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Stefan Bluml, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor of Research Radiology
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentPediatrics
AddressCHL Rad 81
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089
Phone+1 323 361 5730
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    Pediatric brain tumors are the second most frequent malignancy of childhood, exceeded only by leukemia and are the leading cause of death from cancer in pediatric oncology. Dr. Blüml studies the metabolism of these tumors in vivo with the goals of better initial diagnoses and characterization, to predict outcomes, and to identify early predictors of the effectiveness of therapies. Newborn brain development: After birth there are monumental developmental changes of the brain whereby helpless infants transform into children and adults capable of the complex cognitive and behavioral processes necessary to function independently in modern society. Particularly critical is early brain development the time during which multiple neurocognitive disorders emerge. At the core, the marked behavioral changes between infancy and adolescence reflect structural maturational changes (e.g., axonal outgrowth, dendritic arborization, myelination, gliogenesis, angiogenesis) and functional maturational changes (e.g., Hebbian learning processes). Dr. Blüml and his collaborators use non-invasive imaging methods to study complex metabolic processes that accompany brain maturation with the goals to establish normal biochemical maturation of the human brain as well as to better characterize abnormal development at a microscopic level.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. McAlpine JB, Chen SN, Kutateladze A, MacMillan JB, Appendino G, Barison A, Beniddir MA, Biavatti MW, Bluml S, Boufridi A, Butler MS, Capon RJ, Choi YH, Coppage D, Crews P, Crimmins MT, Csete M, Dewapriya P, Egan JM, Garson MJ, Genta-Jouve G, Gerwick WH, Gross H, Harper MK, Hermanto P, Hook JM, Hunter L, Jeannerat D, Ji NY, Johnson TA, Kingston DGI, Koshino H, Lee HW, Lewin G, Li J, Linington RG, Liu M, McPhail KL, Molinski TF, Moore BS, Nam JW, Neupane RP, Niemitz M, Nuzillard JM, Oberlies NH, Ocampos FMM, Pan G, Quinn RJ, Reddy DS, Renault JH, Rivera-Chávez J, Robien W, Saunders CM, Schmidt TJ, Seger C, Shen B, Steinbeck C, Stuppner H, Sturm S, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Tantillo DJ, Verpoorte R, Wang BG, Williams CM, Williams PG, Wist J, Yue JM, Zhang C, Xu Z, Simmler C, Lankin DC, Bisson J, Pauli GF. Correction: The value of universally available raw NMR data for transparency, reproducibility, and integrity in natural product research. Nat Prod Rep. 2018 Nov 23. PMID: 30468235.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gertsvolf N, Votava-Smith JK, Ceschin R, Del Castillo S, Lee V, Lai HA, Bluml S, Paquette L, Panigrahy A. Association between Subcortical Morphology and Cerebral White Matter Energy Metabolism in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 19; 8(1):14057. PMID: 30232359.
      View in: PubMed
    3. McAlpine JB, Chen SN, Kutateladze A, MacMillan JB, Appendino G, Barison A, Beniddir MA, Biavatti MW, Bluml S, Boufridi A, Butler MS, Capon RJ, Choi YH, Coppage D, Crews P, Crimmins MT, Csete M, Dewapriya P, Egan JM, Garson MJ, Genta-Jouve G, Gerwick WH, Gross H, Harper MK, Hermanto P, Hook JM, Hunter L, Jeannerat D, Ji NY, Johnson TA, Kingston DGI, Koshino H, Lee HW, Lewin G, Li J, Linington RG, Liu M, McPhail KL, Molinski TF, Moore BS, Nam JW, Neupane RP, Niemitz M, Nuzillard JM, Oberlies NH, Ocampos FMM, Pan G, Quinn RJ, Reddy DS, Renault JH, Rivera-Chávez J, Robien W, Saunders CM, Schmidt TJ, Seger C, Shen B, Steinbeck C, Stuppner H, Sturm S, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Tantillo DJ, Verpoorte R, Wang BG, Williams CM, Williams PG, Wist J, Yue JM, Zhang C, Xu Z, Simmler C, Lankin DC, Bisson J, Pauli GF. The value of universally available raw NMR data for transparency, reproducibility, and integrity in natural product research. Nat Prod Rep. 2018 Jul 13. PMID: 30003207.