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Neil Kaplowitz, MD

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentMedicine
AddressHMR 101
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-9091
Phone+1 323 442 5576
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    Other Positions
    TitleUsc Associates/Thomas H. Brem Chair in Medicine

    TitleChief, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Western Gastroenterology 1986Research Prize
    Association of American Physicians1988Member
    NIH1992Merit Award
    Department of Veterans Affairs 1993William S. Middleton Award
    New York University School of Medicine1994Solomon A. Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Clinical Science
    American Liver Foundation2000Greater Los Angeles Medical Honoree
    American Gastroenterological Association2005Foundation Research Mentor Award Honoree
    Wadworth VA Alumni Association2006William H. Oldendorf Lifetime Achievement Award
    American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases2006Distinguished Achievement Award
    Western Society of Clinical Investigation2007Mayo Soley Award
    American Liver Foundation2008Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award
    Alpha Omega Alpha
    Phi Beta Kappa

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Kaplowtiz's research interests include drug toxicity, signal transduction, oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Dr. Kaplowitz earned his medical degree from New York University School of Medicine. He then went on to complete a Gastroenterology Fellowship at Cornell University Medical College.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Retrograde Signaling in Alcohol-Induced Mitochondrial Stress and Biogenesis.
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA017746Sep 15, 2008 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cellular Mechanisms of Hepatotoxicity.
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK067215Apr 1, 2004 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Homocysteine, ER Stress and Alcoholic Liver Injury.
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA014428Jul 1, 2003 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    USC Research Center for Liver Disease
    NIH/NIDDK P30DK048522Mar 1, 1995 - Feb 28, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATIC GSH HOMEOSTASIS
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA009526Apr 1, 1993 - Mar 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF CYTOKINE INFLAMMATION
    NIH/NIDDK R13DK044465Sep 30, 1991 - Aug 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK030312Feb 1, 1982 - May 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIDDK R37DK030312Feb 1, 1982 - May 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM030312Feb 1, 1982 - Jan 31, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Kaplowitz N. Herb-Induced Liver Injury: A Global Concern. Chin J Integr Med. 2018 May 03. PMID: 29744785.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Win S, Than TA, Zhang J, Oo C, Min RWM, Kaplowitz N. New insights into the role and mechanism of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in the pathobiology of liver diseases. Hepatology. 2018 May; 67(5):2013-2024. PMID: 29194686.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gong S, Lan T, Zeng L, Luo H, Yang X, Li N, Chen X, Liu Z, Li R, Win S, Liu S, Zhou H, Schnabl B, Jiang Y, Kaplowitz N, Chen P. Gut microbiota mediates diurnal variation of acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in mice. J Hepatol. 2018 Mar 08. PMID: 29524531.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Roth NC, Saberi B, Macklin J, Kanel G, French SW, Govindarajan S, Buzzanco AS, Stolz AA, Donovan JA, Kaplowitz N. Prediction of histologic alcoholic hepatitis based on clinical presentation limits the need for liver biopsy. Hepatol Commun. 2017 Dec; 1(10):1070-1084. PMID: 29404443.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Apte U, Kaplowitz N. Heparan sulfate promotes recovery from acute liver injury: Inhibition of progressive cell death or enhanced regeneration? Hepatology. 2017 11; 66(5):1381-1383. PMID: 28718936.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Baulies A, Montero J, Matías N, Insausti N, Terrones O, Basañez G, Vallejo C, Conde de La Rosa L, Martinez L, Robles D, Morales A, Abian J, Carrascal M, Machida K, Kumar DBU, Tsukamoto H, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. The 2-oxoglutarate carrier promotes liver cancer by sustaining mitochondrial GSH despite cholesterol loading. Redox Biol. 2018 Apr; 14:164-177. PMID: 28942194.