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William Stohl, MD, PhD

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentMedicine
AddressHMR 711
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-9099
Phone+1 323 442 1959
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    Other Positions
    TitleChief, Division of Rheumatology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine1979Upjohn Award
    Arthritis Foundation Southern California Chapter2003James R. Klinenberg, M.D. Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Stohl’s research focus is on systemic lupus erythematosus (pathogenesis, natural course of disease, treatment, animal models, immunologic disturbances, novel therapeutics); rheumatoid arthritis (pathogenesis, natural course of disease, treatment, animal models, immunologic disturbances, novel therapeutics); Sjogren's syndrome (biomarkers, novel therapeutics); and B cells (basic biology, role in autoimmune diseases, development of targeted therapies).

    Dr. Stohl received his M.D. (1977) and his Ph.D. (1979) from the University Pennsylvania.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The vital role of BAFF in the development of SLE
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR050193May 16, 2006 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    T CELL CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN SLE
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR041006Aug 12, 1993 - Jun 30, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    POLYMORPHISM WITHIN T4/LEU3 AND SLE
    NIH/NIAMS R23AR036527Jan 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos
    Collapse Required Scholarly Project Mentor

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Doria A, Stohl W, Schwarting A, Okada M, Scheinberg M, van Vollenhoven R, Hammer AE, Groark J, Bass D, Fox NL, Roth D, Gordon D. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous belimumab in anti-dsDNA-positive, hypocomplementemic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Apr 18. PMID: 29671280.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Stohl HE, Lee RH, Manetta J, Kikly K, Korst LM, Stohl W. Maternal Serum B-Cell Activating Factor Levels: Candidate Early Biomarker for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Hypertension. 2017 11; 70(5):1007-1013. PMID: 28923901.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Stohl W. Systemic lupus erythematosus: BAFF emerges from the genetic shadows. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017 Aug; 13(8):456-457. PMID: 28615729.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Stohl W, Schwarting A, Okada M, Scheinberg M, Doria A, Hammer AE, Kleoudis C, Groark J, Bass D, Fox NL, Roth D, Gordon D. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Belimumab in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Fifty-Two-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 05; 69(5):1016-1027. PMID: 28118533.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Sindhava VJ, Oropallo MA, Moody K, Naradikian M, Higdon LE, Zhou L, Myles A, Green N, Nündel K, Stohl W, Schmidt AM, Cao W, Dorta-Estremera S, Kambayashi T, Marshak-Rothstein A, Cancro MP. A TLR9-dependent checkpoint governs B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens. J Clin Invest. 2017 May 01; 127(5):1651-1663. PMID: 28346226.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Stohl W. Inhibition of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017 06; 13(6):623-633. PMID: 28164726.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Johnson J, Yeter K, Rajbhandary R, Neal R, Tian Q, Jian J, Fadle N, Thurner L, Liu C, Stohl W. Serum progranulin levels in Hispanic rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF antagonists: a prospective, observational study. Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Mar; 36(3):507-516. PMID: 27830341.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Stohl W, Banfalvi A. B cell-independent contribution of BAFF to murine autoimmune disease. Clin Immunol. 2016 Nov; 172:111-116. PMID: 27430521.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Jacob CO, Yu N, Sindhava V, Cancro MP, Pawar RD, Putterman C, Stohl W. Differential Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in NZM 2328 Mice Deficient in Discrete Pairs of BAFF Receptors. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Sep; 67(9):2523-35. PMID: 25989238.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Stohl W, Merrill JT, Looney RJ, Buyon J, Wallace DJ, Weisman MH, Ginzler EM, Cooke B, Holloway D, Kaliyaperumal A, Kuchimanchi KR, Cheah TC, Rasmussen E, Ferbas J, Belouski SS, Tsuji W, Zack DJ. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with the BAFF antagonist "peptibody" blisibimod (AMG 623/A-623): results from randomized, double-blind phase 1a and phase 1b trials. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 Aug 20; 17:215. PMID: 26290435; PMCID: PMC4545922.