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bluml S, Rajagopalan V. Non-invasive estimation of fetal lung maturity using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 May 08. PMID: 29750953.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Harbison AL, Votava-Smith JK, Del Castillo S, Kumar SR, Lee V, Schmithorst V, Lai HA, O'Neil S, Bluml S, Paquette L, Panigrahy A. Clinical Factors Associated with Cerebral Metabolism in Term Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease. J Pediatr. 2017 Apr; 183:67-73.e1. PMID: 28109537.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Reitman AJ, Chapman R, Stein JE, Paquette L, Panigrahy A, Nelson MD, Friedlich P, Wisnowski JL, Bluml S. The Impact of Venoarterial and Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation on Cerebral Metabolism in the Newborn Brain. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0168578. PMID: 28033354.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Brown RJ, Jun BJ, Cushman JD, Nguyen C, Beighley AH, Blanchard J, Iwamoto K, Schaue D, Harris NG, Jentsch JD, Bluml S, McBride WH. Changes in Imaging and Cognition in Juvenile Rats After Whole-Brain Irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 10 01; 96(2):470-478. PMID: 27478168.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wang ZJ, Seo Y, Babcock E, Huang H, Bluml S, Wisnowski J, Holshouser B, Panigrahy A, Shaw DW, Altman N, McColl RW, Rollins NK. Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016 05 08; 17(3):442-451. PMID: 27167268.
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    9. Wu TW, McLean C, Friedlich P, Wisnowski J, Grimm J, Panigrahy A, Bluml S, Seri I. Brain temperature in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during therapeutic hypothermia. J Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 165(6):1129-34. PMID: 25151196.
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    10. Imagawa KK, Hamilton A, Ceschin R, Tokar E, Pham P, Bluml S, Wisnowski J, Panigrahy A. Characterization of microstructural injury: a novel approach in infant abusive head trauma-initial experience. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Oct 01; 31(19):1632-8. PMID: 24831582; PMCID: PMC4171035.
    11. Ponrartana S, Andrade KE, Wren TA, Ramos-Platt L, Hu HH, Bluml S, Gilsanz V. Repeatability of chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI and diffusion-tensor imaging in lower extremity muscles in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jun; 202(6):W567-73. PMID: 24848851.
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    12. Wu TW, McLean C, Friedlich P, Grimm J, Bluml S, Seri I. Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2014 May; 44(5):613-7. PMID: 24442339.
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    13. Lin A, Tran T, Bluml S, Merugumala S, Liao HJ, Ross BD. Guidelines for acquiring and reporting clinical neurospectroscopy. Semin Neurol. 2012 Sep; 32(4):432-53. PMID: 23361487.
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    14. Panigrahy A, Wisnowski JL, Furtado A, Lepore N, Paquette L, Bluml S. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome. Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Jan; 42 Suppl 1:S33-61. PMID: 22395719; PMCID: PMC4517479.
    15. Blüml S, Panigrahy A, Laskov M, Dhall G, Krieger MD, Nelson MD, Finlay JL, Gilles FH. Elevated citrate in pediatric astrocytomas with malignant progression. Neuro Oncol. 2011 Oct; 13(10):1107-17. PMID: 21771868; PMCID: PMC3177657.
    16. Wren TA, Chung SA, Dorey FJ, Bluml S, Adams GB, Gilsanz V. Bone marrow fat is inversely related to cortical bone in young and old subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar; 96(3):782-6. PMID: 21177790.
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    17. Parekh C, Jubran R, Erdreich-Epstein A, Panigrahy A, Bluml S, Finlay J, Dhall G. Treatment of children with recurrent high grade gliomas with a bevacizumab containing regimen. J Neurooncol. 2011 Jul; 103(3):673-80. PMID: 21038110.
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    18. Shiroishi MS, Jackson HA, Nelson MD, Bluml S, Panigrahy A. Contralateral hemimicrencephaly in neonatal hemimegalencephaly. Pediatr Radiol. 2010 Nov; 40(11):1826-30. PMID: 20349057.