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Hayashi PH, Rockey DC, Fontana RJ, Tillmann HL, Kaplowitz N, Barnhart HX, Gu J, Chalasani NP, Reddy KR, Sherker AH, Hoofnagle JH. Death and liver transplantation within 2 years of onset of drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2017 10; 66(4):1275-1285. PMID: 28543844.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Zhang J, Min RWM, Le K, Zhou S, Aghajan M, Than TA, Win S, Kaplowitz N. The role of MAP2 kinases and p38 kinase in acute murine liver injury models. Cell Death Dis. 2017 06 29; 8(6):e2903. PMID: 28661486.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Iorga A, Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Cascade of Events Leading to Cell Death, Apoptosis or Necrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 09; 18(5). PMID: 28486401.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Pyzik M, Rath T, Kuo TT, Win S, Baker K, Hubbard JJ, Grenha R, Gandhi A, Krämer TD, Mezo AR, Taylor ZS, McDonnell K, Nienaber V, Andersen JT, Mizoguchi A, Blumberg L, Purohit S, Jones SD, Christianson G, Lencer WI, Sandlie I, Kaplowitz N, Roopenian DC, Blumberg RS. Hepatic FcRn regulates albumin homeostasis and susceptibility to liver injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 04 04; 114(14):E2862-E2871. PMID: 28330995.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Huo Y, Yin S, Yan M, Win S, Aung Than T, Aghajan M, Hu H, Kaplowitz N. Protective role of p53 in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 05; 106:111-117. PMID: 28196650.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Smith AK, Petersen BK, Ropella GE, Kennedy RC, Kaplowitz N, Ookhtens M, Hunt CA. Competing Mechanistic Hypotheses of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity Challenged by Virtual Experiments. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Dec; 12(12):e1005253. PMID: 27984590.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Questions and controversies: the role of necroptosis in liver disease. Cell Death Discov. 2016; 2:16089. PMID: 27924226.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Han D, Johnson HS, Rao MP, Martin G, Sancheti H, Silkwood KH, Decker CW, Nguyen KT, Casian JG, Cadenas E, Kaplowitz N. Mitochondrial remodeling in the liver following chronic alcohol feeding to rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 01; 102:100-110. PMID: 27867097.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. A murder mystery in the liver: who done it and how? J Clin Invest. 2016 Nov 01; 126(11):4068-4071. PMID: 27760053.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Huo Y, Win S, Than TA, Yin S, Ye M, Hu H, Kaplowitz N. Antcin H Protects Against Acute Liver Injury Through Disruption of the Interaction of c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase with Mitochondria. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 Feb 10; 26(5):207-220. PMID: 27596680.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Suda J, Dara L, Yang L, Aghajan M, Song Y, Kaplowitz N, Liu ZX. Knockdown of RIPK1 Markedly Exacerbates Murine Immune-Mediated Liver Injury through Massive Apoptosis of Hepatocytes, Independent of Necroptosis and Inhibition of NF-?B. J Immunol. 2016 10 15; 197(8):3120-3129. PMID: 27605011.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. The many faces of RIPK3: What about NASH? Hepatology. 2016 11; 64(5):1411-1413. PMID: 27338154.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Medina-Caliz I, Robles-Diaz M, Garcia-Muñoz B, Stephens C, Ortega-Alonso A, Garcia-Cortes M, González-Jimenez A, Sanabria-Cabrera JA, Moreno I, Fernandez MC, Romero-Gomez M, Navarro JM, Barriocanal AM, Montane E, Hallal H, Blanco S, Soriano G, Roman EM, Gómez-Dominguez E, Castiella A, Zapata EM, Jimenez-Perez M, Moreno JM, Aldea-Perona A, Hernández-Guerra M, Prieto M, Zoubek ME, Kaplowitz N, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ. Definition and risk factors for chronicity following acute idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. J Hepatol. 2016 Sep; 65(3):532-42. PMID: 27184533.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Win S, Than TA, Min RW, Aghajan M, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates mouse liver injury through a novel Sab (SH3BP5)-dependent pathway leading to inactivation of intramitochondrial Src. Hepatology. 2016 06; 63(6):1987-2003. PMID: 26845758; PMCID: PMC4874901 [Available on 06/01/17].
