Young-Kwon Hong, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor of Surgery
SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
Phone+1 323 442 7825
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Korea University, SeoulBA1990Agricultural Chemistry
    University of California, DavisPh.D.1997Microbiology
    Harvard Institute of Human Genetics, BostonPostdoctoral2001Embryonic Stem Cells

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Hong obtained his Ph.D. in Microbiology at University of California, Davis. He then went to Harvard Institute of Human Genetics for his post-doctoral fellowship to study the global gene regulation in mouse embryonic stem cells. He then was recruited in 2001 as an Instructor at the Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. In 2005, he joined Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine. Currently, Dr. Hong is an Associate Professor of Surgery and affiliated with Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. He is currently serving as the Director of Transnational and Basic Science Research of Surgery Department. His main research interest is to dissect the molecular and cellular controls of tissue fluid homeostasis in diseases, including cancer, vascular malformation, inflammation, viral infection and wound healing, and to translate the acquired knowledge from the basic science research to benefit human health. Dr. Hong has trained more than 60 students (high school, undergraduate, graduate and medical), post-doctoral fellows, surgical residents, visiting scholars and junior faculty members during the past 12 years in the Keck School of Medicine.

    The research interests in the Hong laboratory are listed as below.

    1. Lymphatic Development and Differentiation
    Although the blood and lymphatic system were simultaneously discovered by Hippocrates, the lymphatic system has been extremely understudied despite its vital roles in human health and diseases, compared to the blood vascular system. About 100 years ago, Sabin proposed that lymphatics are generated from the blood vascular system. This Sabin’s theory has recently been confirmed using newly discovered molecular and cellular markers and research tools. We are interested to how various signal pathways control lymphatic development and differentiation. A better understanding of lymphatic development and differentiation will significantly help to treat many human diseases related to the lymphatic system.

    2. Organ-On-Chips
    We have recently launched a Organ-On-Chips program. Collaborating with other biomedical engineer groups, we aim to grow blood and lymphatic vessels on a chip to investigate the mechanisms of physiological and pathological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This new technology is powerful as not only it enables us to study the biology of vascular development and differentiation, but it models our organs and tissues for many biomedical and therapeutic purposes.

    3. Development of Lymphedema Therapy
    Surgery-related lymphedema is the leading morbidity that is associated with breast cancer survivors. To date, non-invasive therapeutic approaches are not available for this disfiguring, painful and demoralizing illness. We have recently published the therapeutic efficacy of retinoic acid against surgery-associated lymphedema in the prestigious journal Circulation. Our study found that retinoic acid could regenerate damaged lymphatic system and prevent potential lymphedema using animal models. We aim to further confirm this new therapy in rats and large animals and eventually bring to clinical trials. Because retinoic acids have been extensively studied for their medicinal properties and are already used in the clinics for other diseases, the new approach presents great promise and hope to the patients suffering from surgery-associated lymphedema.

    4. Fluid Homeostasis and Outflow Facility in the Eye
    The lymphatics play the essential roles in tissue fluid homeostasis in the interstitial space. Similarly, Schlemm’s canal (SC), a specialized vascular structure in the eye, controls the fluid homeostasis of the anterior chamber of the eye. SC is an endothelium-lined channel that encircles the margin of the cornea, and drains the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye into the circulation through collector channels. As the intraocular pressure (IOP) is closely correlated with the aqueous humor outflow (AHO), SC plays a key role in regulating IOP in the eye. When the draining function of SC becomes compromised, the IOP could be dramatically elevated and damage the ocular nerve, possibly causing glaucoma. Directly connected to the aqueous vein, SC has long been thought to be a venous extension, whose inner wall is lined by blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs). Interestingly, SC has also been known to display molecular, structure and functional features of lymphatic vessels, which are responsible for draining the interstitial fluids into the circulation. During development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are differentiated from BECs and this BEC-to-LEC fate reprogramming process is exquisitely controlled by a homeodomain transcription factor Prox1. Recently, my group, together with a vascular biology group in Korea, has published an exciting study, demonstrating that lymphatic regulator PROX1 determines SC integrity and identity. In addition, we have also collaborated with other groups in other two studies on development and maintenance of SC. We are thrilled to utilize our expertise to better understand how fluid homeostasis and the intraocular pressure are controlled in the healthy and glaucoma eyes. We are interested in defining the molecular mechanism by which fluid flow directs development and maintenance of SC through the shear stress regulator, Klf4. Our experience and resource would contribute to the advancement of the knowledge on the molecular controls of the intraocular pressure with therapeutic implications to glaucoma.

