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    Carolee Joyce Winstein, BA, BS, MS, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolHerman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC
    DepartmentBiokinesiology and Physical Therapy
    AddressCHP 155
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-9006
    Phone+1 323 442 2903

       Overview 
       Overview
      Carolee J. Winstein, PhD, PT, FAPTA is professor of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy and directs the Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. She holds a joint appointment in the Department of Neurology, USC Keck School of Medicine. She is best known for work concerned with the functional neural and behavioral basis of motor control and learning and its relationship to neurorehabilitation. She has published extensively on scientifically derived neurorehabilitation approaches to enhance recovery and repair after adult onset stroke. Winstein is principal investigator (PI) for the first clinical research network, PTClinResNet, funded by the Foundation for Physical Therapy; she is Co-PI of the first National Institutes of Health (NIH) phase III Multi-site Randomized Clinical Trial of a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity recovery in stroke, Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE); she is PI for an individual investigator NIH funded grant, Brain and Behavioral Correlates of Arm Rehabilitation after Stroke, a companion to EXCITE; and Co-PI of a NIH roadmap planning and exploratory project, the Interdisciplinary Study of Neuroplasticity and Stroke Rehabilitation (ISNSR). In 2005, she was appointed to the National Advisory Board on Medical Rehabilitation Research (NABMRR) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the NIH. Recent research efforts that provide critical background and experience for the development of innovative approaches in neurorehabilitation include: 1) feasibility of Novel Virtual Environments and Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (NIH Phase I STTR), 2) Safety and Effectiveness of Cortical Stimulation in the Treatment of Upper Extremity Hemiparesis (Northstar Neuroscience, Inc.), and the recently awarded, NIH NINDS/NICHD Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) Stroke Initiative, a Multi-Center phase III Randomized control Trial.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Klamroth-Marganska V, Winstein CJ, Riener R. Erratum to: Robot-assisted and conventional therapies produce distinct rehabilitative trends in stroke survivors. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2016 Dec 06; 13(1):101..
        View in: PubMed
      2. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Klamroth-Marganska V, Winstein CJ, Riener R. Robot-assisted and conventional therapies produce distinct rehabilitative trends in stroke survivors. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2016 Oct 11; 13(1):92..
        View in: PubMed
      3. Kim B, Winstein C. Can Neurological Biomarkers of Brain Impairment Be Used to Predict Poststroke Motor Recovery? A Systematic Review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017 Jan; 31(1):3-24..
        View in: PubMed
      4. Winstein C, Wolf S, Dromerick AW. Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program for Stroke--Reply. JAMA. 2016 Jul 5; 316(1):102..
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      5. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, Bates B, Cherney LR, Cramer SC, Deruyter F, Eng JJ, Fisher B, Harvey RL, Lang CE, MacKay-Lyons M, Ottenbacher KJ, Pugh S, Reeves MJ, Richards LG, Stiers W, Zorowitz RD. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 Jun; 47(6):e98-e169..
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      6. Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Lane CJ, Nelsen MA, Lewthwaite R, Cen SY, Azen SP. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke: The ICARE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Feb 9; 315(6):571-81..
        View in: PubMed
      7. Sainburg RL, Maenza C, Winstein C, Good D. Motor Lateralization Provides a Foundation for Predicting and Treating Non-paretic Arm Motor Deficits in Stroke. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 957:257-272..
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      8. Lee TD, Wulf G, Winstein CJ, Zelaznik HN. In Memoriam: Richard Allen Schmidt (1941 - 2015). J Mot Behav. 2016 Jan-Feb; 48(1):1-4..
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      9. Chen YA, Chung YC, Proffitt R, Wade E, Winstein C. Attentional Demand of a Virtual Reality-Based Reaching Task in Nondisabled Older Adults. J Mot Learn Dev. 2015 Dec; 3(2):91-109..
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      10. Garrison KA, Rogalsky C, Sheng T, Liu B, Damasio H, Winstein CJ, Aziz-Zadeh LS. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis. Front Neurol. 2015; 6:196..
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      11. Park H, Kim S, Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Schweighofer N. Short-Duration and Intensive Training Improves Long-Term Reaching Performance in Individuals With Chronic Stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 Jul; 30(6):551-61..