    21. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Reply. Hepatology. 2016 07; 64(1):312-3. PMID: 26418131.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Baulies A, Ribas V, Núñez S, Torres S, Alarcón-Vila C, Martínez L, Suda J, Ybanez MD, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Sensitizes To Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Impairing Mitophagy. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 11; 5:18017. PMID: 26657973.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of adaptation and progression in idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury, clinical implications. Liver Int. 2016 Feb; 36(2):158-65. PMID: 26484420; PMCID: PMC4718752 [Available on 02/01/17].
    24. Xu CF, Johnson T, Wang X, Carpenter C, Graves AP, Warren L, Xue Z, King KS, Fraser DJ, Stinnett S, Briley LP, Mitrica I, Spraggs CF, Nelson MR, Tada H, du Bois A, Powles T, Kaplowitz N, Pandite LN. HLA-B*57:01 Confers Susceptibility to Pazopanib-Associated Liver Injury in Patients with Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Mar 15; 22(6):1371-7. PMID: 26546620.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Watkins PB, Lewis JH, Kaplowitz N, Alpers DH, Blais JD, Smotzer DM, Krasa H, Ouyang J, Torres VE, Czerwiec FS, Zimmer CA. Clinical Pattern of Tolvaptan-Associated Liver Injury in Subjects with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Analysis of Clinical Trials Database. Drug Saf. 2015 Nov; 38(11):1103-13. PMID: 26188764; PMCID: PMC4608984.
    26. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Reply. Hepatology. 2016 07; 64(1):308-9. PMID: 26390377.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Dara L, Johnson H, Suda J, Win S, Gaarde W, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 mediates murine acetaminophen toxicity independent of the necrosome and not through necroptosis. Hepatology. 2015 Dec; 62(6):1847-57. PMID: 26077809.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Uetrecht J, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of immune tolerance unmasks drug-induced allergic hepatitis. Hepatology. 2015 Aug; 62(2):346-8. PMID: 25833746.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Powles T, Bracarda S, Chen M, Norry E, Compton N, Heise M, Hutson T, Harter P, Carpenter C, Pandite L, Kaplowitz N. Characterisation of liver chemistry abnormalities associated with pazopanib monotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials in advanced cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Jul; 51(10):1293-302. PMID: 25899987.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kaplowitz N, Win S, Than TA, Liu ZX, Dara L. Targeting signal transduction pathways which regulate necrosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2015 Jul; 63(1):5-7. PMID: 25770661.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Win S, Than TA, Le BH, García-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Sab (Sh3bp5) dependence of JNK mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in palmitic acid induced hepatocyte lipotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2015 Jun; 62(6):1367-74. PMID: 25666017; PMCID: PMC4439305.
    32. Robles-Diaz M, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Andrade RJ, Lucena MI. Reply: To PMID 24704526. Gastroenterology. 2015 Feb; 148(2):452-3. PMID: 25532806.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Watkins PB, Merz M, Avigan MI, Kaplowitz N, Regev A, Senior JR. The clinical liver safety assessment best practices workshop: rationale, goals, accomplishments and the future. Drug Saf. 2014 Nov; 37 Suppl 1:S1-7. PMID: 25352323.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Kullak-Ublick GA, Merz M, Griffel L, Kaplowitz N, Watkins PB. Liver safety assessment in special populations (hepatitis B, C, and oncology trials). Drug Saf. 2014 Nov; 37 Suppl 1:S57-62. PMID: 25352328; PMCID: PMC4212149.
    35. Robles-Diaz M, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Andrade RJ, Lucena MI. Reply: To PMID 24704526. Gastroenterology. 2014 Dec; 147(6):1442. PMID: 25449028.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Garcia-Ruiz C, Mato JM, Vance D, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system in steatohepatitis: a novel target regulating multiple pathways. J Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 62(1):219-33. PMID: 25281863.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Luedde T, Kaplowitz N, Schwabe RF. Cell death and cell death responses in liver disease: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Gastroenterology. 2014 Oct; 147(4):765-783.e4. PMID: 25046161; PMCID: PMC4531834.
