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Neil Kaplowitz, MD

Title(s)Professor of Medicine
Phone+1 323 442 5576
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)USC Associates/Thomas H. Brem Chair in Medicine

    Title(s)Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Western Gastroenterology 1986Research Prize
    Association of American Physicians1988Member
    NIH1992Merit Award
    Department of Veterans Affairs 1993William S. Middleton Award
    New York University School of Medicine1994Solomon A. Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Clinical Science
    American Liver Foundation2000Greater Los Angeles Medical Honoree
    American Gastroenterological Association2005Foundation Research Mentor Award Honoree
    Wadworth VA Alumni Association2006William H. Oldendorf Lifetime Achievement Award
    American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases2006Distinguished Achievement Award
    Western Society of Clinical Investigation2007Mayo Soley Award
    American Liver Foundation2008Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award
    Alpha Omega Alpha
    Phi Beta Kappa

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Kaplowitz's research interests include drug toxicity, signal transduction, oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Dr. Kaplowitz earned his medical degree from New York University School of Medicine. He then went on to complete a Gastroenterology Fellowship at Cornell University Medical College.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Retrograde Signaling in Alcohol-Induced Mitochondrial Stress and Biogenesis.
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA017746Sep 15, 2008 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cellular Mechanisms of Hepatotoxicity.
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK067215Apr 1, 2004 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Homocysteine, ER Stress and Alcoholic Liver Injury.
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA014428Jul 1, 2003 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    USC Research Center for Liver Disease
    NIH/NIDDK P30DK048522Mar 1, 1995 - Feb 28, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATIC GSH HOMEOSTASIS
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA009526Apr 1, 1993 - Mar 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF CYTOKINE INFLAMMATION
    NIH/NIDDK R13DK044465Sep 30, 1991 - Aug 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK030312Feb 1, 1982 - May 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIDDK R37DK030312Feb 1, 1982 - May 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF GLUTATHIONE EFFLUX FROM THE LIVER
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM030312Feb 1, 1982 - Jan 31, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Torres S, Baulies A, Insausti-Urkia N, Alarcón-Vila C, Fucho R, Solsona-Vilarrasa E, Núñez S, Robles D, Ribas V, Wakefield L, Grompe M, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, Win S, Aung TA, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Upregulation of STARD1 Promotes Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure. Gastroenterology. 2019 Apr 25. PMID: 31029706.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Win S, Than TA, Kaplowitz N. The Regulation of JNK Signaling Pathways in Cell Death through the Interplay with Mitochondrial SAB and Upstream Post-Translational Effects. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Nov 20; 19(11). PMID: 30463289.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Leung K, Quezada M, Chen Z, Kanel G, Kaplowitz N. Niacin-Induced Anicteric Microvesicular Steatotic Acute Liver Failure. Hepatol Commun. 2018 Nov; 2(11):1293-1298. PMID: 30411075.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Yan M, Ye L, Yin S, Lu X, Liu X, Lu S, Cui J, Fan L, Kaplowitz N, Hu H. Glycycoumarin protects mice against acetaminophen-induced liver injury predominantly via activating sustained autophagy. Br J Pharmacol. 2018 Oct; 175(19):3747-3757. PMID: 30024038.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Kaplowitz N. Herb-Induced Liver Injury: A Global Concern. Chin J Integr Med. 2018 Sep; 24(9):643-644. PMID: 29744785.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Win S, Than TA, Zhang J, Oo C, Min RWM, Kaplowitz N. New insights into the role and mechanism of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in the pathobiology of liver diseases. Hepatology. 2018 05; 67(5):2013-2024. PMID: 29194686.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Gong S, Lan T, Zeng L, Luo H, Yang X, Li N, Chen X, Liu Z, Li R, Win S, Liu S, Zhou H, Schnabl B, Jiang Y, Kaplowitz N, Chen P. Gut microbiota mediates diurnal variation of acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in mice. J Hepatol. 2018 Jul; 69(1):51-59. PMID: 29524531.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Roth NC, Saberi B, Macklin J, Kanel G, French SW, Govindarajan S, Buzzanco AS, Stolz AA, Donovan JA, Kaplowitz N. Prediction of histologic alcoholic hepatitis based on clinical presentation limits the need for liver biopsy. Hepatol Commun. 2017 12; 1(10):1070-1084. PMID: 29404443.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Apte U, Kaplowitz N. Heparan sulfate promotes recovery from acute liver injury: Inhibition of progressive cell death or enhanced regeneration? Hepatology. 2017 11; 66(5):1381-1383. PMID: 28718936.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Baulies A, Montero J, Matías N, Insausti N, Terrones O, Basañez G, Vallejo C, Conde de La Rosa L, Martinez L, Robles D, Morales A, Abian J, Carrascal M, Machida K, Kumar DBU, Tsukamoto H, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. The 2-oxoglutarate carrier promotes liver cancer by sustaining mitochondrial GSH despite cholesterol loading. Redox Biol. 2018 04; 14:164-177. PMID: 28942194.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hayashi PH, Rockey DC, Fontana RJ, Tillmann HL, Kaplowitz N, Barnhart HX, Gu J, Chalasani NP, Reddy KR, Sherker AH, Hoofnagle JH. Death and liver transplantation within 2 years of onset of drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2017 10; 66(4):1275-1285. PMID: 28543844.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Zhang J, Min RWM, Le K, Zhou S, Aghajan M, Than TA, Win S, Kaplowitz N. The role of MAP2 kinases and p38 kinase in acute murine liver injury models. Cell Death Dis. 2017 06 29; 8(6):e2903. PMID: 28661486.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Iorga A, Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Cascade of Events Leading to Cell Death, Apoptosis or Necrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 09; 18(5). PMID: 28486401.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Pyzik M, Rath T, Kuo TT, Win S, Baker K, Hubbard JJ, Grenha R, Gandhi A, Krämer TD, Mezo AR, Taylor ZS, McDonnell K, Nienaber V, Andersen JT, Mizoguchi A, Blumberg L, Purohit S, Jones SD, Christianson G, Lencer WI, Sandlie I, Kaplowitz N, Roopenian DC, Blumberg RS. Hepatic FcRn regulates albumin homeostasis and susceptibility to liver injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 04 04; 114(14):E2862-E2871. PMID: 28330995.
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    15. Huo Y, Yin S, Yan M, Win S, Aung Than T, Aghajan M, Hu H, Kaplowitz N. Protective role of p53 in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 05; 106:111-117. PMID: 28196650.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Smith AK, Petersen BK, Ropella GE, Kennedy RC, Kaplowitz N, Ookhtens M, Hunt CA. Competing Mechanistic Hypotheses of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity Challenged by Virtual Experiments. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 12; 12(12):e1005253. PMID: 27984590.
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    17. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Questions and controversies: the role of necroptosis in liver disease. Cell Death Discov. 2016; 2:16089. PMID: 27924226.
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    18. Han D, Johnson HS, Rao MP, Martin G, Sancheti H, Silkwood KH, Decker CW, Nguyen KT, Casian JG, Cadenas E, Kaplowitz N. Mitochondrial remodeling in the liver following chronic alcohol feeding to rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 01; 102:100-110. PMID: 27867097.
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    19. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. A murder mystery in the liver: who done it and how? J Clin Invest. 2016 11 01; 126(11):4068-4071. PMID: 27760053.
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    20. Huo Y, Win S, Than TA, Yin S, Ye M, Hu H, Kaplowitz N. Antcin H Protects Against Acute Liver Injury Through Disruption of the Interaction of c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase with Mitochondria. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 02 10; 26(5):207-220. PMID: 27596680.
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    21. Suda J, Dara L, Yang L, Aghajan M, Song Y, Kaplowitz N, Liu ZX. Knockdown of RIPK1 Markedly Exacerbates Murine Immune-Mediated Liver Injury through Massive Apoptosis of Hepatocytes, Independent of Necroptosis and Inhibition of NF-?B. J Immunol. 2016 10 15; 197(8):3120-3129. PMID: 27605011.
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    22. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. The many faces of RIPK3: What about NASH? Hepatology. 2016 11; 64(5):1411-1413. PMID: 27338154.
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    23. Medina-Caliz I, Robles-Diaz M, Garcia-Muñoz B, Stephens C, Ortega-Alonso A, Garcia-Cortes M, González-Jimenez A, Sanabria-Cabrera JA, Moreno I, Fernandez MC, Romero-Gomez M, Navarro JM, Barriocanal AM, Montane E, Hallal H, Blanco S, Soriano G, Roman EM, Gómez-Dominguez E, Castiella A, Zapata EM, Jimenez-Perez M, Moreno JM, Aldea-Perona A, Hernández-Guerra M, Prieto M, Zoubek ME, Kaplowitz N, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ. Definition and risk factors for chronicity following acute idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. J Hepatol. 2016 09; 65(3):532-42. PMID: 27184533.
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    24. Win S, Than TA, Min RW, Aghajan M, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates mouse liver injury through a novel Sab (SH3BP5)-dependent pathway leading to inactivation of intramitochondrial Src. Hepatology. 2016 06; 63(6):1987-2003. PMID: 26845758.
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    25. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Reply. Hepatology. 2016 07; 64(1):312-3. PMID: 26418131.