    5. Stem Cell Research
    We study the molecular mechanism underlying the vascular differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) with three goals. (a) to acquire a better understanding on the embryonic and postnatal genetic program that specifies vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, (b) to develop technology that allow maximal differentiation efficiency for 3-D printing of organs and (c) to acquire the clinical-grade vascular building blocks to treat vascular diseases, including vascular malformation and lymphedema.

    6. Cancer Development and Metastasis
    The majority of cancers recruits and invades lymphatic vessels for their metastasis. We are interested to know more about how breast and colon cancers interact with lymphatic vessels to promote their metastasis. Our preliminary data suggest that tumor-induced tissue pressure could play a previously unidentified role in their spread. Separately, various pathogens, such as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), directly infect vascular endothelial cells and cause neoplasm in HIV- and organ transplant patients. We are studying the molecular and cellular interactions between the host and the pathogens.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK114645Sep 1, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Prox1 Phosphorylation in Lymphatic Development and Function
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK114645Sep 1, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Study of CEACAM as Novel KSHV Receptors for Lymphatic Endothelial Cells
    NIH/NIDCR R21DE027891Jun 7, 2018 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cooperative Regulation of Mechanotransduction for Lymphatic Valve Development by Prox1 and Nf-kB
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL141857May 1, 2018 - Apr 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Flow Dependent Development and Maintenance of Schlemm's Canal
    NIH/NEI R21EY026260Aug 1, 2016 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Early Detection and Intervention of Surgery-Induced Lymphatic Insufficiency
    NIH/NHLBI R21HL119583Apr 4, 2014 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Retinoic acid signaling in lymphangiogenesis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL121036Jan 1, 2014 - Dec 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Basis of Nuchal Edema
    NIH/NICHD R01HD059762Jan 15, 2009 - Dec 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A Lymphatic-specific fluorescent transgenic model
    NIH/NHLBI R21HL082643Jun 1, 2006 - May 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Required Scholarly Project Mentor

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Banks K, Squitieri L, Bramos A, Johnson MB, Gardner DJ, Pourmoussa AJ, Jung E, Lee GK, Perrault DP, Fedenko A, Kim GH, Han B, Hong YK, Kulber DA, Wong AK. Human Acellular Dermis as Spacer for Small-Joint Arthroplasty: Analysis of Revascularization in a Rabbit Trapeziectomy Model. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 09; 142(3):679-686. PMID: 29878993.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Brown M, Johnson LA, Leone DA, Majek P, Vaahtomeri K, Senfter D, Bukosza N, Schachner H, Asfour G, Langer B, Hauschild R, Parapatics K, Hong YK, Bennett KL, Kain R, Detmar M, Sixt M, Jackson DG, Kerjaschki D. Lymphatic exosomes promote dendritic cell migration along guidance cues. J Cell Biol. 2018 Jun 04; 217(6):2205-2221. PMID: 29650776.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Izen RM, Yamazaki T, Nishinaka-Arai Y, Hong YK, Mukouyama YS. Postnatal development of lymphatic vasculature in the brain meninges. Dev Dyn. 2018 05; 247(5):741-753. PMID: 29493038.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Souma T, Thomson BR, Heinen S, Carota IA, Yamaguchi S, Onay T, Liu P, Ghosh AK, Li C, Eremina V, Hong YK, Economides AN, Vestweber D, Peters KG, Jin J, Quaggin SE. Context-dependent functions of angiopoietin 2 are determined by the endothelial phosphatase VEPTP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 02 06; 115(6):1298-1303. PMID: 29358379.