    38. Fucho R, Martínez L, Baulies A, Torres S, Tarrats N, Fernandez A, Ribas V, Astudillo AM, Balsinde J, Garcia-Rovés P, Elena M, Bergheim I, Lotersztajn S, Trautwein C, Appelqvist H, Paton AW, Paton JC, Czaja MJ, Kaplowitz N, Fernandez-Checa JC, García-Ruiz C. ASMase regulates autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization and its inhibition prevents early stage non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov; 61(5):1126-34. PMID: 24946279; PMCID: PMC4203709.
    39. Chang AH, Sancheti H, Garcia J, Kaplowitz N, Cadenas E, Han D. Respiratory substrates regulate S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial proteins through a thiol-dependent pathway. Chem Res Toxicol. 2014 May 19; 27(5):794-804. PMID: 24716714; PMCID: PMC4033640.
    40. Robles-Diaz M, Lucena MI, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Medina-Cáliz I, González-Jimenez A, Ulzurrun E, Gonzalez AF, Fernandez MC, Romero-Gómez M, Jimenez-Perez M, Bruguera M, Prieto M, Bessone F, Hernandez N, Arrese M, Andrade RJ. Use of Hy's law and a new composite algorithm to predict acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jul; 147(1):109-118.e5. PMID: 24704526.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Saberi B, Ybanez MD, Johnson HS, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Protein kinase C (PKC) participates in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Hepatology. 2014 Apr; 59(4):1543-1554. PMID: 23873604; PMCID: PMC3997165.
    42. García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernandez-Checa JC. Role of Mitochondria in Alcoholic Liver Disease. Curr Pathobiol Rep. 2013 Sep 01; 1(3):159-168. PMID: 25343061.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Yuan L, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury. Clin Liver Dis. 2013 Nov; 17(4):507-18, vii. PMID: 24099014; PMCID: PMC3793205.
    44. Kaplowitz N. Avoiding idiosyncratic DILI: two is better than one. Hepatology. 2013 Jul; 58(1):15-7. PMID: 23390057.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Fernandez A, Matias N, Fucho R, Ribas V, Von Montfort C, Nuño N, Baulies A, Martinez L, Tarrats N, Mari M, Colell A, Morales A, Dubuquoy L, Mathurin P, Bataller R, Caballeria J, Elena M, Balsinde J, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC. ASMase is required for chronic alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cholesterol loading. J Hepatol. 2013 Oct; 59(4):805-13. PMID: 23707365; PMCID: PMC3779525.
    46. Han D, Dara L, Win S, Than TA, Yuan L, Abbasi SQ, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Regulation of drug-induced liver injury by signal transduction pathways: critical role of mitochondria. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Apr; 34(4):243-53. PMID: 23453390; PMCID: PMC3622802.
    47. Corsini A, Ganey P, Ju C, Kaplowitz N, Pessayre D, Roth R, Watkins PB, Albassam M, Liu B, Stancic S, Suter L, Bortolini M. Current challenges and controversies in drug-induced liver injury. Drug Saf. 2012 Dec 01; 35(12):1099-117. PMID: 23137150.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Marí M, Morales A, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Mitochondrial glutathione: features, regulation and role in disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 May; 1830(5):3317-28. PMID: 23123815; PMCID: PMC3578987.
    49. Han D, Ybanez MD, Johnson HS, McDonald JN, Mesropyan L, Sancheti H, Martin G, Martin A, Lim AM, Dara L, Cadenas E, Tsukamoto H, Kaplowitz N. Dynamic adaptation of liver mitochondria to chronic alcohol feeding in mice: biogenesis, remodeling, and functional alterations. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 07; 287(50):42165-79. PMID: 23086958; PMCID: PMC3516762.