    11. Merrill JT, van Vollenhoven RF, Buyon JP, Furie RA, Stohl W, Morgan-Cox M, Dickson C, Anderson PW, Lee C, Berclaz PY, Dörner T. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tabalumab, a monoclonal antibody to B-cell activating factor, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: results from ILLUMINATE-2, a 52-week, phase III, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Feb; 75(2):332-40. PMID: 26293163.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Kumar V, Dasoveanu DC, Chyou S, Tzeng TC, Rozo C, Liang Y, Stohl W, Fu YX, Ruddle NH, Lu TT. A dendritic-cell-stromal axis maintains immune responses in lymph nodes. Immunity. 2015 Apr 21; 42(4):719-30. PMID: 25902483; PMCID: PMC4591553.
    13. Stohl W. Editorial: the BAFFling immunology of systemic lupus erythematosus: beyond B cells. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Mar; 67(3):612-5. PMID: 25385361.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Janga SR, Edman MC, Madrigal S, Shah M, Frousiakis SE, Renduchintala K, Zhu J, Bricel S, Silka K, Bach D, Heur M, Christianakis S, Arkfeld DG, Irvine J, Mack WJ, Stohl W. Tear cathepsin S as a candidate biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Jul; 66(7):1872-81. PMID: 24644101; PMCID: PMC4077975.
    15. Chu SY, Yeter K, Kotha R, Pong E, Miranda Y, Phung S, Chen H, Lee SH, Leung I, Bonzon C, Desjarlais JR, Stohl W, Szymkowski DE. Suppression of rheumatoid arthritis B cells by XmAb5871, an anti-CD19 antibody that coengages B cell antigen receptor complex and Fc? receptor IIb inhibitory receptor. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 May; 66(5):1153-64. PMID: 24782179.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Stohl W. Therapeutic targeting of the BAFF/APRIL axis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014 Apr; 18(4):473-89. PMID: 24521424.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Sindhava VJ, Scholz JL, Stohl W, Cancro MP. APRIL mediates peritoneal B-1 cell homeostasis. Immunol Lett. 2014 Aug; 160(2):120-7. PMID: 24512739; PMCID: PMC4058418.
    18. Goenka R, Matthews AH, Zhang B, O'Neill PJ, Scholz JL, Migone TS, Leonard WJ, Stohl W, Hershberg U, Cancro MP. Local BLyS production by T follicular cells mediates retention of high affinity B cells during affinity maturation. J Exp Med. 2014 Jan 13; 211(1):45-56. PMID: 24367004; PMCID: PMC3892970.
    19. Ginzler EM, Wallace DJ, Merrill JT, Furie RA, Stohl W, Chatham WW, Weinstein A, McKay JD, McCune WJ, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth WW, Petri MA. Disease control and safety of belimumab plus standard therapy over 7 years in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2014 Feb; 41(2):300-9. PMID: 24187095.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Stohl W. Future prospects in biologic therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Dec; 9(12):705-20. PMID: 24018550.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Shah HB, Joshi SK, Rampuria P, Devera TS, Lang GA, Stohl W, Lang ML. BAFF- and APRIL-dependent maintenance of antibody titers after immunization with T-dependent antigen and CD1d-binding ligand. J Immunol. 2013 Aug 01; 191(3):1154-63. PMID: 23797666; PMCID: PMC3720783.
    22. Stohl W, Merrill JT, McKay JD, Lisse JR, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth WW, Genovese MC. Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging Study. J Rheumatol. 2013 May; 40(5):579-89. PMID: 23547209.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Jacob CO, Yu N, Guo S, Jacob N, Quinn WJ, Sindhava V, Cancro MP, Goilav B, Putterman C, Migone TS, Stohl W. Development of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZM 2328 mice in the absence of any single BAFF receptor. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Apr; 65(4):1043-54. PMID: 23334904; PMCID: PMC3618582.