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lee HR, Li F, Choi UY, Yu HR, Aldrovandi GM, Feng P, Gao SJ, Hong YK, Jung JU. Deregulation of HDAC5 by Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Plays an Essential Role in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Induced Lymphangiogenesis. MBio. 2018 01 16; 9(1). PMID: 29339432.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Gonzalez JM, Ko MK, Hong YK, Weigert R, Tan JCH. Deep tissue analysis of distal aqueous drainage structures and contractile features. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 06; 7(1):17071. PMID: 29213129.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kim J, Park DY, Bae H, Park DY, Kim D, Lee CK, Song S, Chung TY, Lim DH, Kubota Y, Hong YK, He Y, Augustin HG, Oliver G, Koh GY. Impaired angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling compromises Schlemm's canal integrity and induces glaucoma. J Clin Invest. 2017 Oct 02; 127(10):3877-3896. PMID: 28920924.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Baluk P, Yao LC, Flores JC, Choi D, Hong YK, McDonald DM. Rapamycin reversal of VEGF-C-driven lymphatic anomalies in the respiratory tract. JCI Insight. 2017 Aug 17; 2(16). PMID: 28814666.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Jung E, Gardner D, Choi D, Park E, Jin Seong Y, Yang S, Castorena-Gonzalez J, Louveau A, Zhou Z, Lee GK, Perrault DP, Lee S, Johnson M, Daghlian G, Lee M, Jin Hong Y, Kato Y, Kipnis J, Davis MJ, Wong AK, Hong YK. Development and Characterization of A Novel Prox1-EGFP Lymphatic and Schlemm's Canal Reporter Rat. Sci Rep. 2017 07 17; 7(1):5577. PMID: 28717161.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Yan KS, Gevaert O, Zheng GXY, Anchang B, Probert CS, Larkin KA, Davies PS, Cheng ZF, Kaddis JS, Han A, Roelf K, Calderon RI, Cynn E, Hu X, Mandleywala K, Wilhelmy J, Grimes SM, Corney DC, Boutet SC, Terry JM, Belgrader P, Ziraldo SB, Mikkelsen TS, Wang F, von Furstenberg RJ, Smith NR, Chandrakesan P, May R, Chrissy MAS, Jain R, Cartwright CA, Niland JC, Hong YK, Carrington J, Breault DT, Epstein J, Houchen CW, Lynch JP, Martin MG, Plevritis SK, Curtis C, Ji HP, Li L, Henning SJ, Wong MH, Kuo CJ. Intestinal Enteroendocrine Lineage Cells Possess Homeostatic and Injury-Inducible Stem Cell Activity. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 07 06; 21(1):78-90.e6. PMID: 28686870.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Johnson MB, Pang B, Gardner DJ, Niknam-Benia S, Soundarajan V, Bramos A, Perrault DP, Banks K, Lee GK, Baker RY, Kim GH, Lee S, Chai Y, Chen M, Li W, Kwong L, Hong YK, Wong AK. Topical Fibronectin Improves Wound Healing of Irradiated Skin. Sci Rep. 2017 06 20; 7(1):3876. PMID: 28634413.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Choi D, Park E, Jung E, Seong YJ, Yoo J, Lee E, Hong M, Lee S, Ishida H, Burford J, Peti-Peterdi J, Adams RH, Srikanth S, Gwack Y, Chen CS, Vogel HJ, Koh CJ, Wong AK, Hong YK. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting. J Clin Invest. 2017 Apr 03; 127(4):1225-1240. PMID: 28263185.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Choi D, Park E, Jung E, Seong YJ, Hong M, Lee S, Burford J, Gyarmati G, Peti-Peterdi J, Srikanth S, Gwack Y, Koh CJ, Boriushkin E, Hamik A, Wong AK, Hong YK. ORAI1 Activates Proliferation of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Response to Laminar Flow Through Krüppel-Like Factors 2 and 4. Circ Res. 2017 Apr 28; 120(9):1426-1439. PMID: 28167653.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Bramos A, Perrault D, Yang S, Jung E, Hong YK, Wong AK. Prevention of Postsurgical Lymphedema by 9-cis Retinoic Acid. Ann Surg. 2016 08; 264(2):353-61. PMID: 26655920.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hong M, Jung E, Yang S, Jung W, Seong YJ, Park E, Bramos A, Kim KE, Lee S, Daghlian G, Seo JI, Choi I, Choi IS, Koh CJ, Kobielak A, Ying QL, Johnson M, Gardner D, Wong AK, Choi D, Hong YK. Efficient Assessment of Developmental, Surgical and Pathological Lymphangiogenesis Using a Lymphatic Reporter Mouse and Its Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157126. PMID: 27280889; PMCID: PMC4900649.