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    26. Roth N, Kanel G, Kaplowitz N. Alcoholic foamy degeneration and alcoholic fatty liver with jaundice: Often overlooked causes of jaundice and hepatic decompensation that can mimic alcoholic hepatitis. Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken). 2015 Dec; 6(6):145-148. PMID: 31041013.
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    27. Baulies A, Ribas V, Núñez S, Torres S, Alarcón-Vila C, Martínez L, Suda J, Ybanez MD, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Sensitizes To Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Impairing Mitophagy. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 11; 5:18017. PMID: 26657973.
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    28. Dara L, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of adaptation and progression in idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury, clinical implications. Liver Int. 2016 Feb; 36(2):158-65. PMID: 26484420.
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    29. Xu CF, Johnson T, Wang X, Carpenter C, Graves AP, Warren L, Xue Z, King KS, Fraser DJ, Stinnett S, Briley LP, Mitrica I, Spraggs CF, Nelson MR, Tada H, du Bois A, Powles T, Kaplowitz N, Pandite LN. HLA-B*57:01 Confers Susceptibility to Pazopanib-Associated Liver Injury in Patients with Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Mar 15; 22(6):1371-7. PMID: 26546620.
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    30. Watkins PB, Lewis JH, Kaplowitz N, Alpers DH, Blais JD, Smotzer DM, Krasa H, Ouyang J, Torres VE, Czerwiec FS, Zimmer CA. Clinical Pattern of Tolvaptan-Associated Liver Injury in Subjects with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Analysis of Clinical Trials Database. Drug Saf. 2015 Nov; 38(11):1103-13. PMID: 26188764.
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    31. Dara L, Kaplowitz N. Reply. Hepatology. 2016 07; 64(1):308-9. PMID: 26390377.
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    32. Robles-Diaz M, Andrade RJ, Kaplowitz N. Is Sensitivity the Key Measure to Predict Acute Liver Failure in Drug-Induced Liver Injury Patients? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 06; 14(6):918. PMID: 26460215.
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    33. Dara L, Johnson H, Suda J, Win S, Gaarde W, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 mediates murine acetaminophen toxicity independent of the necrosome and not through necroptosis. Hepatology. 2015 Dec; 62(6):1847-57. PMID: 26077809.
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    34. Uetrecht J, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of immune tolerance unmasks drug-induced allergic hepatitis. Hepatology. 2015 Aug; 62(2):346-8. PMID: 25833746.
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    35. Powles T, Bracarda S, Chen M, Norry E, Compton N, Heise M, Hutson T, Harter P, Carpenter C, Pandite L, Kaplowitz N. Characterisation of liver chemistry abnormalities associated with pazopanib monotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials in advanced cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Jul; 51(10):1293-302. PMID: 25899987.
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    36. Kaplowitz N, Win S, Than TA, Liu ZX, Dara L. Targeting signal transduction pathways which regulate necrosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2015 Jul; 63(1):5-7. PMID: 25770661.
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    37. Win S, Than TA, Le BH, García-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Sab (Sh3bp5) dependence of JNK mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in palmitic acid induced hepatocyte lipotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2015 Jun; 62(6):1367-74. PMID: 25666017; PMCID: PMC4439305.
    38. Robles-Diaz M, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Andrade RJ, Lucena MI. Reply: To PMID 24704526. Gastroenterology. 2015 Feb; 148(2):452-3. PMID: 25532806.
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    39. Watkins PB, Merz M, Avigan MI, Kaplowitz N, Regev A, Senior JR. The clinical liver safety assessment best practices workshop: rationale, goals, accomplishments and the future. Drug Saf. 2014 Nov; 37 Suppl 1:S1-7. PMID: 25352323.
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    40. Kullak-Ublick GA, Merz M, Griffel L, Kaplowitz N, Watkins PB. Liver safety assessment in special populations (hepatitis B, C, and oncology trials). Drug Saf. 2014 Nov; 37 Suppl 1:S57-62. PMID: 25352328.
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    41. Robles-Diaz M, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Andrade RJ, Lucena MI. Reply: To PMID 24704526. Gastroenterology. 2014 Dec; 147(6):1442. PMID: 25449028.
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    42. Garcia-Ruiz C, Mato JM, Vance D, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system in steatohepatitis: a novel target regulating multiple pathways. J Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 62(1):219-33. PMID: 25281863.
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    43. Than TA, Win S, Kaplowitz N. In vitro assays of mitochondrial function/dysfunction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Dec; 96(6):665-8. PMID: 25207701.
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    44. Luedde T, Kaplowitz N, Schwabe RF. Cell death and cell death responses in liver disease: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Gastroenterology. 2014 Oct; 147(4):765-783.e4. PMID: 25046161.
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    45. Fucho R, Martínez L, Baulies A, Torres S, Tarrats N, Fernandez A, Ribas V, Astudillo AM, Balsinde J, Garcia-Rovés P, Elena M, Bergheim I, Lotersztajn S, Trautwein C, Appelqvist H, Paton AW, Paton JC, Czaja MJ, Kaplowitz N, Fernandez-Checa JC, García-Ruiz C. ASMase regulates autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization and its inhibition prevents early stage non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov; 61(5):1126-34. PMID: 24946279; PMCID: PMC4203709.
    46. Chang AH, Sancheti H, Garcia J, Kaplowitz N, Cadenas E, Han D. Respiratory substrates regulate S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial proteins through a thiol-dependent pathway. Chem Res Toxicol. 2014 May 19; 27(5):794-804. PMID: 24716714.
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    47. Robles-Diaz M, Lucena MI, Kaplowitz N, Stephens C, Medina-Cáliz I, González-Jimenez A, Ulzurrun E, Gonzalez AF, Fernandez MC, Romero-Gómez M, Jimenez-Perez M, Bruguera M, Prieto M, Bessone F, Hernandez N, Arrese M, Andrade RJ. Use of Hy's law and a new composite algorithm to predict acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jul; 147(1):109-118.e5. PMID: 24704526.
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    48. Saberi B, Ybanez MD, Johnson HS, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Protein kinase C (PKC) participates in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Hepatology. 2014 Apr; 59(4):1543-1554. PMID: 23873604.
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    49. Win S, Than TA, Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. JNK interaction with Sab mediates ER stress induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and cell death. Cell Death Dis. 2014 Jan 09; 5:e989. PMID: 24407242.
      View in: PubMed
    50. García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernandez-Checa JC. Role of Mitochondria in Alcoholic Liver Disease. Curr Pathobiol Rep. 2013 Sep 01; 1(3):159-168. PMID: 25343061.
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    51. Yuan L, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury. Clin Liver Dis. 2013 Nov; 17(4):507-18, vii. PMID: 24099014.
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    52. Kaplowitz N. Avoiding idiosyncratic DILI: two is better than one. Hepatology. 2013 Jul; 58(1):15-7. PMID: 23390057.
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    53. Fernandez A, Matias N, Fucho R, Ribas V, Von Montfort C, Nuño N, Baulies A, Martinez L, Tarrats N, Mari M, Colell A, Morales A, Dubuquoy L, Mathurin P, Bataller R, Caballeria J, Elena M, Balsinde J, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC. ASMase is required for chronic alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cholesterol loading. J Hepatol. 2013 Oct; 59(4):805-13. PMID: 23707365.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Han D, Dara L, Win S, Than TA, Yuan L, Abbasi SQ, Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Regulation of drug-induced liver injury by signal transduction pathways: critical role of mitochondria. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Apr; 34(4):243-53. PMID: 23453390.
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    55. Corsini A, Ganey P, Ju C, Kaplowitz N, Pessayre D, Roth R, Watkins PB, Albassam M, Liu B, Stancic S, Suter L, Bortolini M. Current challenges and controversies in drug-induced liver injury. Drug Saf. 2012 Dec 01; 35(12):1099-117. PMID: 23137150.
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    56. Marí M, Morales A, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Mitochondrial glutathione: features, regulation and role in disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 May; 1830(5):3317-28. PMID: 23123815.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Han D, Ybanez MD, Johnson HS, McDonald JN, Mesropyan L, Sancheti H, Martin G, Martin A, Lim AM, Dara L, Cadenas E, Tsukamoto H, Kaplowitz N. Dynamic adaptation of liver mitochondria to chronic alcohol feeding in mice: biogenesis, remodeling, and functional alterations. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 07; 287(50):42165-79. PMID: 23086958.
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    58. von Montfort C, Matias N, Fernandez A, Fucho R, Conde de la Rosa L, Martinez-Chantar ML, Mato JM, Machida K, Tsukamoto H, Murphy MP, Mansouri A, Kaplowitz N, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC. Mitochondrial GSH determines the toxic or therapeutic potential of superoxide scavenging in steatohepatitis. J Hepatol. 2012 Oct; 57(4):852-9. PMID: 22687340; PMCID: PMC3445734.
    59. Tsuchiya M, Ji C, Kosyk O, Shymonyak S, Melnyk S, Kono H, Tryndyak V, Muskhelishvili L, Pogribny IP, Kaplowitz N, Rusyn I. Interstrain differences in liver injury and one-carbon metabolism in alcohol-fed mice. Hepatology. 2012 Jul; 56(1):130-9. PMID: 22307928.