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      12. Lee YY, Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Petzinger GM, Zelinski EM, Fisher BE. Context-Dependent Learning in People With Parkinson's Disease. J Mot Behav. 2016 May-Jun; 48(3):240-8..
        View in: PubMed
      13. Lawrence EL, Dayanidhi S, Fassola I, Requejo P, Leclercq C, Winstein CJ, Valero-Cuevas FJ. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7:108..
        View in: PubMed
      14. Wang X, Liu BJ, Martinez C, Zhang X, Winstein CJ. Development of a novel imaging informatics-based system with an intelligent workflow engine (IWEIS) to support imaging-based clinical trials. Comput Biol Med. 2016 Feb 1; 69:261-9..
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      15. Winstein CJ, Kay DB. Translating the science into practice: shaping rehabilitation practice to enhance recovery after brain damage. Prog Brain Res. 2015; 218:331-60..
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      16. Levy RM, Harvey RL, Kissela BM, Winstein CJ, Lutsep HL, Parrish TB, Cramer SC, Venkatesan L. Epidural Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation: Results of the Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blinded Everest Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 Feb; 30(2):107-19..
        View in: PubMed
      17. Winstein C, Requejo P. Innovative technologies for rehabilitation and health promotion: what is the evidence? Phys Ther. 2015 Mar; 95(3):294-8..
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      18. Sugg K, Müller S, Winstein C, Hathorn D, Dempsey A. Does Action Observation Training With Immediate Physical Practice Improve Hemiparetic Upper-Limb Function in Chronic Stroke? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Oct; 29(9):807-17..
        View in: PubMed
      19. Duff SV, He J, Nelsen MA, Lane CJ, Rowe VT, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Winstein CJ. Interrater reliability of the wolf motor function test-functional ability scale: why it matters. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Jun; 29(5):436-43..
        View in: PubMed
      20. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein CJ. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke II: planning and adjustments to control movement distance. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Nov; 232(11):3431-43..
        View in: PubMed
      21. Winstein C, Lewthwaite R, Blanton SR, Wolf LB, Wishart L. Infusing motor learning research into neurorehabilitation practice: a historical perspective with case exemplar from the accelerated skill acquisition program. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2014 Jul; 38(3):190-200..
        View in: PubMed
      22. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein CJ. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke: kinematic differences based on side of brain damage. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Jul; 232(7):2407-19..
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      23. Goh HT, Gordon J, Sullivan KJ, Winstein CJ. Evaluation of attentional demands during motor learning: validity of a dual-task probe paradigm. J Mot Behav. 2014; 46(2):95-105..
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      24. Proffitt R, Lange B, Chen C, Winstein C. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities. J Aging Phys Act. 2015 Jan; 23(1):24-33..
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      25. Wade E, Chen C, Winstein CJ. Spectral analyses of wrist motion in individuals poststroke: the development of a performance measure with promise for unsupervised settings. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Feb; 28(2):169-78..
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      26. Rose DK, Winstein CJ. Temporal coupling is more robust than spatial coupling: an investigation of interlimb coordination after stroke. J Mot Behav. 2013; 45(4):313-24..
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      27. Garrison KA, Aziz-Zadeh L, Wong SW, Liew SL, Winstein CJ. Modulating the motor system by action observation after stroke. Stroke. 2013 Aug; 44(8):2247-53..
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      28. Stewart JC, Gordon J, Winstein CJ. Planning and adjustments for the control of reach extent in a virtual environment. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013; 10:27..
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      29. Tretriluxana J, Runnarong N, Tretriluxana S, Prayoonwiwat N, Vachalathiti R, Winstein C. Feasibility investigation of the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP): insights into reach-to-grasp coordination of individuals with postacute stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2):151-60..
        View in: PubMed
      30. Han CE, Kim S, Chen S, Lai YH, Lee JY, Osu R, Winstein CJ, Schweighofer N. Quantifying arm nonuse in individuals poststroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Jun; 27(5):439-47..
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      31. Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Lane CJ, Nelsen MA, Lewthwaite R, Blanton S, Scott C, Reiss A, Cen SY, Holley R, Azen SP. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Neurol. 2013; 13:5..
        View in: PubMed
      32. Chen S, Lewthwaite R, Schweighofer N, Winstein CJ. Discriminant validity of a new measure of self-efficacy for reaching movements after stroke-induced hemiparesis. J Hand Ther. 2013 Apr-Jun; 26(2):116-22; quiz 123..