    16. Chang JH, Putra I, Huang YH, Chang M, Han K, Zhong W, Gao X, Wang S, Dugas-Ford J, Nguyen T, Hong YK, Azar DT. Limited versus total epithelial debridement ocular surface injury: Live fluorescence imaging of hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::Myr-mCherry mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 10; 1860(10):2148-56. PMID: 27233452; PMCID: PMC4961530 [Available on 10/01/17].
    17. Klein S, Dieterich LC, Mathelier A, Chong C, Sliwa-Primorac A, Hong YK, Shin JW, Lizio M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Daub CO, Arner E, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, Forrest AR, Wasserman WW, Detmar M. DeepCAGE transcriptomics identify HOXD10 as a transcription factor regulating lymphatic endothelial responses to VEGF-C. J Cell Sci. 2016 07 01; 129(13):2573-85. PMID: 27199372.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Gonzalez JM, Ko MK, Masedunskas A, Hong YK, Weigert R, Tan JCH. Toward in vivo two-photon analysis of mouse aqueous outflow structure and function. Exp Eye Res. 2017 05; 158:161-170. PMID: 27179411.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Kwon S, Jeon JS, Kim SB, Hong YK, Ahn C, Sung JS, Choi I. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1. Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Feb 27; 15:41. PMID: 26922671; PMCID: PMC4769820.
    20. Choi D, Ramu S, Park E, Jung E, Yang S, Jung W, Choi I, Lee S, Kim KE, Seong YJ, Hong M, Daghlian G, Kim D, Shin E, Seo JI, Khatchadourian V, Zou M, Li W, De Filippo R, Kokorowski P, Chang A, Kim S, Bertoni A, Furlanetto TW, Shin S, Li M, Chen Y, Wong A, Koh C, Geliebter J, Hong YK. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 Feb 01; 76(3):582-93. PMID: 26609053; PMCID: PMC4738160 [Available on 02/01/17].
    21. Kumasaka T, Hoshika Y, Kobayashi E, Mitani K, Okura MK, Hong YK, Takahashi K, Seyama K. A Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a Three-Dimensional Culture System. Lymphat Res Biol. 2015 Dec; 13(4):248-52. PMID: 26574997.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Dieterich LC, Klein S, Mathelier A, Sliwa-Primorac A, Ma Q, Hong YK, Shin JW, Hamada M, Lizio M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Daub CO, Arner E, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, Forrest ARR, Wasserman WW, Detmar M. DeepCAGE Transcriptomics Reveal an Important Role of the Transcription Factor MAFB in the Lymphatic Endothelium. Cell Rep. 2015 Nov 17; 13(7):1493-1504. PMID: 26549461.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Choe K, Jang JY, Park I, Kim Y, Ahn S, Park DY, Hong YK, Alitalo K, Koh GY, Kim P. Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility. J Clin Invest. 2015 Nov 02; 125(11):4042-52. PMID: 26436648; PMCID: PMC4639990.
    24. Zhu J, Dugas-Ford J, Chang M, Purta P, Han KY, Hong YK, Dickinson ME, Rosenblatt MI, Chang JH, Azar DT. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel growth in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice. FEBS J. 2015 Apr; 282(8):1458-1467. PMID: 25688651; PMCID: PMC4400230.
    25. Shin K, Kataru RP, Park HJ, Kwon BI, Kim TW, Hong YK, Lee SH. TH2 cells and their cytokines regulate formation and function of lymphatic vessels. Nat Commun. 2015 Feb 04; 6:6196. PMID: 25648335.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Miyashita T, Burford JL, Hong YK, Gevorgyan H, Lam L, Hoshikawa H, Mori N, Peti-Peterdi J. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jan 30; 457(1):19-22. PMID: 25529452.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Thomson BR, Heinen S, Jeansson M, Ghosh AK, Fatima A, Sung HK, Onay T, Chen H, Yamaguchi S, Economides AN, Flenniken A, Gale NW, Hong YK, Fawzi A, Liu X, Kume T, Quaggin SE. A lymphatic defect causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma in mice. J Clin Invest. 2014 Oct; 124(10):4320-4. PMID: 25202984; PMCID: PMC4191022.