    24. Chu LH, Portugal C, Kawatkar AA, Stohl W, Nichol MB. Racial/ethnic differences in the use of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs among California Medicaid rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Feb; 65(2):299-303. PMID: 22807272.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Stohl W. Biologic differences between various inhibitors of the BLyS/BAFF pathway: should we expect differences between belimumab and other inhibitors in development? Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012 Aug; 14(4):303-9. PMID: 22547203.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kong N, Lan Q, Su W, Chen M, Wang J, Yang Z, Park R, Dagliyan G, Conti PS, Brand D, Liu Z, Stohl W, Zou H, Zheng SG. Induced T regulatory cells suppress osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis better than natural T regulatory cells. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Sep; 71(9):1567-1572. PMID: 22764040; PMCID: PMC4038329.
    27. Stohl W, Hiepe F, Latinis KM, Thomas M, Scheinberg MA, Clarke A, Aranow C, Wellborne FR, Abud-Mendoza C, Hough DR, Pineda L, Migone TS, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth WW, Chatham WW. Belimumab reduces autoantibodies, normalizes low complement levels, and reduces select B cell populations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jul; 64(7):2328-37. PMID: 22275291; PMCID: PMC3350827.
    28. Kawatkar AA, Hay JW, Stohl W, Nichol MB. Incremental expenditure of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic treatment using instrumental variables in panel data. Health Econ. 2013 Jul; 22(7):807-23. PMID: 22718267.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Chatham WW, Wallace DJ, Stohl W, Latinis KM, Manzi S, McCune WJ, Tegzová D, McKay JD, Avila-Armengol HE, Utset TO, Zhong ZJ, Hough DR, Freimuth WW, Migone TS. Effect of belimumab on vaccine antigen antibodies to influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus vaccines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the BLISS-76 trial. J Rheumatol. 2012 Aug; 39(8):1632-40. PMID: 22707609.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Jacob CO, Guo S, Jacob N, Pawar RD, Putterman C, Quinn WJ, Cancro MP, Migone TS, Stohl W. Dispensability of APRIL to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZM 2328 mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May; 64(5):1610-9. PMID: 22127792; PMCID: PMC3292707.
    31. Stohl W, Gomez-Reino J, Olech E, Dudler J, Fleischmann RM, Zerbini CA, Ashrafzadeh A, Grzeschik S, Bieraugel R, Green J, Francom S, Dummer W. Safety and efficacy of ocrelizumab in combination with methotrexate in MTX-naive subjects with rheumatoid arthritis: the phase III FILM trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Aug; 71(8):1289-96. PMID: 22307942; PMCID: PMC3396459.
    32. Stohl W, Hilbert DM. The discovery and development of belimumab: the anti-BLyS-lupus connection. Nat Biotechnol. 2012 Jan 09; 30(1):69-77. PMID: 22231104; PMCID: PMC3264947.
    33. Furie R, Petri M, Zamani O, Cervera R, Wallace DJ, Tegzová D, Sanchez-Guerrero J, Schwarting A, Merrill JT, Chatham WW, Stohl W, Ginzler EM, Hough DR, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth W, van Vollenhoven RF. A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B lymphocyte stimulator, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec; 63(12):3918-30. PMID: 22127708; PMCID: PMC5007058.
    34. Tak PP, Rigby W, Rubbert-Roth A, Peterfy C, van Vollenhoven RF, Stohl W, Healy E, Hessey E, Reynard M, Shaw T. Sustained inhibition of progressive joint damage with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results from the randomised controlled trial IMAGE. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Mar; 71(3):351-7. PMID: 22012969; PMCID: PMC3277723.
    35. Zhou X, Xia Z, Lan Q, Wang J, Su W, Han YP, Fan H, Liu Z, Stohl W, Zheng SG. BAFF promotes Th17 cells and aggravates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23629. PMID: 21897850; PMCID: PMC3163640.
    36. Jacob N, Stohl W. Cytokine disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Jul 06; 13(4):228. PMID: 21745419; PMCID: PMC3239336.
    37. Stohl W, Scholz JL, Cancro MP. Targeting BLyS in rheumatic disease: the sometimes-bumpy road from bench to bedside. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011 May; 23(3):305-10. PMID: 21330926; PMCID: PMC3154025.