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      33. Schweighofer N, Choi Y, Winstein C, Gordon J. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Nov; 91(11 Suppl 3):S270-9..
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      34. Winstein CJ, Requejo PS, Zelinski EM, Mulroy SJ, Crimmins EM. A transformative subfield in rehabilitation science at the nexus of new technologies, aging, and disability. Front Psychol. 2012; 3:340..
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      35. Goh HT, Sullivan KJ, Gordon J, Wulf G, Winstein CJ. Dual-task practice enhances motor learning: a preliminary investigation. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Oct; 222(3):201-10..
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      36. Tan C, Tretriluxana J, Pitsch E, Runnarong N, Winstein CJ. Anticipatory Planning of Functional Reach-to-Grasp: A Pilot Study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Oct; 26(8):957-67..
        View in: PubMed
      37. Hidaka Y, Han CE, Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Schweighofer N. Use It and Improve It or Lose It: Interactions between Arm Function and Use in Humans Post-stroke. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012 Feb; 8(2):e1002343..
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      38. Chen S, Wolf SL, Zhang Q, Thompson PA, Winstein CJ. Minimal Detectable Change of the Actual Amount of Use Test and the Motor Activity Log: The EXCITE Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 Jun; 26(5):507-14..
        View in: PubMed
      39. Kantak SS, Winstein CJ. Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: A focused review and perspective. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Mar 1; 228(1):219-31..
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      40. Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ, Winstein CJ. Transfer of motor learning engages specific neural substrates during motor memory consolidation dependent on the practice structure. J Mot Behav. 2011 Nov; 43(6):499-507..
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      41. Wade E, Winstein CJ. Virtual reality and robotics for stroke rehabilitation: where do we go from here? Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011 Nov-Dec; 18(6):685-700..
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      42. Mulroy SJ, Winstein CJ, Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Fowler EG, DeMuth SK, Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Lane CJ. Secondary mediation and regression analyses of the PTClinResNet database: determining causal relationships among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels for four physical therapy intervention trials. Phys Ther. 2011 Dec; 91(12):1766-79..
        View in: PubMed
      43. Schweighofer N, Lee JY, Goh HT, Choi Y, Kim SS, Stewart JC, Lewthwaite R, Winstein CJ. Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Nov; 106(5):2632-41..
        View in: PubMed
      44. Mulroy SJ, Thompson L, Kemp B, Hatchett PP, Newsam CJ, Lupold DG, Haubert LL, Eberly V, Ge TT, Azen SP, Winstein CJ, Gordon J. Strengthening and optimal movements for painful shoulders (STOMPS) in chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2011 Mar; 91(3):305-24..
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      45. Winstein CJ. Invited commentary. Phys Ther. 2011 Feb; 91(2):174-6; author reply 176-7..
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      46. Rizzo A, Requejo P, Winstein CJ, Lange B, Ragusa G, Merians A, Patton J, Banerjee P, Aisen M. Virtual reality applications for addressing the needs of those aging with disability. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011; 163:510-6..
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      47. Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton SR, Nichols-Larsen DS, Morris DM, Uswatte G, Taub E, Light KE, Sawaki L. The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing early and delayed constraint-induced movement therapy. Stroke. 2010 Oct; 41(10):2309-15..
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      48. Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ, Winstein CJ. Neural substrates of motor memory consolidation depend on practice structure. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Aug; 13(8):923-5..
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      49. Woodbury M, Velozo CA, Thompson PA, Light K, Uswatte G, Taub E, Winstein CJ, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen DS, Wolf SL. Measurement structure of the Wolf Motor Function Test: implications for motor control theory. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010 Nov-Dec; 24(9):791-801..
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      50. Lin CH, Winstein CJ, Fisher BE, Wu AD. Neural correlates of the contextual interference effect in motor learning: a transcranial magnetic stimulation investigation. J Mot Behav. 2010 Jul-Aug; 42(4):223-32..
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      51. Garrison KA, Winstein CJ, Aziz-Zadeh L. The mirror neuron system: a neural substrate for methods in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010 Jun; 24(5):404-12..
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      52. Winstein CJ. The best we can be is yet to come. Phys Ther. 2009 Nov; 89(11):1236-49..