    28. Park DY, Lee J, Park I, Choi D, Lee S, Song S, Hwang Y, Hong KY, Nakaoka Y, Makinen T, Kim P, Alitalo K, Hong YK, Koh GY. Lymphatic regulator PROX1 determines Schlemm's canal integrity and identity. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep; 124(9):3960-74. PMID: 25061877; PMCID: PMC4153702.
    29. Truong TN, Li H, Hong YK, Chen L. Novel characterization and live imaging of Schlemm's canal expressing Prox-1. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e98245. PMID: 24827370; PMCID: PMC4020937.
    30. Baluk P, Adams A, Phillips K, Feng J, Hong YK, Brown MB, McDonald DM. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2014 May; 184(5):1577-92. PMID: 24631179; PMCID: PMC4005985.
    31. Kunstfeld R, Hawighorst T, Streit M, Hong YK, Nguyen L, Brown LF, Detmar M. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically induced multistep skin carcinogenesis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014 May; 74(2):106-15. PMID: 24507936; PMCID: PMC3975683.
    32. Lee YS, Choi D, Kim NY, Yang S, Jung E, Hong M, Yang D, Lenz HJ, Hong YK. CXCR2 inhibition enhances sulindac-mediated suppression of colon cancer development. Int J Cancer. 2014 Jul 01; 135(1):232-7. PMID: 24338666; PMCID: PMC4166491.
    33. Bowles J, Secker G, Nguyen C, Kazenwadel J, Truong V, Frampton E, Curtis C, Skoczylas R, Davidson TL, Miura N, Hong YK, Koopman P, Harvey NL, François M. Control of retinoid levels by CYP26B1 is important for lymphatic vascular development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2014 Feb 01; 386(1):25-33. PMID: 24361262.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Hong YK. Protective role of the lymphatics from sepsis. Blood. 2013 Sep 26; 122(13):2143-4. PMID: 24072845.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Miyashita T, Burford JL, Hong YK, Gevorgyan H, Lam L, Mori N, Peti-Peterdi J. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 25; 440(3):371-3. PMID: 24055876.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Nguyen GK, Hwang BH, Zhang Y, Monahan JF, Davis GB, Lee YS, Ragina NP, Wang C, Zhou ZY, Hong YK, Spivak RM, Wong AK. Novel biomarkers of arterial and venous ischemia in microvascular flaps. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71628. PMID: 23977093; PMCID: PMC3743756.
    37. Choi I, Lee YS, Chung HK, Choi D, Ecoiffier T, Lee HN, Kim KE, Lee S, Park EK, Maeng YS, Kim NY, Ladner RD, Petasis NA, Koh CJ, Chen L, Lenz HJ, Hong YK. Interleukin-8 reduces post-surgical lymphedema formation by promoting lymphatic vessel regeneration. Angiogenesis. 2013 Jan; 16(1):29-44. PMID: 22945845; PMCID: PMC4166493.
    38. Aguilar B, Choi I, Choi D, Chung HK, Lee S, Yoo J, Lee YS, Maeng YS, Lee HN, Park E, Kim KE, Kim NY, Baik JM, Jung JU, Koh CJ, Hong YK. Lymphatic reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus promotes the oncogenic activity of the virus-encoded G-protein-coupled receptor. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 15; 72(22):5833-42. PMID: 22942256; PMCID: PMC3500425.
    39. Yoo J, Lee HN, Choi I, Choi D, Chung HK, Kim KE, Lee S, Aguilar B, Kang J, Park E, Lee YS, Maeng YS, Kim NY, Koh CJ, Hong YK. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(6):e1002770. PMID: 22719258; PMCID: PMC3375311.
    40. Lee YS, Choi I, Ning Y, Kim NY, Khatchadourian V, Yang D, Chung HK, Choi D, LaBonte MJ, Ladner RD, Nagulapalli Venkata KC, Rosenberg DO, Petasis NA, Lenz HJ, Hong YK. Interleukin-8 and its receptor CXCR2 in the tumour microenvironment promote colon cancer growth, progression and metastasis. Br J Cancer. 2012 May 22; 106(11):1833-41. PMID: 22617157; PMCID: PMC3364111.
    41. Choi I, Lee S, Hong YK. The new era of the lymphatic system: no longer secondary to the blood vascular system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 Apr; 2(4):a006445. PMID: 22474611; PMCID: PMC3312397.