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    60. Gika HG, Ji C, Theodoridis GA, Michopoulos F, Kaplowitz N, Wilson ID. Investigation of chronic alcohol consumption in rodents via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling. J Chromatogr A. 2012 Oct 12; 1259:128-37. PMID: 22446076; PMCID: PMC3387526.
    61. Kaplowitz N. Dealing with stress. Hepatology. 2012 Jan; 55(1):3-13. PMID: 22135222.
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    62. Win S, Than TA, Han D, Petrovic LM, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent acute liver injury from acetaminophen or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) requires mitochondrial Sab protein expression in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 07; 286(40):35071-8. PMID: 21844199.
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    63. Lee JS, Wang J, Martin M, Germer S, Kenwright A, Benayed R, Spleiss O, Platt A, Pilson R, Hemmings A, Weinblatt ME, Kaplowitz N, Krasnow J. Genetic variation in UGT1A1 typical of Gilbert syndrome is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in patients receiving tocilizumab. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Jul; 21(7):365-74. PMID: 21412181.
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    64. Ji C, Kaplowitz N, Lau MY, Kao E, Petrovic LM, Lee AS. Liver-specific loss of glucose-regulated protein 78 perturbs the unfolded protein response and exacerbates a spectrum of liver diseases in mice. Hepatology. 2011 Jul; 54(1):229-39. PMID: 21503947; PMCID: PMC3125405.
    65. Aithal GP, Watkins PB, Andrade RJ, Larrey D, Molokhia M, Takikawa H, Hunt CM, Wilke RA, Avigan M, Kaplowitz N, Bjornsson E, Daly AK. Case definition and phenotype standardization in drug-induced liver injury. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun; 89(6):806-15. PMID: 21544079.
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    66. Than TA, Lou H, Ji C, Win S, Kaplowitz N. Role of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) in the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and stress response in liver cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24; 286(25):22047-54. PMID: 21536665.
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    67. Dara L, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum stress to liver diseases. Hepatology. 2011 May; 53(5):1752-63. PMID: 21384408.
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    68. Gilsanz V, Chung SA, Kaplowitz N. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat. Pediatr Radiol. 2011 Sep; 41(9):1146-53. PMID: 21404026.
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    69. Lucena MI, Kaplowitz N, Hallal H, Castiella A, García-Bengoechea M, Otazua P, Berenguer M, Fernandez MC, Planas R, Andrade RJ. Recurrent drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with different drugs in the Spanish Registry: the dilemma of the relationship to autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2011 Oct; 55(4):820-7. PMID: 21338638.
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    70. Loftus N, Barnes A, Ashton S, Michopoulos F, Theodoridis G, Wilson I, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Metabonomic investigation of liver profiles of nonpolar metabolites obtained from alcohol-dosed rats and mice using high mass accuracy MSn analysis. J Proteome Res. 2011 Feb 04; 10(2):705-13. PMID: 21028815.
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    71. Garcia J, Han D, Sancheti H, Yap LP, Kaplowitz N, Cadenas E. Regulation of mitochondrial glutathione redox status and protein glutathionylation by respiratory substrates. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 17; 285(51):39646-54. PMID: 20937819.
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    72. Jones DP, Lemasters JJ, Han D, Boelsterli UA, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in drug hepatotoxicity putting the stress on mitochondria. Mol Interv. 2010 Apr; 10(2):98-111. PMID: 20368370.
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    73. Shinohara M, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Differences in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and liver injury between alcohol-fed mice and rats. Hepatology. 2010 Mar; 51(3):796-805. PMID: 20069651.
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    74. Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Win S, Than TA, Jain S, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Silencing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibits acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and attenuates JNK activation and loss of glutamate cysteine ligase and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 12; 285(11):8244-55. PMID: 20061376; PMCID: PMC2832976.
    75. Han D, Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Signal transduction pathways involved in drug-induced liver injury. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010; (196):267-310. PMID: 20020266.
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    76. Verma S, Kaplowitz N. Diagnosis, management and prevention of drug-induced liver injury. Gut. 2009 Nov; 58(11):1555-64. PMID: 19834119.
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    77. Han D, Ybanez MD, Ahmadi S, Yeh K, Kaplowitz N. Redox regulation of tumor necrosis factor signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Sep; 11(9):2245-63. PMID: 19361274.
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    78. Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, Kaplowitz N, García-Cortes M, Fernández MC, Romero-Gomez M, Bruguera M, Hallal H, Robles-Diaz M, Rodriguez-González JF, Navarro JM, Salmeron J, Martinez-Odriozola P, Pérez-Alvarez R, Borraz Y, Hidalgo R. Phenotypic characterization of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury: the influence of age and sex. Hepatology. 2009 Jun; 49(6):2001-9. PMID: 19475693.
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    79. Roberts KE, Fallon MB, Krowka MJ, Brown RS, Trotter JF, Peter I, Tighiouart H, Knowles JA, Rabinowitz D, Benza RL, Badesch DB, Taichman DB, Horn EM, Zacks S, Kaplowitz N, Kawut SM. Genetic risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 May 01; 179(9):835-42. PMID: 19218192.
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    80. Kaplowitz N, Shinohara M, Liu ZX, Han D. How to protect against acetaminophen: don't ask for JUNK. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct; 135(4):1047-51. PMID: 18782575.
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    81. Yuan L, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione in liver diseases and hepatotoxicity. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr; 30(1-2):29-41. PMID: 18786561.
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    82. Kawut SM, Krowka MJ, Trotter JF, Roberts KE, Benza RL, Badesch DB, Taichman DB, Horn EM, Zacks S, Kaplowitz N, Brown RS, Fallon MB. Clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension. Hepatology. 2008 Jul; 48(1):196-203. PMID: 18537192.
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    83. Fallon MB, Krowka MJ, Brown RS, Trotter JF, Zacks S, Roberts KE, Shah VH, Kaplowitz N, Forman L, Wille K, Kawut SM. Impact of hepatopulmonary syndrome on quality of life and survival in liver transplant candidates. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct; 135(4):1168-75. PMID: 18644373.
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    84. Ji C, Shinohara M, Vance D, Than TA, Ookhtens M, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Effect of transgenic extrahepatic expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase on alcohol or homocysteine-induced fatty liver. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jun; 32(6):1049-58. PMID: 18498552.
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    85. Saberi B, Shinohara M, Ybanez MD, Hanawa N, Gaarde WA, Kaplowitz N, Han D. Regulation of H(2)O(2)-induced necrosis by PKC and AMP-activated kinase signaling in primary cultured hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Jul; 295(1):C50-63. PMID: 18463227.
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    86. Hanawa N, Shinohara M, Saberi B, Gaarde WA, Han D, Kaplowitz N. Role of JNK translocation to mitochondria leading to inhibition of mitochondria bioenergetics in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 16; 283(20):13565-77. PMID: 18337250; PMCID: PMC2376214.
    87. Kaplowitz N, Than TA, Shinohara M, Ji C. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2007 Nov; 27(4):367-77. PMID: 17979073.
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    88. Ji C, Shinohara M, Kuhlenkamp J, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2007 Nov; 46(5):1586-96. PMID: 17705221.
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    89. Lou H, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione depletion down-regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity via IkappaB kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 05; 282(40):29470-81. PMID: 17690092.
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    90. Gunawan BK, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2007 Aug; 11(3):459-75, v. PMID: 17723915.
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    91. Purohit V, Abdelmalek MF, Barve S, Benevenga NJ, Halsted CH, Kaplowitz N, Kharbanda KK, Liu QY, Lu SC, McClain CJ, Swanson C, Zakhari S. Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul; 86(1):14-24. PMID: 17616758.
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    92. Abboud G, Kaplowitz N. Drug-induced liver injury. Drug Saf. 2007; 30(4):277-94. PMID: 17408305.
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    93. Andrade RJ, Lucena MI, Kaplowitz N, García-Munoz B, Borraz Y, Pachkoria K, García-Cortés M, Fernández MC, Pelaez G, Rodrigo L, Durán JA, Costa J, Planas R, Barriocanal A, Guarner C, Romero-Gomez M, Munoz-Yagüe T, Salmerón J, Hidalgo R. Outcome of acute idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury: Long-term follow-up in a hepatotoxicity registry. Hepatology. 2006 Dec; 44(6):1581-8. PMID: 17133470.
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    94. Rongey C, Kaplowitz N. Current concepts and controversies in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov 21; 12(43):6909-21. PMID: 17109510.
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    95. Kaplowitz N, Ji C. Unfolding new mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct; 21 Suppl 3:S7-9. PMID: 16958678.
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    96. Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Role of innate immunity in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Aug; 2(4):493-503. PMID: 16859400.
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    97. Watkins PB, Kaplowitz N, Slattery JT, Colonese CR, Colucci SV, Stewart PW, Harris SC. Aminotransferase elevations in healthy adults receiving 4 grams of acetaminophen daily: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Jul 05; 296(1):87-93. PMID: 16820551.