    50. von Montfort C, Matias N, Fernandez A, Fucho R, Conde de la Rosa L, Martinez-Chantar ML, Mato JM, Machida K, Tsukamoto H, Murphy MP, Mansouri A, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC. Mitochondrial GSH determines the toxic or therapeutic potential of superoxide scavenging in steatohepatitis. J Hepatol. 2012 Oct; 57(4):852-9. PMID: 22687340; PMCID: PMC3445734.
    51. Tsuchiya M, Ji C, Kosyk O, Shymonyak S, Melnyk S, Kono H, Tryndyak V, Muskhelishvili L, Pogribny IP, Kaplowitz N, Rusyn I. Interstrain differences in liver injury and one-carbon metabolism in alcohol-fed mice. Hepatology. 2012 Jul; 56(1):130-9. PMID: 22307928; PMCID: PMC3350836.
    52. Gika HG, Ji C, Theodoridis GA, Michopoulos F, Kaplowitz N, Wilson ID. Investigation of chronic alcohol consumption in rodents via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling. J Chromatogr A. 2012 Oct 12; 1259:128-37. PMID: 22446076; PMCID: PMC3387526.
    53. Kaplowitz N. Dealing with stress. Hepatology. 2012 Jan; 55(1):3-13. PMID: 22135222.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Win S, Than TA, Han D, Petrovic LM, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent acute liver injury from acetaminophen or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) requires mitochondrial Sab protein expression in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 07; 286(40):35071-8. PMID: 21844199; PMCID: PMC3186406.
    55. Ji C, Kaplowitz N, Lau MY, Kao E, Petrovic LM, Lee AS. Liver-specific loss of glucose-regulated protein 78 perturbs the unfolded protein response and exacerbates a spectrum of liver diseases in mice. Hepatology. 2011 Jul; 54(1):229-39. PMID: 21503947; PMCID: PMC3125405.
    56. Lee JS, Wang J, Martin M, Germer S, Kenwright A, Benayed R, Spleiss O, Platt A, Pilson R, Hemmings A, Weinblatt ME, Kaplowitz N, Krasnow J. Genetic variation in UGT1A1 typical of Gilbert syndrome is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in patients receiving tocilizumab. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Jul; 21(7):365-74. PMID: 21412181.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Than TA, Lou H, Ji C, Win S, Kaplowitz N. Role of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) in the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and stress response in liver cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24; 286(25):22047-54. PMID: 21536665; PMCID: PMC3121349.
    58. Dara L, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum stress to liver diseases. Hepatology. 2011 May; 53(5):1752-63. PMID: 21384408; PMCID: PMC3082587.
    59. Gilsanz V, Chung SA, Kaplowitz N. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat. Pediatr Radiol. 2011 Sep; 41(9):1146-53. PMID: 21404026.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Loftus N, Barnes A, Ashton S, Michopoulos F, Theodoridis G, Wilson I, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Metabonomic investigation of liver profiles of nonpolar metabolites obtained from alcohol-dosed rats and mice using high mass accuracy MSn analysis. J Proteome Res. 2011 Feb 04; 10(2):705-13. PMID: 21028815; PMCID: PMC3033970.
    61. Garcia J, Han D, Sancheti H, Yap LP, Kaplowitz N, Cadenas E. Regulation of mitochondrial glutathione redox status and protein glutathionylation by respiratory substrates. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 17; 285(51):39646-54. PMID: 20937819; PMCID: PMC3000945.
    62. Jones DP, Lemasters JJ, Han D, Boelsterli UA, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in drug hepatotoxicity putting the stress on mitochondria. Mol Interv. 2010 Apr; 10(2):98-111. PMID: 20368370; PMCID: PMC2895369.
    63. Shinohara M, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Differences in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and liver injury between alcohol-fed mice and rats. Hepatology. 2010 Mar; 51(3):796-805. PMID: 20069651; PMCID: PMC2840074.
    64. Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Win S, Than TA, Jain S, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Silencing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibits acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and attenuates JNK activation and loss of glutamate cysteine ligase and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 12; 285(11):8244-55. PMID: 20061376; PMCID: PMC2832976.