    42. Choi I, Lee S, Kyoung Chung H, Suk Lee Y, Eui Kim K, Choi D, Park EK, Yang D, Ecoiffier T, Monahan J, Chen W, Aguilar B, Lee HN, Yoo J, Koh CJ, Chen L, Wong AK, Hong YK. 9-cis retinoic acid promotes lymphangiogenesis and enhances lymphatic vessel regeneration: therapeutic implications of 9-cis retinoic acid for secondary lymphedema. Circulation. 2012 Feb 21; 125(7):872-82. PMID: 22275501; PMCID: PMC3327127.
    43. Choi I, Jeong HK, Hong YK .The Primo Vascular System. Detection of the Primo Vessels in the Rodent Thoracic Lymphatic Ducts. 2012.
    44. Ning Y, Manegold PC, Hong YK, Zhang W, Pohl A, Lurje G, Winder T, Yang D, LaBonte MJ, Wilson PM, Ladner RD, Lenz HJ. Interleukin-8 is associated with proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo in colon cancer cell line models. Int J Cancer. 2011 May 01; 128(9):2038-49. PMID: 20648559; PMCID: PMC3039715.
    45. Choi I, Chung HK, Ramu S, Lee HN, Kim KE, Lee S, Yoo J, Choi D, Lee YS, Aguilar B, Hong YK. Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse. Blood. 2011 Jan 06; 117(1):362-5. PMID: 20962325; PMCID: PMC3037757.
    46. Zhou F, Chang Z, Zhang L, Hong YK, Shen B, Wang B, Zhang F, Lu G, Tvorogov D, Alitalo K, Hemmings BA, Yang Z, He Y. Akt/Protein kinase B is required for lymphatic network formation, remodeling, and valve development. Am J Pathol. 2010 Oct; 177(4):2124-33. PMID: 20724596; PMCID: PMC2947305.
    47. Yoo J, Kang J, Lee HN, Aguilar B, Kafka D, Lee S, Choi I, Lee J, Ramu S, Haas J, Koh CJ, Hong YK. Kaposin-B enhances the PROX1 mRNA stability during lymphatic reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 12; 6(8):e1001046. PMID: 20730087; PMCID: PMC2921153.
    48. Zhang H, Tse J, Hu X, Witte M, Bernas M, Kang J, Tilahun F, Hong YK, Qiu M, Chen L. Novel discovery of LYVE-1 expression in the hyaloid vascular system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec; 51(12):6157-61. PMID: 20688736; PMCID: PMC3055750.
    49. Lee S, Choi I, Hong YK. Heterogeneity and plasticity of lymphatic endothelial cells. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010 Apr; 36(3):352-61. PMID: 20490985; PMCID: PMC3461948.
    50. Lin FJ, Chen X, Qin J, Hong YK, Tsai MJ, Tsai SY. Direct transcriptional regulation of neuropilin-2 by COUP-TFII modulates multiple steps in murine lymphatic vessel development. J Clin Invest. 2010 May; 120(5):1694-707. PMID: 20364082; PMCID: PMC2860940.
    51. Kang J, Yoo J, Lee S, Tang W, Aguilar B, Ramu S, Choi I, Otu HH, Shin JW, Dotto GP, Koh CJ, Detmar M, Hong YK. An exquisite cross-control mechanism among endothelial cell fate regulators directs the plasticity and heterogeneity of lymphatic endothelial cells. Blood. 2010 Jul 08; 116(1):140-50. PMID: 20351309; PMCID: PMC2904577.
    52. Aguilar B and Hong YK.The origin of Kaposi sarcoma tumor cells. Kaposi sarcoma. A model of oncogenesis. 2010; 123-138.
    53. 33. Ramu S., Hong YK.The Molecular Mechanism of Tumor Lymphangiogenesis. Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapy. 2010.
    54. Kang J, Ramu S, Lee S, Aguilar B, Ganesan SK, Yoo J, Kalra VK, Koh CJ, Hong YK. Phosphate-buffered saline-based nucleofection of primary endothelial cells. Anal Biochem. 2009 Mar 15; 386(2):251-5. PMID: 19150324; PMCID: PMC2677097.
    55. Lee S, Kang J, Yoo J, Ganesan SK, Cook SC, Aguilar B, Ramu S, Lee J, Hong YK. Prox1 physically and functionally interacts with COUP-TFII to specify lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Blood. 2009 Feb 19; 113(8):1856-9. PMID: 18815287; PMCID: PMC2647678.