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    98. Gunawan BK, Liu ZX, Han D, Hanawa N, Gaarde WA, Kaplowitz N. c-Jun N-terminal kinase plays a major role in murine acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jul; 131(1):165-78. PMID: 16831600.
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    99. Ji C, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Predominant role of sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP) lipogenic pathways in hepatic steatosis in the murine intragastric ethanol feeding model. J Hepatol. 2006 Nov; 45(5):717-24. PMID: 16879892.
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    100. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. ER stress: can the liver cope? J Hepatol. 2006 Aug; 45(2):321-33. PMID: 16797772.
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    101. Liu ZX, Han D, Gunawan B, Kaplowitz N. Neutrophil depletion protects against murine acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Jun; 43(6):1220-30. PMID: 16729305.
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    102. Han D, Hanawa N, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Hydrogen peroxide and redox modulation sensitize primary mouse hepatocytes to TNF-induced apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Aug 15; 41(4):627-39. PMID: 16863996.
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    103. Nathwani RA, Kaplowitz N. Drug hepatotoxicity. Clin Liver Dis. 2006 May; 10(2):207-17, vii. PMID: 16971258.
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    104. Kaplowitz N. Rules and laws of drug hepatotoxicity. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006 Apr; 15(4):231-3. PMID: 16552791.
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    105. Han D, Hanawa N, Saberi B, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of liver injury. III. Role of glutathione redox status in liver injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Jul; 291(1):G1-7. PMID: 16500922.
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    106. Kaplowitz N. Liver biology and pathobiology. Hepatology. 2006 Feb; 43(2 Suppl 1):S235-8. PMID: 16447293.
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    107. Ji C, Mehrian-Shai R, Chan C, Hsu YH, Kaplowitz N. Role of CHOP in hepatic apoptosis in the murine model of intragastric ethanol feeding. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Aug; 29(8):1496-503. PMID: 16131858; PMCID: PMC1432051.
    108. Kaplowitz N. Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005 Jun; 4(6):489-99. PMID: 15931258.
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    109. Fernandez-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione: transport and role in disease and toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 May 01; 204(3):263-73. PMID: 15845418.
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    110. Nathwani RA, Pais S, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N. Serum alanine aminotransferase in skeletal muscle diseases. Hepatology. 2005 Feb; 41(2):380-2. PMID: 15660433.
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    111. Nathwani RA, Kumar SR, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N. Marked elevation in serum transaminases: an atypical presentation of choledocholithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Feb; 100(2):295-8. PMID: 15667485.
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    112. Liu ZX, Govindarajan S, Kaplowitz N. Innate immune system plays a critical role in determining the progression and severity of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2004 Dec; 127(6):1760-74. PMID: 15578514.
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    113. Neff GW, Reddy KR, Durazo FA, Meyer D, Marrero R, Kaplowitz N. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of weight loss diet supplements containing ma huang or usnic acid. J Hepatol. 2004 Dec; 41(6):1062-4. PMID: 15582145.
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    114. Kaplowitz N. Statin-induced hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology. 2004 Oct; 127(4):1278; author reply 1278-9. PMID: 15481021.
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    115. Francis GS, Kaplowitz N, Alteri E. Liver injury associated with the beta-interferons for MS. Neurology. 2004 Sep 28; 63(6):1142-3; author reply 1142-3. PMID: 15457586.
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    116. Ji C, Deng Q, Kaplowitz N. Role of TNF-alpha in ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and murine alcoholic liver injury. Hepatology. 2004 Aug; 40(2):442-51. PMID: 15368449.
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    117. Kaplowitz N. Acetaminophen hepatoxicity: what do we know, what don't we know, and what do we do next? Hepatology. 2004 Jul; 40(1):23-6. PMID: 15239082.
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    118. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and alcoholic liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jun 15; 10(12):1699-708. PMID: 15188490; PMCID: PMC4572253.
    119. Gunawan B, Kaplowitz N. Clinical perspectives on xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 May; 36(2):301-12. PMID: 15237856.
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    120. Kaplowitz N. Drug-induced liver injury. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 01; 38 Suppl 2:S44-8. PMID: 14986274.
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    121. Han D, Matsumaru K, Rettori D, Kaplowitz N. Usnic acid-induced necrosis of cultured mouse hepatocytes: inhibition of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 01; 67(3):439-51. PMID: 15037196.
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    122. Han D, Canali R, Rettori D, Kaplowitz N. Effect of glutathione depletion on sites and topology of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in mitochondria. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Nov; 64(5):1136-44. PMID: 14573763.
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    123. Coll O, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Sensitivity of the 2-oxoglutarate carrier to alcohol intake contributes to mitochondrial glutathione depletion. Hepatology. 2003 Sep; 38(3):692-702. PMID: 12939596.
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    124. Lou H, Ookhtens M, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Chelerythrine stimulates GSH transport by rat Mrp2 (Abcc2) expressed in canine kidney cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1335-44. PMID: 12893631.
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    125. Matsumaru K, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms for sensitization to TNF-induced apoptosis by acute glutathione depletion in murine hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2003 Jun; 37(6):1425-34. PMID: 12774022.
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    126. Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice. Gastroenterology. 2003 May; 124(5):1488-99. PMID: 12730887.
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    127. Lluis JM, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Acetaldehyde impairs mitochondrial glutathione transport in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Gastroenterology. 2003 Mar; 124(3):708-24. PMID: 12612910.
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    128. Kaplowitz N, Lewis JH, Watkins PB. Did this drug cause my patient's hepatitis? Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jan 21; 138(2):159-60; author reply 159-60. PMID: 12529106.
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    129. Francis GS, Grumser Y, Alteri E, Micaleff A, O'Brien F, Alsop J, Stam Moraga M, Kaplowitz N. Hepatic reactions during treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon-beta-1a: incidence and clinical significance. Drug Saf. 2003; 26(11):815-27. PMID: 12908850.
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    130. Liu ZX, Kaplowitz N. Immune-mediated drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2002 Aug; 6(3):755-74. PMID: 12362579.
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    131. Nagai H, Matsumaru K, Feng G, Kaplowitz N. Reduced glutathione depletion causes necrosis and sensitization to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2002 Jul; 36(1):55-64. PMID: 12085349.
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    132. Feng G, Kaplowitz N. Mechanism of staurosporine-induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 May; 282(5):G825-34. PMID: 11960779.
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    133. Mittur A, Wolkoff AW, Kaplowitz N. The thiol sensitivity of glutathione transport in sidedness-sorted basolateral liver plasma membrane and in Oatp1-expressing HeLa cell membrane. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 61(2):425-35. PMID: 11809868.
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    134. Kaplowitz N. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of toxic liver injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2002; 22(2):137-44. PMID: 12016545.
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    135. Colell A, Coll O, García-Ruiz C, París R, Tiribelli C, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid protects hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death by replenishing mitochondrial glutathione. Hepatology. 2001 Nov; 34(5):964-71. PMID: 11679967.
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    136. Tsukamoto H, Takei Y, McClain CJ, Joshi-Barve S, Hill D, Schmidt J, Deaciuc I, Barve S, Colell A, Garcia-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N, Fernandez-Checa JC, Yokoyama H, Okamura Y, Nakamura Y, Ishii H, Chawla RK, Barve S, Joshi-Barve S, Watson W, Nelson W, Lin M, Ohata M, Motomura K, Enomoto N, Ikejima K, Kitamura T, Oide H, Hirose M, Bradford BU, Rivera CA, Kono H, Peter S, Yamashina S, Konno A, Ishikawa M, Shimizu H, Sato N, Thurman R. How is the liver primed or sensitized for alcoholic liver disease? Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 May; 25(5 Suppl ISBRA):171S-181S. PMID: 11391068.
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    137. Kannan R, Ouyang B, Wawrousek E, Kaplowitz N, Andley UP. Regulation of GSH in alphaA-expressing human lens epithelial cell lines and in alphaA knockout mouse lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Feb; 42(2):409-16. PMID: 11157875.
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    138. Kaplowitz N. Causality assessment versus guilt-by-association in drug hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2001 Jan; 33(1):308-10. PMID: 11124850.
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    139. Kaplowitz N. Drug-induced liver disorders: implications for drug development and regulation. Drug Saf. 2001; 24(7):483-90. PMID: 11444721.
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    140. Mittur AV, Kaplowitz N, Kempner ES, Ookhtens M. Radiation inactivation studies of hepatic sinusoidal reduced glutathione transport system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Apr 05; 1464(2):207-18. PMID: 10727608.
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    141. Kaplowitz N. Cell death at the millennium. Implications for liver diseases. Clin Liver Dis. 2000 Feb; 4(1):1-23, v. PMID: 11232179.
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    142. Feng G, Kaplowitz N. Colchicine protects mice from the lethal effect of an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(3):329-39. PMID: 10675359.
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    143. Kannan R, Chakrabarti R, Tang D, Kim KJ, Kaplowitz N. GSH transport in human cerebrovascular endothelial cells and human astrocytes: evidence for luminal localization of Na+-dependent GSH transport in HCEC. Brain Res. 2000 Jan 10; 852(2):374-82. PMID: 10678765.
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    144. Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of liver cell injury. J Hepatol. 2000; 32(1 Suppl):39-47. PMID: 10728793.
