID: 7432611.
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    178. Moseley JI, Giannotta SL, Renaudin JW. A simple, inexpensive technique for accurate mass localization by computerized tomography: technical note. J Neurosurg. 1980 May; 52(5):733-5. PMID: 7373408.
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    179. Seeger JF, Gabrielsen TO, Giannotta SL, Lotz PR. Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas and venous thrombosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1980 Mar-Apr; 1(2):141-8. PMID: 6779595.
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    180. Giannotta SL. Microvascular bypass procedures for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc. 1980; 45:40-4. PMID: 7052905.
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    181. Giannotta SL, McGillicuddy JE, Kindt GW. Gradual carotid artery occlusion in the treatment of inaccessible internal carotid artery aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1979 Oct; 5(4):417-21. PMID: 534043.
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    182. Giannotta SL, Kindt GW. Total morbidity and mortality rates of patients with surgically treated intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1979 Feb; 4(2):125-8. PMID: 440543.
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    183. Pritz MB, Giannotta SL, Kindt GW, McGillicuddy JE, Prager RL. Treatment of patients with neurological deficits associated with cerebral vasospasm by intravascular volume expansion. Neurosurgery. 1978 Nov-Dec; 3(3):364-8. PMID: 368669.
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    184. Scott BB, McGillicuddy JE, Seeger JF, Kindt GW, Giannotta SL. Vascular dynamics of an experimental cerebral arteriovenous shunt in the primate. Surg Neurol. 1978 Jul; 10(1):34-8. PMID: 98854.
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    185. Giannotta SL, Hopkins J, Kindt GW. Computerized tomography in Reye's syndrome: evidence for pathological cerebral vasodilatation. Neurosurgery. 1978 May-Jun; 2(3):201-4. PMID: 732969.
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    186. Giannotta SL, McGillicuddy JE, Kindt GW. Diagnosis and treatment of postoperative cerebral vasospasm. Surg Neurol. 1977 Oct; 8(4):286-90. PMID: 898008.
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    187. Giannotta SL, Pauli F, Farhat SM. Epidermoid cyst of the third ventricle. Surg Neurol. 1976 Mar; 5(3):164-6. PMID: 1257889.
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    188. Giannotta SL, Kindt GW, Haar FL. Topical lidocaine in treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Surg Neurol. 1975 Jul; 4(1):13-6. PMID: 1166396.
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