    38. Jacob N, Guo S, Mathian A, Koss MN, Gindea S, Putterman C, Jacob CO, Stohl W. B Cell and BAFF dependence of IFN-a-exaggerated disease in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone NZM 2328 mice. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4984-93. PMID: 21383240; PMCID: PMC3074466.
    39. Horton HM, Chu SY, Ortiz EC, Pong E, Cemerski S, Leung IW, Jacob N, Zalevsky J, Desjarlais JR, Stohl W, Szymkowski DE. Antibody-mediated coengagement of Fc?RIIb and B cell receptor complex suppresses humoral immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 01; 186(7):4223-33. PMID: 21357255.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Tak PP, Rigby WF, Rubbert-Roth A, Peterfy CG, van Vollenhoven RF, Stohl W, Hessey E, Chen A, Tyrrell H, Shaw TM. Inhibition of joint damage and improved clinical outcomes with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: the IMAGE trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Jan; 70(1):39-46. PMID: 20937671.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Stohl W, Jacob N, Guo S, Morel L. Constitutive overexpression of BAFF in autoimmune-resistant mice drives only some aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Aug; 62(8):2432-42. PMID: 20506216; PMCID: PMC2921019.
    42. Stohl W. Systemic lupus erythematosus and its ABCs (APRIL/BLyS complexes). Arthritis Res Ther. 2010; 12(2):111. PMID: 20441604; PMCID: PMC2888214.
    43. Mavragani CP, La DT, Stohl W, Crow MK. Association of the response to tumor necrosis factor antagonists with plasma type I interferon activity and interferon-beta/alpha ratios in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a post hoc analysis of a predominantly Hispanic cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb; 62(2):392-401. PMID: 20112385; PMCID: PMC2821991.
    44. Jacob N, Stohl W. Autoantibody-dependent and autoantibody-independent roles for B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: past, present, and future. Autoimmunity. 2010 Feb; 43(1):84-97. PMID: 20014977; PMCID: PMC2809122.
    45. Hong SD, Reiff A, Yang HT, Migone TS, Ward CD, Marzan K, Shaham B, Phei WC, Garza J, Bernstein B, Stohl W. B lymphocyte stimulator expression in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Nov; 60(11):3400-9. PMID: 19877053.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Agrawal H, Jacob N, Carreras E, Bajana S, Putterman C, Turner S, Neas B, Mathian A, Koss MN, Stohl W, Kovats S, Jacob CO. Deficiency of type I IFN receptor in lupus-prone New Zealand mixed 2328 mice decreases dendritic cell numbers and activation and protects from disease. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 01; 183(9):6021-9. PMID: 19812195; PMCID: PMC2766036.
    47. Schwartz N, Rubinstein T, Burkly LC, Collins CE, Blanco I, Su L, Hojaili B, Mackay M, Aranow C, Stohl W, Rovin BH, Michaelson JS, Putterman C. Urinary TWEAK as a biomarker of lupus nephritis: a multicenter cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(5):R143. PMID: 19785730; PMCID: PMC2787265.
    48. Furie RA, Petri MA, Wallace DJ, Ginzler EM, Merrill JT, Stohl W, Chatham WW, Strand V, Weinstein A, Chevrier MR, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth WW. Novel evidence-based systemic lupus erythematosus responder index. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Sep 15; 61(9):1143-51. PMID: 19714615; PMCID: PMC2748175.
    49. Wallace DJ, Stohl W, Furie RA, Lisse JR, McKay JD, Merrill JT, Petri MA, Ginzler EM, Chatham WW, McCune WJ, Fernandez V, Chevrier MR, Zhong ZJ, Freimuth WW. A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Sep 15; 61(9):1168-78. PMID: 19714604; PMCID: PMC2758229.
    50. Jacob N, Yang H, Pricop L, Liu Y, Gao X, Zheng SG, Wang J, Gao HX, Putterman C, Koss MN, Stohl W, Jacob CO. Accelerated pathological and clinical nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone New Zealand Mixed 2328 mice doubly deficient in TNF receptor 1 and TNF receptor 2 via a Th17-associated pathway. J Immunol. 2009 Feb 15; 182(4):2532-41. PMID: 19201910; PMCID: PMC2790862.