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    145. Kaplowitz N. Avoiding hepatic injury from drugs. Gastroenterology. 1999 Oct; 117(4):759. PMID: 10500055.
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    146. Kannan R, Mittur A, Bao Y, Tsuruo T, Kaplowitz N. GSH transport in immortalized mouse brain endothelial cells: evidence for apical localization of a sodium-dependent GSH transporter. J Neurochem. 1999 Jul; 73(1):390-9. PMID: 10386992.
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    147. Selim K, Kaplowitz N. Hepatotoxicity of psychotropic drugs. Hepatology. 1999 May; 29(5):1347-51. PMID: 10216114.
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    148. Kannan R, Bao Y, Wang Y, Sarthy VP, Kaplowitz N. Protection from oxidant injury by sodium-dependent GSH uptake in retinal Müller cells. Exp Eye Res. 1999 May; 68(5):609-16. PMID: 10328975.
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    149. Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Miranda M, Ardite E, Marí M, Morales A, Corrales F, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Selective glutathione depletion of mitochondria by ethanol sensitizes hepatocytes to tumor necrosis factor. Gastroenterology. 1998 Dec; 115(6):1541-51. PMID: 9834283.
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    150. Kannan R, Bao Y, Mittur A, Andley UP, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione transport in immortalized HLE cells and expression of transport in HLE cell poly(A)+ RNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Jul; 39(8):1379-86. PMID: 9660486.
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    151. Mittur AV, Kaplowitz N, Kempner ES, Ookhtens M. Novel properties of hepatic canalicular reduced glutathione transport revealed by radiation inactivation. Am J Physiol. 1998 05; 274(5):G923-30. PMID: 9612274.
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    152. Huang ZZ, Li H, Cai J, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N, Lu SC. Changes in glutathione homeostasis during liver regeneration in the rat. Hepatology. 1998 Jan; 27(1):147-53. PMID: 9425930.
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    153. Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Role of the liver in interorgan homeostasis of glutathione and cyst(e)ine. Semin Liver Dis. 1998; 18(4):313-29. PMID: 9875551.
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    154. Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, Colell A. Mitochondrial glutathione: importance and transport. Semin Liver Dis. 1998; 18(4):389-401. PMID: 9875556.
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    155. Kaplowitz N. Hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies: insights into the intricacies of plant-animal warfare and cell death. Gastroenterology. 1997 Oct; 113(4):1408-12. PMID: 9322538.
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    156. Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Morales A, Ballesta A, Ookhtens M, Rodés J, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Transport of reduced glutathione in hepatic mitochondria and mitoplasts from ethanol-treated rats: effect of membrane physical properties and S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Hepatology. 1997 Sep; 26(3):699-708. PMID: 9303501.
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    157. Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, Colell A, Miranda M, Marí M, Ardite E, Morales A. GSH transport in mitochondria: defense against TNF-induced oxidative stress and alcohol-induced defect. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul; 273(1 Pt 1):G7-17. PMID: 9252504.
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    158. DeLeve LD, Wang X, Kaplowitz N, Shulman HM, Bart JA, van der Hoek A. Sinusoidal endothelial cells as a target for acetaminophen toxicity. Direct action versus requirement for hepatocyte activation in different mouse strains. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 May 09; 53(9):1339-45. PMID: 9214695.
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    159. Mackic JB, Kannan R, Kaplowitz N, Zlokovic BV. Low de novo glutathione synthesis from circulating sulfur amino acids in the lens epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 1997 Apr; 64(4):615-26. PMID: 9227280.
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    160. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Wu H, Sun WM, Stone L, Kaplowitz N. Progressive defect in biliary GSH secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Feb; 272(2 Pt 1):G374-82. PMID: 9124363.
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    161. Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N, Colell A, García-Ruiz C. Oxidative stress and alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Health Res World. 1997; 21(4):321-4. PMID: 15706743.
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    162. Kannan R, Yi JR, Tang D, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. Identification of a novel, sodium-dependent, reduced glutathione transporter in the rat lens epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Oct; 37(11):2269-75. PMID: 8843923.
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    163. Lu SC, Cai J, Kuhlenkamp J, Sun WM, Takikawa H, Takenaka O, Horie T, Yi J, Kaplowitz N. Alterations in glutathione homeostasis in mutant Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats. Hepatology. 1996 Jul; 24(1):253-8. PMID: 8707271.
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    164. Fernández-Checa JC, García-Ruiz C, Colell A, Yi JR, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of rat sinusoidal GSH transporter by thioethers: specificity, sidedness, and kinetics. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jun; 270(6 Pt 1):G969-75. PMID: 8764204.
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    165. Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y, Fernandez-Checa JC, Kuhlenkamp J, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Evidence that interference with binding to hepatic cytosol binders can inhibit bile acid excretion in rats. Hepatology. 1996 Jun; 23(6):1642-9. PMID: 8675188.
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    166. Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC, Kannan R, Garcia-Ruiz C, Ookhtens M, Yi JR. GSH transporters: molecular characterization and role in GSH homeostasis. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1996 May; 377(5):267-73. PMID: 8828817.
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    167. Fernández-Checa JC, Yi JR, García Ruiz C, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Plasma membrane and mitochondrial transport of hepatic reduced glutathione. Semin Liver Dis. 1996 May; 16(2):147-58. PMID: 8781020.
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    168. Kannan R, Yi JR, Tang D, Li Y, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. Evidence for the existence of a sodium-dependent glutathione (GSH) transporter. Expression of bovine brain capillary mRNA and size fractions in Xenopus laevis oocytes and dissociation from gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and facilitative GSH transporters. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19; 271(16):9754-8. PMID: 8621654.
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    169. Lu SC, Sun WM, Yi J, Ookhtens M, Sze G, Kaplowitz N. Role of two recently cloned rat liver GSH transporters in the ubiquitous transport of GSH in mammalian cells. J Clin Invest. 1996 Mar 15; 97(6):1488-96. PMID: 8617882.
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    170. DeLeve LD, Wang X, Kuhlenkamp JF, Kaplowitz N. Toxicity of azathioprine and monocrotaline in murine sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes: the role of glutathione and relevance to hepatic venoocclusive disease. Hepatology. 1996 Mar; 23(3):589-99. PMID: 8617441.
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    171. Mackic JB, Jinagouda S, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Kannan R, Kaplowitz N, Zlokovic BV. Transport of circulating reduced glutathione at the basolateral side of the anterior lens epithelium: physiologic importance and manipulations. Exp Eye Res. 1996 Jan; 62(1):29-37. PMID: 8674510.
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    172. Kaplowitz N, Tsukamoto H. Oxidative stress and liver disease. Prog Liver Dis. 1996; 14:131-59. PMID: 9055577.
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    173. DeLeve LD, Kaplowitz N. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1995 Dec; 24(4):787-810. PMID: 8749899.
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    174. García-Ruiz C, Colell A, Morales A, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Role of oxidative stress generated from the mitochondrial electron transport chain and mitochondrial glutathione status in loss of mitochondrial function and activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B: studies with isolated mitochondria and rat hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Nov; 48(5):825-34. PMID: 7476912.
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    175. Runnegar M, Berndt N, Kaplowitz N. Microcystin uptake and inhibition of protein phosphatases: effects of chemoprotectants and self-inhibition in relation to known hepatic transporters. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 Oct; 134(2):264-72. PMID: 7570603.
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    176. Kannan R, Yi JR, Zlokovic BV, Kaplowitz N. Molecular characterization of a reduced glutathione transporter in the lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Aug; 36(9):1785-92. PMID: 7635653.
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    177. García-Ruiz C, Morales A, Colell A, Rodés J, Yi JR, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Evidence that the rat hepatic mitochondrial carrier is distinct from the sinusoidal and canalicular transporters for reduced glutathione. Expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jul 07; 270(27):15946-9. PMID: 7608148.
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    178. Yi JR, Lu S, Fernández-Checa J, Kaplowitz N. Expression cloning of the cDNA for a polypeptide associated with rat hepatic sinusoidal reduced glutathione transport: characteristics and comparison with the canalicular transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Feb 28; 92(5):1495-9. PMID: 7878007.
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    179. García-Ruiz C, Morales A, Colell A, Ballesta A, Rodés J, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Feeding S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates both ethanol-induced depletion of mitochondrial glutathione and mitochondrial dysfunction in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 1995 Jan; 21(1):207-14. PMID: 7806156.
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    180. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Kaplowitz N, Weiss MH, Kannan R. Blood-to-lens transport of reduced glutathione in an in situ perfused guinea-pig eye. Exp Eye Res. 1994 Oct; 59(4):487-96. PMID: 7859824.
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    181. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Ge JL, Sun WM, Kaplowitz N. Specificity and directionality of thiol effects on sinusoidal glutathione transport in rat liver. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Sep; 46(3):578-85. PMID: 7935341.
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    182. García-Ruiz C, Morales A, Ballesta A, Rodés J, Kaplowitz N, Fernández-Checa JC. Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on glutathione and functional integrity of mitochondria in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jul; 94(1):193-201. PMID: 8040260.
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    183. Zlokovic BV, Mackic JB, McComb JG, Weiss MH, Kaplowitz N, Kannan R. Evidence for transcapillary transport of reduced glutathione in vascular perfused guinea-pig brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 May 30; 201(1):402-8. PMID: 8198602.