    65. Han D, Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Signal transduction pathways involved in drug-induced liver injury. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010; (196):267-310. PMID: 20020266.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Han D, Ybanez MD, Ahmadi S, Yeh K, Kaplowitz N. Redox regulation of tumor necrosis factor signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Sep; 11(9):2245-63. PMID: 19361274; PMCID: PMC2819802.
    67. Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, Kaplowitz N, García-Cortes M, Fernández MC, Romero-Gomez M, Bruguera M, Hallal H, Robles-Diaz M, Rodriguez-González JF, Navarro JM, Salmeron J, Martinez-Odriozola P, Pérez-Alvarez R, Borraz Y, Hidalgo R. Phenotypic characterization of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury: the influence of age and sex. Hepatology. 2009 Jun; 49(6):2001-9. PMID: 19475693.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Roberts KE, Fallon MB, Krowka MJ, Brown RS, Trotter JF, Peter I, Tighiouart H, Knowles JA, Rabinowitz D, Benza RL, Badesch DB, Taichman DB, Horn EM, Zacks S, Kaplowitz N, Kawut SM. Genetic risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 May 01; 179(9):835-42. PMID: 19218192; PMCID: PMC2675568.
    69. Kaplowitz N, Shinohara M, Liu ZX, Han D. How to protect against acetaminophen: don't ask for JUNK. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct; 135(4):1047-51. PMID: 18782575.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Yuan L, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione in liver diseases and hepatotoxicity. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr; 30(1-2):29-41. PMID: 18786561.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Kawut SM, Krowka MJ, Trotter JF, Roberts KE, Benza RL, Badesch DB, Taichman DB, Horn EM, Zacks S, Kaplowitz N, Brown RS, Fallon MB. Clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension. Hepatology. 2008 Jul; 48(1):196-203. PMID: 18537192; PMCID: PMC2824885.
    72. Fallon MB, Krowka MJ, Brown RS, Trotter JF, Zacks S, Roberts KE, Shah VH, Kaplowitz N, Forman L, Wille K, Kawut SM. Impact of hepatopulmonary syndrome on quality of life and survival in liver transplant candidates. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct; 135(4):1168-75. PMID: 18644373; PMCID: PMC2824882.
    73. Ji C, Shinohara M, Vance D, Than TA, Ookhtens M, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Effect of transgenic extrahepatic expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase on alcohol or homocysteine-induced fatty liver. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jun; 32(6):1049-58. PMID: 18498552; PMCID: PMC2596885.
    74. Saberi B, Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Hanawa N, Gaarde WA, Kaplowitz N, Han D. Regulation of H(2)O(2)-induced necrosis by PKC and AMP-activated kinase signaling in primary cultured hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Jul; 295(1):C50-63. PMID: 18463227; PMCID: PMC2493548.
    75. Hanawa N, Shinohara M, Saberi B, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Role of JNK translocation to mitochondria leading to inhibition of mitochondria bioenergetics in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 16; 283(20):13565-77. PMID: 18337250; PMCID: PMC2376214.
    76. Kaplowitz N, Than TA, Shinohara M, Ji C. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2007 Nov; 27(4):367-77. PMID: 17979073.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Ji C, Shinohara M, Kuhlenkamp J, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2007 Nov; 46(5):1586-96. PMID: 17705221; PMCID: PMC2642650.
    78. Lou H, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione depletion down-regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity via IkappaB kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 05; 282(40):29470-81. PMID: 17690092.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Gunawan BK, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2007 Aug; 11(3):459-75, v. PMID: 17723915.
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    80. Purohit V, Abdelmalek MF, Barve S, Benevenga NJ, Halsted CH, Kaplowitz N, Kharbanda KK, Liu QY, Lu SC, McClain CJ, Swanson C, Zakhari S. Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul; 86(1):14-24. PMID: 17616758.
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    81. Abboud G, Kaplowitz N. Drug-induced liver injury. Drug Saf. 2007; 30(4):277-94. PMID: 17408305.