    51. Collins CE, La DT, Yang HT, Massin F, Gibot S, Faure G, Stohl W. Elevated synovial expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 in patients with septic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Nov; 68(11):1768-74. PMID: 19054829.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Furie R, Stohl W, Ginzler EM, Becker M, Mishra N, Chatham W, Merrill JT, Weinstein A, McCune WJ, Zhong J, Cai W, Freimuth W. Biologic activity and safety of belimumab, a neutralizing anti-B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) monoclonal antibody: a phase I trial in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008; 10(5):R109. PMID: 18786258; PMCID: PMC2592791.
    53. Petri M, Stohl W, Chatham W, McCune WJ, Chevrier M, Ryel J, Recta V, Zhong J, Freimuth W. Association of plasma B lymphocyte stimulator levels and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Aug; 58(8):2453-9. PMID: 18668552.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Stohl W, Jacob N, Quinn WJ, Cancro MP, Gao H, Putterman C, Gao X, Pricop L, Koss MN. Global T cell dysregulation in non-autoimmune-prone mice promotes rapid development of BAFF-independent, systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2008 Jul 01; 181(1):833-41. PMID: 18566449; PMCID: PMC2587218.
    55. La DT, Collins CE, Yang HT, Migone TS, Stohl W. B lymphocyte stimulator expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonists: differential effects between good and poor clinical responders. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Aug; 67(8):1132-8. PMID: 17967830.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Cambridge G, Isenberg DA, Edwards JC, Leandro MJ, Migone TS, Teodorescu M, Stohl W. B cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationships among serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels, autoantibody profile and clinical response. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Jul; 67(7):1011-6. PMID: 17962238.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Looney RJ, Stohl W. New and promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007 Jul; 36(7 Suppl):18-23. PMID: 17694190.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Stohl W. Therapeutic targeting of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) in the rheumatic diseases. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Dec; 6(4):351-8. PMID: 17214581.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Schaller M, Stohl W, Benoit V, Tan SM, Johansen L, Ditzel HJ. Patients with inflammatory arthritic diseases harbor elevated serum and synovial fluid levels of free and immune-complexed glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 20; 349(2):838-45. PMID: 16949042.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Jacob CO, Pricop L, Putterman C, Koss MN, Liu Y, Kollaros M, Bixler SA, Ambrose CM, Scott ML, Stohl W. Paucity of clinical disease despite serological autoimmunity and kidney pathology in lupus-prone New Zealand mixed 2328 mice deficient in BAFF. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 15; 177(4):2671-80. PMID: 16888029; PMCID: PMC2896675.
    61. Stohl W, Looney RJ. B cell depletion therapy in systemic rheumatic diseases: different strokes for different folks? Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct; 121(1):1-12. PMID: 16697258.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Zheng SG, Wang JH, Stohl W, Kim KS, Gray JD, Horwitz DA. TGF-beta requires CTLA-4 early after T cell activation to induce FoxP3 and generate adaptive CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 15; 176(6):3321-9. PMID: 16517699.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Cambridge G, Stohl W, Leandro MJ, Migone TS, Hilbert DM, Edwards JC. Circulating levels of B lymphocyte stimulator in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following rituximab treatment: relationships with B cell depletion, circulating antibodies, and clinical relapse. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Mar; 54(3):723-32. PMID: 16508933.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Collins CE, Gavin AL, Migone TS, Hilbert DM, Nemazee D, Stohl W. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) isoforms in systemic lupus erythematosus: disease activity correlates better with blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels than with plasma BLyS protein levels. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(1):R6. PMID: 16356193; PMCID: PMC1526545.