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    184. Torres AM, Kaplowitz N, Tiribelli C. Role of BSP/bilirubin binding protein and bilitranslocase in glutathione uptake in rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Apr 29; 200(2):1079-85. PMID: 8179585.
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    185. Yi JR, Lu S, Fernandez-Checa J, Kaplowitz N. Expression cloning of a rat hepatic reduced glutathione transporter with canalicular characteristics. J Clin Invest. 1994 Apr; 93(4):1841-5. PMID: 8163683.
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    186. Yamamuro W, Stolz A, Takikawa H, Sugimoto M, Kaplowitz N. Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (bile acid binder) in rat small intestine: comparison with glutathione S-transferase subunits. J Gastroenterol. 1994 Apr; 29(2):115-9. PMID: 8012502.
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    187. Sze G, Kaplowitz N, Ookhtens M, Lu SC. Bidirectional membrane transport of intact glutathione in Hep G2 cells. Am J Physiol. 1993 Dec; 265(6 Pt 1):G1128-34. PMID: 7904127.
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    188. Fernández-Checa JC, Hirano T, Tsukamoto H, Kaplowitz N. Mitochondrial glutathione depletion in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol. 1993 Nov-Dec; 10(6):469-75. PMID: 8123202.
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    189. Kuhlenkamp J, Ronk M, Yusin M, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Identification and purification of a human liver cytosolic tocopherol binding protein. Protein Expr Purif. 1993 Oct; 4(5):382-9. PMID: 8251749.
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    190. Lu SC, Ge JL, Huang HY, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. Thiol-disulfide effects on hepatic glutathione transport. Studies in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused livers. J Clin Invest. 1993 Sep; 92(3):1188-97. PMID: 8376579.
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    191. Fernández-Checa JC, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Selective induction by phenobarbital of the electrogenic transport of glutathione and organic anions in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25; 268(15):10836-41. PMID: 8496149.
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    192. Fernández-Checa JC, Yi JR, Garcia-Ruiz C, Knezic Z, Tahara SM, Kaplowitz N. Expression of rat liver reduced glutathione transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Biol Chem. 1993 Feb 05; 268(4):2324-8. PMID: 8428906.
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    193. Hirano T, Kaplowitz N, Tsukamoto H, Kamimura S, Fernandez-Checa JC. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione depletion and progression of experimental alcoholic liver disease in rats. Hepatology. 1992 Dec; 16(6):1423-7. PMID: 1446896.
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    194. Kannan R, Kuhlenkamp JF, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Transport of glutathione at blood-brain barrier of the rat: inhibition by glutathione analogs and age-dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Dec; 263(3):964-70. PMID: 1469653.
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    195. García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. Bidirectional mechanism of plasma membrane transport of reduced glutathione in intact rat hepatocytes and membrane vesicles. J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 05; 267(31):22256-64. PMID: 1429578.
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    196. Lu SC, Ge JL, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. Insulin and glucocorticoid dependence of hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthesis in the rat. Studies in cultured hepatocytes and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1992 Aug; 90(2):524-32. PMID: 1353765.
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    197. Yoshida H, Kuronuma Y, Iijima M, Harada T, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. The relationship between biliary secretion of bilirubin and glutathione in the rat. Gastroenterol Jpn. 1992 Jun; 27(3):369-73. PMID: 1624080.
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    198. Komatsu H, Koo A, Ghadishah E, Zeng H, Kuhlenkamp JF, Inoue M, Guth PH, Kaplowitz N. Neutrophil accumulation in ischemic reperfused rat liver: evidence for a role for superoxide free radicals. Am J Physiol. 1992 Apr; 262(4 Pt 1):G669-76. PMID: 1373565.
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    199. Koo A, Komatsu H, Tao G, Inoue M, Guth PH, Kaplowitz N. Contribution of no-reflow phenomenon to hepatic injury after ischemia-reperfusion: evidence for a role for superoxide anion. Hepatology. 1992 Mar; 15(3):507-14. PMID: 1312056.
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    200. Yoshida H, Yusin M, Ren I, Kuhlenkamp J, Hirano T, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Identification, purification, and immunochemical characterization of a tocopherol-binding protein in rat liver cytosol. J Lipid Res. 1992 Mar; 33(3):343-50. PMID: 1569384.
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    201. Fernández-Checa JC, Takikawa H, Horie T, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Canalicular transport of reduced glutathione in normal and mutant Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jan 25; 267(3):1667-73. PMID: 1730711.
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    202. Saiki H, Chan ET, Wong E, Yamamuro W, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Zonal distribution of cysteine uptake in the perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jan 05; 267(1):192-6. PMID: 1730587.
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    203. Yasue N, Chan ET, Kaplowitz N, Guth PH. Effect of phorone and allopurinol on ischemia-reperfusion injury in gastrointestinal mucosa of the rat. Pharmacology. 1992; 44(6):334-43. PMID: 1508963.
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    204. DeLeve LD, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione metabolism and its role in hepatotoxicity. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Dec; 52(3):287-305. PMID: 1820580.
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    205. Takikawa H, Fernandez-Checa JC, Kuhlenkamp J, Stolz A, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Effect of indomethacin on the uptake, metabolism and excretion of 3-oxocholic acid: studies in isolated hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Jul 30; 1084(3):247-50. PMID: 1888771.
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    206. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Garcia-Ruiz C, Kaplowitz N. Hormone-mediated down-regulation of hepatic glutathione synthesis in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1991 Jul; 88(1):260-9. PMID: 1647417.
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    207. Fernández-Checa JC, García-Ruiz C, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Impaired uptake of glutathione by hepatic mitochondria from chronic ethanol-fed rats. Tracer kinetic studies in vitro and in vivo and susceptibility to oxidant stress. J Clin Invest. 1991 Feb; 87(2):397-405. PMID: 1991826.
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    208. DeLeve LD, Kaplowitz N. Importance and regulation of hepatic glutathione. Semin Liver Dis. 1990 Nov; 10(4):251-66. PMID: 2281333.
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    209. Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N. The use of monochlorobimane to determine hepatic GSH levels and synthesis. Anal Biochem. 1990 Nov 01; 190(2):212-9. PMID: 2291468.
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    210. Lu SC, Garcia-Ruiz C, Kuhlenkamp J, Ookhtens M, Salas-Prato M, Kaplowitz N. Hormonal regulation of glutathione efflux. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 25; 265(27):16088-95. PMID: 2168879.
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    211. Kannan R, Kuhlenkamp JF, Jeandidier E, Trinh H, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Evidence for carrier-mediated transport of glutathione across the blood-brain barrier in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1990 Jun; 85(6):2009-13. PMID: 1971830.
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    212. Fernandez-Checa JC, Maddatu T, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of GSH efflux from rat liver by methionine: effects of GSH synthesis in cells and perfused organ. Am J Physiol. 1990 Jun; 258(6 Pt 1):G967-73. PMID: 2113771.
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    213. Gish RG, Garcia C, Reedy T, Kaplowitz N, Langer GA. Calcium compartmentation and exchange rates in primary hepatocyte culture. Anal Biochem. 1990 May 15; 187(1):187-96. PMID: 2372115.
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    214. Takikawa H, Stolz A, Kuroki S, Kaplowitz N. Oxidation and reduction of bile acid precursors by rat hepatic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and inhibition by bile acids and indomethacin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Apr 02; 1043(2):153-6. PMID: 2317526.
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    215. Takikawa H, Stolz A, Sugiyama Y, Yoshida H, Yamanaka M, Kaplowitz N. Relationship between the newly identified bile acid binder and bile acid oxidoreductases in human liver. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 05; 265(4):2132-6. PMID: 2153675.
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    216. Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. The use of isolated perfused liver in studies of biological transport processes. Methods Enzymol. 1990; 192:485-95. PMID: 2074805.
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    217. Fernandez-Checa JC, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Effects of chronic ethanol feeding on rat hepatocytic glutathione. Relationship of cytosolic glutathione to efflux and mitochondrial sequestration. J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr; 83(4):1247-52. PMID: 2703532.
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    218. Stolz A, Takikawa H, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. The role of cytoplasmic proteins in hepatic bile acid transport. Annu Rev Physiol. 1989; 51:161-76. PMID: 2653179.
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    219. Kaplowitz N, Yoshida H, Kuhlenkamp J, Slitsky B, Ren I, Stolz A. Tocopherol-binding proteins of hepatic cytosol. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989; 570:85-94. PMID: 2698112.
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    220. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Robert A, Kaplowitz N. Role of glutathione status in protection against ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Pharmacology. 1989; 38(1):57-60. PMID: 2727045.
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    221. Fernandez-Checa JC, Ren C, Aw TY, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Effect of membrane potential and cellular ATP on glutathione efflux from isolated rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct; 255(4 Pt 1):G403-8. PMID: 3177640.
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    222. Ookhtens M, Lyon I, Fernandez-Checa J, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of glutathione efflux in the perfused rat liver and isolated hepatocytes by organic anions and bilirubin. Kinetics, sidedness, and molecular forms. J Clin Invest. 1988 Aug; 82(2):608-16. PMID: 3403719.