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      53. Schweighofer N, Han CE, Wolf SL, Arbib MA, Winstein CJ. A functional threshold for long-term use of hand and arm function can be determined: predictions from a computational model and supporting data from the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. Phys Ther. 2009 Dec; 89(12):1327-36..
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      54. Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM, Ge TT, Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada KA, Powers CM, Azen S, Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Samudrala S, Chen TC, Shamie AN, Khoo LT, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC. An intensive, progressive exercise program reduces disability and improves functional performance in patients after single-level lumbar microdiskectomy. Phys Ther. 2009 Nov; 89(11):1145-57..
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      55. Ojha HA, Kern RW, Lin CH, Winstein CJ. Age affects the attentional demands of stair ambulation: evidence from a dual-task approach. Phys Ther. 2009 Oct; 89(10):1080-8..
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      56. Lin CH, Fisher BE, Wu AD, Ko YA, Lee LY, Winstein CJ. Neural correlate of the contextual interference effect in motor learning: a kinematic analysis. J Mot Behav. 2009 May; 41(3):232-42..
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      57. Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Fisher BE, Winstein CJ. Hemisphere specific impairments in reach-to-grasp control after stroke: effects of object size. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 Sep; 23(7):679-91..
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      58. Chen SY, Winstein CJ. A systematic review of voluntary arm recovery in hemiparetic stroke: critical predictors for meaningful outcomes using the international classification of functioning, disability, and health. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2009 Mar; 33(1):2-13..
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      59. Mataric M, Tapus A, Winstein C, Eriksson J. Socially assistive robotics for stroke and mild TBI rehabilitation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009; 145:249-62..
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      60. Winstein C, Pate P, Ge T, Ervin C, Baurley J, Sullivan KJ, Underwood SJ, Fowler EG, Mulroy S, Brown DA, Kulig K, Gordon J, Azen SP. The physical therapy clinical research network (PTClinResNet): methods, efficacy, and benefits of a rehabilitation research network. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Nov; 87(11):937-50..
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      61. Lin CH, Fisher BE, Winstein CJ, Wu AD, Gordon J. Contextual interference effect: elaborative processing or forgetting-reconstruction? A post hoc analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced effects on motor learning. J Mot Behav. 2008 Nov; 40(6):578-86..
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      62. Harvey RL, Winstein CJ. Design for the everest randomized trial of cortical stimulation and rehabilitation for arm function following stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 Jan; 23(1):32-44..
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      63. Park SW, Wolf SL, Blanton S, Winstein C, Nichols-Larsen DS. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a clinically meaningful motor activity log outcome. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008 Sep-Oct; 22(5):486-93..
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      64. Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Winstein CJ. Manual asymmetries in grasp pre-shaping and transport-grasp coordination. Exp Brain Res. 2008 Jun; 188(2):305-15..
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      65. Onla-or S, Winstein CJ. Determining the optimal challenge point for motor skill learning in adults with moderately severe Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008 Jul-Aug; 22(4):385-95..
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      66. Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Thompson PA, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen D, Clark PC. Retention of upper limb function in stroke survivors who have received constraint-induced movement therapy: the EXCITE randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Jan; 7(1):33-40..
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      67. Kaplon RT, Prettyman MG, Kushi CL, Winstein CJ. Six hours in the laboratory: a quantification of practice time during constraint-induced therapy (CIT). Clin Rehabil. 2007 Oct; 21(10):950-8..
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      68. Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Klassen T, Mulroy S, Ge T, Azen SP, Winstein CJ. Effects of task-specific locomotor and strength training in adults who were ambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2007 Dec; 87(12):1580-602..
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      69. Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S, Clark PC, Nichols-Larsen D. Looking in the rear view mirror when conversing with back seat drivers: the EXCITE trial revisited. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):379-87..
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      70. Lin CH, Sullivan KJ, Wu AD, Kantak S, Winstein CJ. Effect of task practice order on motor skill learning in adults with Parkinson disease: a pilot study. Phys Ther. 2007 Sep; 87(9):1120-31..
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      71. Winstein CJ, Bentzen KR, Boyd L, Schneider LS. Does the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, benefit both declarative and non-declarative processes in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease? Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Jul; 4(3):273-6..