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    82. Andrade RJ, Lucena MI, Kaplowitz N, García-Munoz B, Borraz Y, Pachkoria K, García-Cortés M, Fernández MC, Pelaez G, Rodrigo L, Durán JA, Costa J, Planas R, Barriocanal A, Guarner C, Romero-Gomez M, Munoz-Yagüe T, Salmerón J, Hidalgo R. Outcome of acute idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury: Long-term follow-up in a hepatotoxicity registry. Hepatology. 2006 Dec; 44(6):1581-8. PMID: 17133470.
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    83. Rongey C, Kaplowitz N. Current concepts and controversies in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov 21; 12(43):6909-21. PMID: 17109510; PMCID: PMC4087332.
    84. Kaplowitz N, Ji C. Unfolding new mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct; 21 Suppl 3:S7-9. PMID: 16958678.
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    85. Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Role of innate immunity in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Aug; 2(4):493-503. PMID: 16859400.
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    86. Watkins PB, Kaplowitz N, Slattery JT, Colonese CR, Colucci SV, Stewart PW, Harris SC. Aminotransferase elevations in healthy adults receiving 4 grams of acetaminophen daily: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Jul 05; 296(1):87-93. PMID: 16820551.
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    87. Gunawan BK, Liu ZX, Han D, Hanawa N, Gaarde WA, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase plays a major role in murine acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jul; 131(1):165-78. PMID: 16831600.
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    88. Ji C, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Predominant role of sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP) lipogenic pathways in hepatic steatosis in the murine intragastric ethanol feeding model. J Hepatol. 2006 Nov; 45(5):717-24. PMID: 16879892.
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    89. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. ER stress: can the liver cope? J Hepatol. 2006 Aug; 45(2):321-33. PMID: 16797772.
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    90. Liu ZX, Han D, Gunawan B, Kaplowitz N. Neutrophil depletion protects against murine acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Jun; 43(6):1220-30. PMID: 16729305.
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    91. Han D, Hanawa N, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Hydrogen peroxide and redox modulation sensitize primary mouse hepatocytes to TNF-induced apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Aug 15; 41(4):627-39. PMID: 16863996.
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    92. Nathwani RA, Kaplowitz N. Drug hepatotoxicity. Clin Liver Dis. 2006 May; 10(2):207-17, vii. PMID: 16971258.
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    93. Kaplowitz N. Rules and laws of drug hepatotoxicity. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006 Apr; 15(4):231-3. PMID: 16552791.
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    94. Han D, Hanawa N, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of liver injury. III. Role of glutathione redox status in liver injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Jul; 291(1):G1-7. PMID: 16500922.
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    95. Kaplowitz N. Liver biology and pathobiology. Hepatology. 2006 Feb; 43(2 Suppl 1):S235-8. PMID: 16447293.
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    96. Ji C, Mehrian-Shai R, Chan C, Hsu YH, Kaplowitz N. Role of CHOP in hepatic apoptosis in the murine model of intragastric ethanol feeding. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Aug; 29(8):1496-503. PMID: 16131858; PMCID: PMC1432051.
    97. Kaplowitz N. Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005 Jun; 4(6):489-99. PMID: 15931258.
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    98. Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione: transport and role in disease and toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 May 01; 204(3):263-73. PMID: 15845418.
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    99. Nathwani RA, Pais S, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N. Serum alanine aminotransferase in skeletal muscle diseases. Hepatology. 2005 Feb; 41(2):380-2. PMID: 15660433.
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    100. Nathwani RA, Kumar SR, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N. Marked elevation in serum transaminases: an atypical presentation of choledocholithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Feb; 100(2):295-8. PMID: 15667485.
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    101. Neff GW, Reddy KR, Durazo FA, Meyer D, Marrero R, Kaplowitz N. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of weight loss diet supplements containing ma huang or usnic acid. J Hepatol. 2004 Dec; 41(6):1062-4. PMID: 15582145.