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    223. Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of the effects of bile acids and GSH on the fluorescence of bound 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate and the enzymatic activity of cationic and neutral human hepatic GSH S-transferases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Apr 28; 954(1):37-43. PMID: 3358937.
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    224. Takikawa H, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of the binding sites of GSH S-transferases of the Ya- and Yb-subunit classes: effect of glutathione on the binding of bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1988 Mar; 29(3):279-86. PMID: 3379340.
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    225. Ookhtens M, Lyon I, Kaplowitz N. Effect of age on the sinusoidal release of hepatic glutathione from the perfused rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Nov 15; 36(22):4015-7. PMID: 3689434.
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    226. Takikawa H, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Cyclical oxidation-reduction of the C3 position on bile acids catalyzed by rat hepatic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. I. Studies with the purified enzyme, isolated rat hepatocytes, and inhibition by indomethacin. J Clin Invest. 1987 Sep; 80(3):852-60. PMID: 3476498.
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    227. Takikawa H, Ookhtens M, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Cyclical oxidation-reduction of the C3 position on bile acids catalyzed by 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. II. Studies in the prograde and retrograde single-pass, perfused rat liver and inhibition by indomethacin. J Clin Invest. 1987 Sep; 80(3):861-6. PMID: 3476499.
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    228. Fernandez-Checa JC, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on rat hepatocytic glutathione. Compartmentation, efflux, and response to incubation with ethanol. J Clin Invest. 1987 Jul; 80(1):57-62. PMID: 2885343.
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    229. Seeff LB, Beebe GW, Hoofnagle JH, Norman JE, Buskell-Bales Z, Waggoner JG, Kaplowitz N, Koff RS, Petrini JL, Schiff ER. A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army. N Engl J Med. 1987 Apr 16; 316(16):965-70. PMID: 2436048.
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    230. Aw TY, Ookhtens M, Kuhlenkamp JF, Kaplowitz N. Trans-stimulation and driving forces for GSH transport in sinusoidal membrane vesicles from rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Feb 27; 143(1):377-82. PMID: 3827928.
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    231. Stolz A, Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of the Y' bile acid binders in rat liver cytosol. Identification, kinetics, and physiologic significance. J Clin Invest. 1987 Feb; 79(2):427-34. PMID: 3468121.
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    232. Sugimoto M, Takikawa H, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Subunit heterogeneity of cationic human hepatic glutathione S-transferases. Pharmacology. 1987; 35(2):65-78. PMID: 3628463.
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    233. Takikawa H, Kaplowitz N. Binding of bile acids, oleic acid, and organic anions by rat and human hepatic Z protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Nov 15; 251(1):385-92. PMID: 3789743.
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    234. Takikawa H, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Purification of a 32.5 kDa monomeric sulfotransferase from rat liver with activity for bile acids and phenolic steroids. FEBS Lett. 1986 Oct 27; 207(2):193-7. PMID: 3464463.
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    235. Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y, Kaplowitz N. Binding of bile acids by glutathione S-transferases from rat liver. J Lipid Res. 1986 Sep; 27(9):955-66. PMID: 3783048.
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    236. Aw TY, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Mechanism of inhibition of glutathione efflux by methionine from isolated rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1986 Sep; 251(3 Pt 1):G354-61. PMID: 3752249.
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    237. Takikawa H, Stolz A, Sugimoto M, Sugiyama Y, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of the affinities of newly identified human bile acid binder and cationic glutathione S-transferase for bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1986 Jun; 27(6):652-7. PMID: 3746134.
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    238. Kaplowitz N, Aw TY, Simon FR, Stolz A. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Jun; 104(6):826-39. PMID: 3518564.
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    239. Stolz A, Sugiyama Y, Kuhlenkamp J, Osadchey B, Yamada T, Belknap W, Balistreri W, Kaplowitz N. Cytosolic bile acid binding protein in rat liver: radioimmunoassay, molecular forms, developmental characteristics and organ distribution. Hepatology. 1986 May-Jun; 6(3):433-9. PMID: 3710432.
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    240. Aw TY, Ookhtens M, Ren C, Kaplowitz N. Kinetics of glutathione efflux from isolated rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1986 Feb; 250(2 Pt 1):G236-43. PMID: 3953803.
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    241. Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y, Stolz A, Sugimoto M, Kaplowitz N. Organic anion-binding by human hepatic GSH S-transferases. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Jan 15; 35(2):354-6. PMID: 3942604.
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    242. Sugimoto M, Kuhlenkamp J, Ookhtens M, Aw TY, Reeve J, Kaplowitz N. Gamma-glutamylcysteine: a substrate for glutathione S-transferases. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Oct 15; 34(20):3643-7. PMID: 4052106.
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    243. Olson CE, Soll AH, Kaplowitz N. Modulating effect of thiol-disulfide status on [14C]aminopyrine accumulation in the isolated parietal cell. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jul 05; 260(13):8020-5. PMID: 4008488.
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    244. Lyon I, Kaplowitz N. Acetaldehyde-dependent oxidation of glutathione catalyzed by rat liver cytosol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Jun 28; 129(3):949-57. PMID: 4015660.
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    245. Cerra FB, Cheung NK, Fischer JE, Kaplowitz N, Schiff ER, Dienstag JL, Bower RH, Mabry CD, Leevy CM, Kiernan T. Disease-specific amino acid infusion (F080) in hepatic encephalopathy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1985 May-Jun; 9(3):288-95. PMID: 3892073.
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    246. Ookhtens M, Hobdy K, Corvasce MC, Aw TY, Kaplowitz N. Sinusoidal efflux of glutathione in the perfused rat liver. Evidence for a carrier-mediated process. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jan; 75(1):258-65. PMID: 3965506.
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    247. Kaplowitz N, Aw TY, Ookhtens M. The regulation of hepatic glutathione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1985; 25:715-44. PMID: 3890714.
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    248. Sugiyama Y, Stolz A, Sugimoto M, Kuhlenkamp J, Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Identification and partial purification of a unique phenolic steroid sulphotransferase in rat liver cytosol. Biochem J. 1984 Dec 15; 224(3):947-53. PMID: 6596951.
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    249. Stolz A, Sugiyama Y, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. Identification and purification of a 36 kDa bile acid binder in human hepatic cytosol. FEBS Lett. 1984 Nov 05; 177(1):31-5. PMID: 6500050.
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    250. Sugiyama Y, Sugimoto M, Stolz A, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of the binding affinities of five forms of rat glutathione S-transferases for bilirubin, sulfobromophthalein and hematin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1984 Nov 01; 33(21):3511-3. PMID: 6497907.
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    251. Sugiyama Y, Stolz A, Sugimoto M, Kaplowitz N. Evidence for a common high affinity binding site on glutathione S-transferase B for lithocholic acid and bilirubin. J Lipid Res. 1984 Nov; 25(11):1177-83. PMID: 6520541.
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    252. Sugiyama Y, Stolz A, Hershman JM, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of binding of thyroid hormone analogues to hepatic organic anion binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984 Sep 28; 801(2):184-8. PMID: 6477965.
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    253. Robert A, Eberle D, Kaplowitz N. Role of glutathione in gastric mucosal cytoprotection. Am J Physiol. 1984 Sep; 247(3 Pt 1):G296-304. PMID: 6591806.
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    254. Aw TY, Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of glutathione efflux from isolated rat hepatocytes by methionine. J Biol Chem. 1984 Aug 10; 259(15):9355-8. PMID: 6746650.
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    255. Stolz A, Yamada T, Sugiyama Y, Belknap W, Kaplowitz N. Quantitation and characterization of a newly described organic anion binder by radioimmunoassay. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984 Jul 30; 800(2):171-7. PMID: 6743689.
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    256. Sugiyama Y, Kaplowitz N. Binding of glutathione by rat liver cytosol. Pharmacology. 1984; 28(2):61-6. PMID: 6709688.
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    257. Sugiyama Y, Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Newly identified bile acid binders in rat liver cytosol. Purification and comparison with glutathione S-transferases. J Biol Chem. 1983 Mar 25; 258(6):3602-7. PMID: 6833218.
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    258. Kaplowitz N, Eberle DE, Petrini J, Touloukian J, Corvasce MC, Kuhlenkamp J. Factors influencing the efflux of hepatic glutathione into bile in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Jan; 224(1):141-7. PMID: 6848740.
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    259. Sugiyama Y, Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Newly identified organic anion-binding proteins in rat liver cytosol. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Dec 20; 709(2):342-52. PMID: 6817804.
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    260. Kaplowitz N. Propylthiouracil treatment for alcoholic hepatitis: should it and does it work? Gastroenterology. 1982 Jun; 82(6):1468-71. PMID: 7067965.
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    261. Sugiyama Y, Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Identification of hepatic Z-protein in a marine elasmobranch, Platyrhinoides triseriata. Biochem J. 1982 May 01; 203(2):377-81. PMID: 7115292.
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    262. Sugiyama Y, Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione S-transferases in elasmobranch liver. Molecular heterogeneity, catalytic and binding properties, and purification. Biochem J. 1981 Dec 01; 199(3):749-56. PMID: 7340827.