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      72. Stewart JC, Yeh SC, Jung Y, Yoon H, Whitford M, Chen SY, Li L, McLaughlin M, Rizzo A, Winstein CJ. Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movements after stroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual reality system. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2007; 4:21..
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      73. Boyd LA, Quaney BM, Pohl PS, Winstein CJ. Learning implicitly: effects of task and severity after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):444-54..
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      74. Fowler EG, Knutson LM, DeMuth SK, Sugi M, Siebert K, Simms V, Azen SP, Winstein CJ. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS)--a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention. BMC Pediatr. 2007; 7:14..
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      75. Dong Y, Winstein CJ, Albistegui-DuBois R, Dobkin BH. Evolution of FMRI activation in the perilesional primary motor cortex and cerebellum with rehabilitation training-related motor gains after stroke: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Sep-Oct; 21(5):412-28..
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      76. Mataric MJ, Eriksson J, Feil-Seifer DJ, Winstein CJ. Socially assistive robotics for post-stroke rehabilitation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2007; 4:5..
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      77. Koski L, Lin JC, Wu AD, Winstein CJ. Reliability of intracortical and corticomotor excitability estimates obtained from the upper extremities in chronic stroke. Neurosci Res. 2007 May; 58(1):19-31..
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      78. Wolf SL, Newton H, Maddy D, Blanton S, Zhang Q, Winstein CJ, Morris DM, Light K. The Excite Trial: relationship of intensity of constraint induced movement therapy to improvement in the wolf motor function test. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007; 25(5-6):549-62..
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      79. Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light KE, Nichols-Larsen D. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006 Nov 1; 296(17):2095-104..
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      80. Uswatte G, Giuliani C, Winstein C, Zeringue A, Hobbs L, Wolf SL. Validity of accelerometry for monitoring real-world arm activity in patients with subacute stroke: evidence from the extremity constraint-induced therapy evaluation trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Oct; 87(10):1340-5..
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      81. Boyd L, Winstein C. Explicit information interferes with implicit motor learning of both continuous and discrete movement tasks after stroke. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2006 Jun; 30(2):46-57; discussion 58-9..
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      82. Dong Y, Dobkin BH, Cen SY, Wu AD, Winstein CJ. Motor cortex activation during treatment may predict therapeutic gains in paretic hand function after stroke. Stroke. 2006 Jun; 37(6):1552-5..
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      83. Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Morris DM, Rose DK, Winstein CJ, Taub E, Giuliani C, Pearson SL. The EXCITE trial: attributes of the Wolf Motor Function Test in patients with subacute stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2005 Sep; 19(3):194-205..
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      84. Boyd LA, Winstein CJ. Cerebellar stroke impairs temporal but not spatial accuracy during implicit motor learning. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004 Sep; 18(3):134-43..
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      85. Boyd LA, Winstein CJ. Providing explicit information disrupts implicit motor learning after basal ganglia stroke. Learn Mem. 2004 Jul-Aug; 11(4):388-96..
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      86. Winstein CJ, Rose DK, Tan SM, Lewthwaite R, Chui HC, Azen SP. A randomized controlled comparison of upper-extremity rehabilitation strategies in acute stroke: A pilot study of immediate and long-term outcomes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Apr; 85(4):620-8..
        View in: PubMed
      87. Rose DK, Winstein CJ. Bimanual training after stroke: are two hands better than one? Top Stroke Rehabil. 2004; 11(4):20-30..
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      88. Winstein C. Why is the functional independence measure used to identify some rehabilitation needs in stroke survivors when there are better tools? Physiother Res Int. 2004; 9(4):182-4..
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      89. Boyd LA, Winstein CJ. Impact of explicit information on implicit motor-sequence learning following middle cerebral artery stroke. Phys Ther. 2003 Nov; 83(11):976-89..
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      90. Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Nichols D, Wolf S. Methods for a multisite randomized trial to investigate the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy in improving upper extremity function among adults recovering from a cerebrovascular stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2003 Sep; 17(3):137-52..
        View in: PubMed
      91. Esparza DY, Archambault PS, Winstein CJ, Levin MF. Hemispheric specialization in the co-ordination of arm and trunk movements during pointing in patients with unilateral brain damage. Exp Brain Res. 2003 Feb; 148(4):488-97..
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