    65. Stohl W, Xu D, Kim KS, Tedder TF, Sato S. Humoral autoimmunity in mice overexpressing B cell surface CD19: vital role for MHC class II. Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep; 116(3):257-64. PMID: 15963762.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Stohl W, Xu D, Kim KS, Koss MN, Jorgensen TN, Deocharan B, Metzger TE, Bixler SA, Hong YS, Ambrose CM, Mackay F, Morel L, Putterman C, Kotzin BL, Kalled SL. BAFF overexpression and accelerated glomerular disease in mice with an incomplete genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jul; 52(7):2080-91. PMID: 15986357.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Stohl W. BlySfulness does not equal blissfulness in systemic lupus erythematosus: a therapeutic role for BLyS antagonists. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2005; 8:289-304. PMID: 15564726.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Lund BT, Ashikian N, Ta HQ, Chakryan Y, Manoukian K, Groshen S, Gilmore W, Cheema GS, Stohl W, Burnett ME, Ko D, Kachuck NJ, Weiner LP. Increased CXCL8 (IL-8) expression in Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Oct; 155(1-2):161-71. PMID: 15342208.
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    69. Schaller M, Stohl W, Tan SM, Benoit VM, Hilbert DM, Ditzel HJ. Raised levels of anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase IgG in serum and synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 May; 64(5):743-9. PMID: 15458959; PMCID: PMC1755497.
    70. Stohl W, Metyas S, Tan SM, Cheema GS, Oamar B, Roschke V, Wu Y, Baker KP, Hilbert DM. Inverse association between circulating APRIL levels and serological and clinical disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Sep; 63(9):1096-103. PMID: 15308519; PMCID: PMC1755113.
    71. Stohl W, Xu D, Metzger TE, Kim KS, Morel L, Kotzin BL. Dichotomous effects of complete versus partial class II major histocompatibility complex deficiency on circulating autoantibody levels in autoimmune-prone mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jul; 50(7):2227-39. PMID: 15248222.
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    72. Stohl W. Targeting B lymphocyte stimulator in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune rheumatic disorders. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2004 Jun; 8(3):177-89. PMID: 15161425.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Stohl W, Xu D, Kim KS, David CS, Allison JP. MHC class II-independent and -dependent T cell expansion and B cell hyperactivity in vivo in mice deficient in CD152 (CTLA-4). Int Immunol. 2004 Jul; 16(7):895-904. PMID: 15136557.
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    74. Stohl W. A therapeutic role for BLyS antagonists. Lupus. 2004; 13(5):317-22. PMID: 15230285.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Stohl W, Metyas S, Tan SM, Cheema GS, Oamar B, Xu D, Roschke V, Wu Y, Baker KP, Hilbert DM. B lymphocyte stimulator overexpression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: longitudinal observations. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Dec; 48(12):3475-86. PMID: 14673998.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Kim KS, Jacob N, Stohl W. In vitro and in vivo T cell oligoclonality following chronic stimulation with staphylococcal superantigens. Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):182-9. PMID: 14499241.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Tan SM, Xu D, Roschke V, Perry JW, Arkfeld DG, Ehresmann GR, Migone TS, Hilbert DM, Stohl W. Local production of B lymphocyte stimulator protein and APRIL in arthritic joints of patients with inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr; 48(4):982-92. PMID: 12687540.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Stohl W. SLE--systemic lupus erythematosus: a BLySful, yet BAFFling, disorder. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003; 5(3):136-8. PMID: 12723979; PMCID: PMC165050.
    79. Roschke V, Sosnovtseva S, Ward CD, Hong JS, Smith R, Albert V, Stohl W, Baker KP, Ullrich S, Nardelli B, Hilbert DM, Migone TS. BLyS and APRIL form biologically active heterotrimers that are expressed in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 15; 169(8):4314-21. PMID: 12370363.
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    80. Stohl W. Systemic lupus erythematosus: a blissless disease of too much BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator) protein. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002 Sep; 14(5):522-8. PMID: 12192248.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Stohl W. B lymphocyte stimulator protein levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and other diseases. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002 Aug; 4(4):345-50. PMID: 12126587.
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    82. Stohl W, Cheema GS, Briggs WS, Xu D, Sosnovtseva S, Roschke V, Ferrara DE, Labat K, Sattler FR, Pierangeli SS, Hilbert DM. B lymphocyte stimulator protein-associated increase in circulating autoantibody levels may require CD4+ T cells: lessons from HIV-infected patients. Clin Immunol. 2002 Aug; 104(2):115-22. PMID: 12165272.