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    263. Kaplowitz N. The importance and regulation of hepatic glutathione. Yale J Biol Med. 1981 Nov-Dec; 54(6):497-502. PMID: 7342494.
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    264. Yamada T, Chopra IJ, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of rat hepatic thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase by propylthiouracil: relation to site of interaction of thyroxine and glutathione. J Endocrinol Invest. 1981 Oct-Dec; 4(4):379-87. PMID: 7334183.
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    265. Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC, Chen TS, Craig R, Kaplowitz N, Kiernan TW, Wollman J. Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology. 1981 Sep-Oct; 1(5):431-5. PMID: 7308988.
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    266. Maitra SK, Rachmilewitz D, Eberle D, Kaplowitz N. The hepatocellular uptake and biliary excretion of endotoxin in the rat. Hepatology. 1981 Sep-Oct; 1(5):401-7. PMID: 7030904.
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    267. Touloukian J, Kaplowitz N. Halothane-induced hepatic disease. Semin Liver Dis. 1981 May; 1(2):134-42. PMID: 7347017.
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    268. Eberle D, Clarke R, Kaplowitz N. Rapid oxidation in vitro of endogenous and exogenous glutathione in bile of rats. J Biol Chem. 1981 Mar 10; 256(5):2115-7. PMID: 7462234.
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    269. Melmed S, Nelson M, Kaplowitz N, Yamada T, Hershman JM. Glutathione-dependent thyroxine 5'-monodeiodination modulates growth hormone production by cultured nonthyrotropic rat pituitary cells. Endocrinology. 1981 Mar; 108(3):970-6. PMID: 7460854.
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    270. Yamada T, Ludwig S, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. Direct protection against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by propylthiouracil. In vivo and in vitro studies in rats and mice. J Clin Invest. 1981 Mar; 67(3):688-95. PMID: 7204554.
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    271. Afroudakis A, Kaplowitz N. Extrahepatic obstruction in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1981 Jan; 5(1):110-8. PMID: 7013536.
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    272. Afroudakis A, Kaplowitz N. Liver histopathology in chronic common bile duct stenosis due to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Hepatology. 1981 Jan-Feb; 1(1):65-72. PMID: 7286890.
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    273. Kaplowitz N. Physiological significance of glutathione S-transferases. Am J Physiol. 1980 Dec; 239(6):G439-44. PMID: 7446736.
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    274. Ludwig S, Kaplowitz N. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on serum and liver transaminases in experimental liver injury in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1980 Sep; 79(3):545-9. PMID: 7429115.
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    275. Reeve J, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N. Estimation of glutathione in rat liver by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: separation from cysteine and gamma-glutamylcysteine. J Chromatogr. 1980 Jun 27; 194(3):424-8. PMID: 7391218.
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    276. Kaplowitz N. Bile acid tolerance tests: rationale. Gastroenterology. 1980 Jun; 78(6):1654-5. PMID: 7372082.
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    277. von Bahr C, Glaumann H, Gudas J, Kaplowitz N. Inhibition of hepatic metabolism of azathioprine by furosemide in human liver in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 1980 May 15; 29(10):1439-41. PMID: 7396978.
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    278. Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Propylthiouracil. A substrate for the glutathione S-transferases that competes with glutathione. J Biol Chem. 1980 Apr 25; 255(8):3508-13. PMID: 7364753.
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    279. Yamada T, Kaplowitz N. Binding of ethacrynic acid to hepatic glutathione S-transferases in vivo in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1980 Apr 15; 29(8):1205-8. PMID: 7387738.
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    280. Kaplowitz N, Kuhlenkamp J, Goldstein L, Reeve J. Effect of salicylates and phenobarbital on hepatic glutathione in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980 Feb; 212(2):240-5. PMID: 7351635.
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    281. Littenberg G, Afroudakis A, Kaplowitz N. Common bile duct stenosis from chronic pancreatitis: a clinical and pathologic spectrum. Medicine (Baltimore). 1979 Nov; 58(6):385-412. PMID: 514065.
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    282. Harrison AR, Littenberg G, Goldstein L, Kaplowitz N. Pruritus, cimetidine, and polycythemia. N Engl J Med. 1979 Feb 22; 300(8):433-4. PMID: 366415.
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    283. Afshani P, Littenberg GD, Wollman J, Kaplowitz N. Significance of microscopic cholangitis in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 1978 Dec; 75(6):1045-50. PMID: 710856.
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    284. Casciato DA, Klein CA, Kaplowitz N, Scott JL. Aplastic anemia associated with type B viral hepatitis. Arch Intern Med. 1978 Oct; 138(10):1557-8. PMID: 708179.
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    285. Kaplowitz N. Cholestatic liver disease. Hosp Pract. 1978 Aug; 13(8):83-92. PMID: 689682.
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    286. Afroudakis A, Bhuta SM, Ranganath KA, Kaplowitz N. Obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma. Report of three cases. Am J Dig Dis. 1978 Jul; 23(7):609-17. PMID: 210657.
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    287. Wallin JD, Clifton G, Kaplowitz N. The effect of phenobarbital, probenecid and diethyl maleate on the pharmaco-kinetics and biliary excretion of ethacrynic acid in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1978 May; 205(2):471-9. PMID: 641842.
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    288. Kaplowitz N, Spina C, Graham M, Kuhlenkamp J. Glutathione S-transferase in human lymphoid cell lines and fractionated peripheral leucocytes. Biochem J. 1978 Mar 01; 169(3):465-70. PMID: 646786.
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    289. Clifton G, Kaplowitz N. Effect of dietary phenobarbital, 3,4-benzo(alpha)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene on hepatic, intestinal and renal glutathione s-transferase activities in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978; 27(8):1284-7. PMID: 697926.
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    290. Kaplowitz N, Kuhlenkamp J. Inhibition of hepatic metabolism of azathioprine in vivo. Gastroenterology. 1978 Jan; 74(1):90-2. PMID: 618434.
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    291. Lee PA, Wallin JD, Kaplowitz N, Burkhartsmeier GL, Kane JP, Lewis SB. Endocrine and metabolic alterations with food and water deprivation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977 Dec; 30(12):1953-62. PMID: 412411.
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    292. Clifton G, Kaplowitz N. The glutathione S-transferases of the small intestine in the rat. Cancer Res. 1977 Mar; 37(3):788-91. PMID: 837376.
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    293. Kaplowitz N. Interaction of azathioprine and glutathione in the liver of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Mar; 200(3):479-86. PMID: 850124.
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    294. Wallin JD, Ryals P, Kaplowitz N. Metabolic clearance of furosemide in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Jan; 200(1):52-7. PMID: 833762.
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    295. Kaplowitz N. Enzymatic thiolysis of azathioprine in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Nov 01; 25(21):2421-6. PMID: 11807.
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    296. Kaplowitz N, Clifton G, Kuhlenkamp J, Wallin JD. Comparison of renal and hepatic glutathione S-transferases in the rat. Biochem J. 1976 Aug 15; 158(2):243-8. PMID: 985425.
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    297. Clifton G, Kaplowitz N, Wallin JD, Kuhlenkamp J. Drug induction and sex differences of renal glutathione S-transferases in the rat. Biochem J. 1975 Aug; 150(2):259-62. PMID: 1180917.
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    298. Kaplowitz N, Kuhlenkamp J, Clifton G. Hepatic glutathione S-transferases: identification by gel filtration and in vitro inhibition by organic anions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1975 May; 149(1):234-7. PMID: 1144434.
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    299. Kaplowitz N, Kuhlekamp J, Clifton G. Drug induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferases in male and female rats*. Biochem J. 1975 Feb; 146(2):351-6. PMID: 808217.
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    300. Meyers MA, Kaplowitz N, Bloom AA. Malabsorption secondary to mesenteric ischemia. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1973 Oct; 119(2):352-8. PMID: 4748224.
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    301. Kaplowitz N, Percy-Robb IW, Javitt NB. Role of hepatic anion-binding protein in bromsulphthalein conjugation. J Exp Med. 1973 Aug 01; 138(2):483-7. PMID: 4719680.
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    302. Kaplowitz N, Kok E, Javitt NB. Postprandial serum bile acid for the detection of hepatobiliary disease. JAMA. 1973 Jul 16; 225(3):292-3. PMID: 4740377.
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    303. Kaplowitz N, Finlayson ND, Walmsley P, Thurnherr N, Javitt NB. Hepatobiliary diseases associated with serum antimitochondrial antibody (AMA). Am J Med. 1973 Jun; 54(6):725-30. PMID: 4705417.
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    304. Kaplowitz N, Javitt NB. Quantitative analysis of unconjugated and conjugated bile acids in duodenal fluid by densitometry after paper electrophoresis. J Lipid Res. 1973 Mar; 14(2):224-8. PMID: 4698269.
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    305. Kaplowitz N, Javitt N, Kappas A. Coproporphyrin I and 3 excretion in bile and urine. J Clin Invest. 1972 Nov; 51(11):2895-9. PMID: 5080415.
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    306. Kaplowitz N, Javitt N, Harber LC. Isolation of erythrocytes with normal protoporphyrin levels in erythropoietic protoporphyria. N Engl J Med. 1968 May 16; 278(20):1077-81. PMID: 5646228.
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