    56. Kafka, D. Hong YK.Current understanding of lymphatic system development. Endothelial Biomedicine. 2007; 1533-1567 .
    57. Lee C, Seol SK, Lee BC, Hong YK, Je JH, Soh KS. Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels. Lymphat Res Biol. 2006; 4(4):181-90. PMID: 17394401.
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    58. Shin JW, Min M, Larrieu-Lahargue F, Canron X, Kunstfeld R, Nguyen L, Henderson JE, Bikfalvi A, Detmar M, Hong YK. Prox1 promotes lineage-specific expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-3 in lymphatic endothelium: a role for FGF signaling in lymphangiogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Feb; 17(2):576-84. PMID: 16291864.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Chang H, Dittmer DP, Shin YC, Chul SY, Hong Y, Jung JU. Role of Notch signal transduction in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14371-82. PMID: 16254371; PMCID: PMC1280196.
    60. Schacht V, Dadras SS, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Hong YK, Detmar M. Up-regulation of the lymphatic marker podoplanin, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, in human squamous cell carcinomas and germ cell tumors. Am J Pathol. 2005 Mar; 166(3):913-21. PMID: 15743802; PMCID: PMC1602360.
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    63. Kim KT, Ongusaha PP, Hong YK, Kurdistani SK, Nakamura M, Lu KP, Lee SW. Function of Drg1/Rit42 in p53-dependent mitotic spindle checkpoint. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 10; 279(37):38597-602. PMID: 15247272.
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    68. Noh YH, Matsuda K, Hong YK, Kunstfeld R, Riccardi L, Koch M, Oura H, Dadras SS, Streit M, Detmar M. An N-terminal 80 kDa recombinant fragment of human thrombospondin-2 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor induced endothelial cell migration in vitro and tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Dec; 121(6):1536-43. PMID: 14675207.
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    69. Hong YK, Detmar M. Prox1, master regulator of the lymphatic vasculature phenotype. Cell Tissue Res. 2003 Oct; 314(1):85-92. PMID: 12883994.
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    73. Hawighorst T, Skobe M, Streit M, Hong YK, Velasco P, Brown LF, Riccardi L, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Detmar M. Activation of the tie2 receptor by angiopoietin-1 enhances tumor vessel maturation and impairs squamous cell carcinoma growth. Am J Pathol. 2002 Apr; 160(4):1381-92. PMID: 11943723; PMCID: PMC1867215.
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    75. Beletskii A, Hong YK, Pehrson J, Egholm M, Strauss WM. PNA interference mapping demonstrates functional domains in the noncoding RNA Xist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31; 98(16):9215-20. PMID: 11481485; PMCID: PMC55400.
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    77. Hong YK, Kim DH, Beletskii A, Lee C, Memili E, Strauss WM. Development of two bacterial artificial chromosome shuttle vectors for a recombination-based cloning and regulated expression of large genes in mammalian cells. Anal Biochem. 2001 Apr 01; 291(1):142-8. PMID: 11262167.
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    78. Memili E, Hong YK, Kim DH, Ontiveros SD, Strauss WM. Murine Xist RNA isoforms are different at their 3' ends: a role for differential polyadenylation. Gene. 2001 Mar 21; 266(1-2):131-7. PMID: 11290427.
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    79. Maillet L, Tu C, Hong YK, Shuster EO, Collart MA. The essential function of Not1 lies within the Ccr4-Not complex. J Mol Biol. 2000 Oct 20; 303(2):131-43. PMID: 11023781.
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    80. Hong YK, Ontiveros SD, Strauss WM. A revision of the human XIST gene organization and structural comparison with mouse Xist. Mamm Genome. 2000 Mar; 11(3):220-4. PMID: 10723727.
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    81. Hong YK. Tetracycline-resistant gene cassette designed for construction of mutant libraries of a target gene. Biotechniques. 1999 Oct; 27(4):682-5. PMID: 10524306.
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    83. Chen C, Hong YK, Ontiveros SD, Egholm M, Strauss WM. Single base discrimination of CENP-B repeats on mouse and human Chromosomes with PNA-FISH. Mamm Genome. 1999 Jan; 10(1):13-8. PMID: 9892726.
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