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    83. Stohl W, Xu D, Zang S, Kim KS, Li L, Hanson JA, Stohlman SA, David CS, Jacob CO. In vivo staphylococcal superantigen-driven polyclonal Ig responses in mice: dependence upon CD4(+) cells and human MHC class II. Int Immunol. 2001 Oct; 13(10):1291-300. PMID: 11581174.
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    84. Parr TB, Hofman FM, Kiener PA, Stohl W. Cell cycle phase-specific survival of CD95 ligand-challenged Jurkat cells: upregulation of heat-shock response. Cell Immunol. 2001 Jul 10; 211(1):21-9. PMID: 11585384.
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    85. Cheema GS, Roschke V, Hilbert DM, Stohl W. Elevated serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Jun; 44(6):1313-9. PMID: 11407690.
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    86. Stohl W, Xu D, Starling GC, Casali P, Kiener PA. Promotion of activated human B cell apoptosis and inhibition of Ig production by soluble CD95 ligand: CD95-based downregulation of Ig production need not culminate in activated B cell death. Cell Immunol. 2000 Jul 10; 203(1):1-11. PMID: 10915556.
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    87. Stohl W, Hamilton AS, Deapen DM, Mack TM, Horwitz DA. Impaired cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in systemic lupus erythematosus following in vitro polyclonal T cell stimulation: a contributory role for non-T cells. Lupus. 1999; 8(4):293-9. PMID: 10413208.
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    88. Stohl W, Lynch DH, Starling GC, Kiener PA. Superantigen-driven, CD8+ T cell-mediated down-regulation: CD95 (Fas)-dependent down-regulation of human Ig responses despite CD95-independent killing of activated B cells. J Immunol. 1998 Oct 01; 161(7):3292-8. PMID: 9759844.
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    89. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Lynch DH, Kiener PA. CD95 (Fas)-based, superantigen-dependent, CD4+ T cell-mediated down-regulation of human in vitro immunoglobulin responses. J Immunol. 1998 Jun 01; 160(11):5231-8. PMID: 9605118.
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    90. Sumida T, Maeda T, Taniguchi M, Nishioka K, Stohl W. TCR AV24 gene expression in double negative T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1998; 7(8):565-8. PMID: 9863902.
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    91. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Li L, Podack ER, Lynch DH, Jacob CO. Impaired nonrestricted cytolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: involvement of a pathway independent of Fas, tumor necrosis factor, and extracellular ATP that is associated with little detectable perforin. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Jun; 40(6):1130-7. PMID: 9182924.
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    92. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Hamilton AS, Deapen DM, Mack TM, Horwitz DA. Impaired recovery and cytolytic function of CD56+ T and non-T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus following in vitro polyclonal T cell stimulation. Studies in unselected patients and monozygotic disease-discordant twins. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Nov; 39(11):1840-51. PMID: 8912506.
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    93. Stohl W, Arkfeld DG. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 12; 335(11):821-2; author reply 822-3. PMID: 8778593.
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    94. Stohl W, Elliot JE. In vitro inhibition by intravenous immunoglobulin of human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996 May; 79(2):122-33. PMID: 8620618.
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    95. Stohl W, Elliott JE. Differential human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens (SAg). Regulatory role for SAg-dependent B cell cytolysis. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 15; 155(4):1838-50. PMID: 7636237.
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    96. Stohl W. Impaired polyclonal T cell cytolytic activity. A possible risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Apr; 38(4):506-16. PMID: 7718004.
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    97. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Wang H, Lin YG, Horwitz DA. Enhancing effects of interleukin 2-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells on subsequent B cell differentiation. Cell Immunol. 1994 Sep; 157(2):381-92. PMID: 8069923.
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    98. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Linsley PS. Polyclonal in vitro T cell proliferation and T cell-dependent B cell differentiation supported by activated autologous B cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Jul; 72(1):44-52. PMID: 7517348.
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    99. Stohl W, Elliott JE, Linsley PS. Human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens. J Immunol. 1994 Jul 01; 153(1):117-27. PMID: 7515921.