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    102. Liu ZX, Govindarajan S, Kaplowitz N. Innate immune system plays a critical role in determining the progression and severity of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2004 Dec; 127(6):1760-74. PMID: 15578514.
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    103. Kaplowitz N. Statin-induced hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2004 Oct; 127(4):1278; author reply 1278-9. PMID: 15481021.
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    104. Francis GS, Kaplowitz N, Alteri E. Liver injury associated with the beta-interferons for MS. Neurology. 2004 Sep 28; 63(6):1142-3; author reply 1142-3. PMID: 15457586.
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    105. Ji C, Deng Q, Kaplowitz N. Role of TNF-alpha in ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and murine alcoholic liver injury. Hepatology. 2004 Aug; 40(2):442-51. PMID: 15368449.
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    106. Kaplowitz N. Acetaminophen hepatoxicity: what do we know, what don't we know, and what do we do next? Hepatology. 2004 Jul; 40(1):23-6. PMID: 15239082.
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    107. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and alcoholic liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jun 15; 10(12):1699-708. PMID: 15188490; PMCID: PMC4572253.
    108. Gunawan B, Kaplowitz N. Clinical perspectives on xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 May; 36(2):301-12. PMID: 15237856.
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    109. Kaplowitz N. Drug-induced liver injury. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 01; 38 Suppl 2:S44-8. PMID: 14986274.
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    110. Han D, Matsumaru K, Rettori D, Kaplowitz N. Usnic acid-induced necrosis of cultured mouse hepatocytes: inhibition of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 01; 67(3):439-51. PMID: 15037196.
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    111. Han D, Canali R, Rettori D, Kaplowitz N. Effect of glutathione depletion on sites and topology of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in mitochondria. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Nov; 64(5):1136-44. PMID: 14573763.
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    112. Coll O, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Sensitivity of the 2-oxoglutarate carrier to alcohol intake contributes to mitochondrial glutathione depletion. Hepatology. 2003 Sep; 38(3):692-702. PMID: 12939596.
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    113. Lou H, Ookhtens M, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Chelerythrine stimulates GSH transport by rat Mrp2 (Abcc2) expressed in canine kidney cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1335-44. PMID: 12893631.
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    114. Matsumaru K, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms for sensitization to TNF-induced apoptosis by acute glutathione depletion in murine hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2003 Jun; 37(6):1425-34. PMID: 12774022.
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    115. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice. Gastroenterology. 2003 May; 124(5):1488-99. PMID: 12730887.
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    116. Lluis JM, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Acetaldehyde impairs mitochondrial glutathione transport in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Gastroenterology. 2003 Mar; 124(3):708-24. PMID: 12612910.
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    117. Kaplowitz N, Lewis JH, Watkins PB. Did this drug cause my patient's hepatitis? Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jan 21; 138(2):159-60; author reply 159-60. PMID: 12529106.
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    118. Francis GS, Grumser Y, Alteri E, Micaleff A, O'Brien F, Alsop J, Stam Moraga M, Kaplowitz N. Hepatic reactions during treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon-beta-1a: incidence and clinical significance. Drug Saf. 2003; 26(11):815-27. PMID: 12908850.
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    119. Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Immune-mediated drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2002 Aug; 6(3):755-74. PMID: 12362579.
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    120. Nagai H, Matsumaru K, Feng G, Kaplowitz N. Reduced glutathione depletion causes necrosis and sensitization to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2002 Jul; 36(1):55-64. PMID: 12085349.
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    121. Feng G, Kaplowitz N. Mechanism of staurosporine-induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 May; 282(5):G825-34. PMID: 11960779.
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    122. Mittur A, Wolkoff AW, Kaplowitz N. The thiol sensitivity of glutathione transport in sidedness-sorted basolateral liver plasma membrane and in Oatp1-expressing HeLa cell membrane. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 61(2):425-35. PMID: 11809868.
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    123. Kaplowitz N. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of toxic liver injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2002; 22(2):137-44. PMID: 12016545.
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