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    100. Stohl W, Elliott JE. Stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody vs IL2: disparate effects on T cell-dependent B cell differentiation despite similar effects on generation of unrestricted cytolytic activity. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Oct; 65(1):30-8. PMID: 1395122.
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    101. Stohl W. Impaired generation of polyclonal T cell-mediated cytolytic activity despite normal polyclonal T cell proliferation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 May; 63(2):163-72. PMID: 1611718.
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    102. Spertini F, Stohl W, Ramesh N, Moody C, Geha RS. Induction of human T cell proliferation by a monoclonal antibody to CD5. J Immunol. 1991 Jan 01; 146(1):47-52. PMID: 1701800.
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    103. Stohl W, Crow MK. Inhibition by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies of anti-CD3-induced T cell-dependent B cell activation. Cell Immunol. 1990 Oct 15; 130(2):257-70. PMID: 1976440.
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    104. Stohl W, Hofman FM, Gray JD. Differential CD3/T cell antigen receptor-mediated IL-2 production in jurkat T cells. Dissociation of IL-2 response from total inositol phosphate and calcium responses. J Immunol. 1990 Aug 15; 145(4):1078-87. PMID: 2143206.
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    105. Stohl W, Tovar Z, Talal N. Generation of cytolytic activity with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies involves both IL-2-independent and -dependent components. J Immunol. 1990 May 15; 144(10):3718-25. PMID: 2139672.
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    106. Shiba K, Stohl W, Gray JD, Horwitz DA. A novel role for accessory cells in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation. Cell Immunol. 1990 May; 127(2):458-69. PMID: 2328534.
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    107. Stohl W, Gottlieb AB, Reeves WH. A functionally unique anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody cross-reactive with basal keratinocytes. Cell Immunol. 1989 Jul; 121(2):247-60. PMID: 2472221.
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    108. Crow MK, Kushner B, Jover JA, Friedman SM, Mechanic SE, Stohl W. Human peripheral blood T helper cell-induced B cell activation results in B cell surface expression of the CD23 (BLAST-2) antigen. Cell Immunol. 1989 Jun; 121(1):99-112. PMID: 2524281.
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    109. Stohl W, Linker-Israeli M. Inhibitory effects of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies on interleukin 2 production and interleukin 2 receptor expression in anti-CD3-induced T cell activation. Cell Immunol. 1989 May; 120(2):351-65. PMID: 2566387.
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    110. Sherris D, Stohl W, Mayer L. Characterization of lymphokines mediating B cell growth and differentiation from monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody-stimulated T cells. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 01; 142(7):2343-51. PMID: 2538506.
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    111. Stohl W, Cunningham-Rundles C, Mayer L. In vitro induction of T cell-dependent B cell differentiation in patients with common varied immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988 Nov; 49(2):273-82. PMID: 3262471.
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    112. Stohl W, Posnett DN, Chiorazzi N. Differential immunomodulation by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies of anti-CD3-induced T cell activation: dependence upon the individual anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody used for activation. Cell Immunol. 1988 Oct 01; 116(1):73-85. PMID: 2458845.
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    113. Stohl W, Mayer L. Inhibition of T cell-dependent human B cell proliferation and B cell differentiation by polyspecific monomeric IgG. Clin Exp Immunol. 1987 Dec; 70(3):649-57. PMID: 3501745; PMCID: PMC1542192.
    114. Stohl W, Singer JZ. Correlation between systemic lupus erythematosus and T4 epitope phenotype. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Dec; 30(12):1412-5. PMID: 2449224.
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    115. Stohl W, Posnett DN, Chiorazzi N. Induction of T cell-dependent B cell differentiation by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol. 1987 Mar 15; 138(6):1667-73. PMID: 2950165.
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    116. Stohl W. Cellular mechanisms in the in vitro inhibition of pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation by immunoglobulin for intravenous use. J Immunol. 1986 Jun 15; 136(12):4407-13. PMID: 2940294.
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    117. Stohl W, Crow MK, Kunkel HG. Systemic lupus erythematosus with deficiency of the T4 epitope on T helper/inducer cells. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jun 27; 312(26):1671-8. PMID: 2582253.
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