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    19. Yamada S, Miyazaki M, Kanazawa H, Higashi M, Morohoshi Y, Bluml S, McComb JG. Visualization of cerebrospinal fluid movement with spin labeling at MR imaging: preliminary results in normal and pathophysiologic conditions. Radiology. 2008 Nov; 249(2):644-52. PMID: 18936318.
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    20. Wren TA, Bluml S, Tseng-Ong L, Gilsanz V. Three-point technique of fat quantification of muscle tissue as a marker of disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: preliminary study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Jan; 190(1):W8-12. PMID: 18094282.
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    21. Koesters C, Unger B, Bilic I, Schmidt U, Bluml S, Lichtenberger B, Schreiber M, Stockl J, Ellmeier W. Regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and subset distribution by the zinc finger protein CTCF. Immunol Lett. 2007 Apr 15; 109(2):165-74. PMID: 17368809.
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    22. McNatt SA, McComb JG, Nelson MD, Bluml S. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrocephalic infants. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007; 43(6):461-7. PMID: 17992033.
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    23. Krieger MD, Panigrahy A, McComb JG, Nelson MD, Liu X, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Gilles F, Bluml S. Differentiation of choroid plexus tumors by advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Jun 15; 18(6A):E4. PMID: 16048290.
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    24. Yamada S, Shibata M, Scadeng M, Bluml S, Nguy C, Ross B, McComb JG. MRI tracer study of the cerebrospinal fluid drainage pathway in normal and hydrocephalic guinea pig brain. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2005 Apr; 30(1):21-9. PMID: 15952295.
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    25. Blüml S, Friedlich P, Erberich S, Wood JC, Seri I, Nelson MD. MR imaging of newborns by using an MR-compatible incubator with integrated radiofrequency coils: initial experience. Radiology. 2004 May; 231(2):594-601. PMID: 15128999.
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    26. Hwang JH, Bluml S, Leaf A, Ross BD. In vivo characterization of fatty acids in human adipose tissue using natural abundance 1H decoupled 13C MRS at 1.5 T: clinical applications to dietary therapy. NMR Biomed. 2003 May; 16(3):160-7. PMID: 12884360.
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    27. Ross B, Bluml S. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain. Anat Rec. 2001 Apr; 265(2):54-84. PMID: 11323770.
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    28. Seymour KJ, Bluml S, Sutherling J, Sutherling W, Ross BD. Identification of cerebral acetone by 1H-MRS in patients with epilepsy controlled by ketogenic diet. MAGMA. 1999 Mar; 8(1):33-42. PMID: 10383091.
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    29. Lin A, Bluml S, Mamelak AN. Efficacy of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in clinical decision making for patients with suspected malignant brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1999; 45(1):69-81. PMID: 10728912.
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    30. Ross BD, Bluml S, Cowan R, Danielsen E, Farrow N, Tan J. In vivo MR spectroscopy of human dementia. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1998 Nov; 8(4):809-22. PMID: 9769343.
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    31. Bluml S, Zuckerman E, Tan J, Ross BD. Proton-decoupled 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals osmotic and metabolic disturbances in human hepatic encephalopathy. J Neurochem. 1998 Oct; 71(4):1564-76. PMID: 9751190.
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    32. Dubowitz DJ, Bluml S, Arcinue E, Dietrich RB. MR of hypoxic encephalopathy in children after near drowning: correlation with quantitative proton MR spectroscopy and clinical outcome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Oct; 19(9):1617-27. PMID: 9802481.
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    33. Tan J, Bluml S, Hoang T, Dubowitz D, Mevenkamp G, Ross B. Lack of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentrations of choline metabolites in human brain. Magn Reson Med. 1998 Jun; 39(6):1005-10. PMID: 9621925.
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    34. Hoang TQ, Bluml S, Dubowitz DJ, Moats R, Kopyov O, Jacques D, Ross BD. Quantitative proton-decoupled 31P MRS and 1H MRS in the evaluation of Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. Neurology. 1998 Apr; 50(4):1033-40. PMID: 9566391.
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    35. Ross BD, Bluml S, Cowan R, Danielsen E, Farrow N, Gruetter R. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain: the biophysical basis of dementia. Biophys Chem. 1997 Oct; 68(1-3):161-72. PMID: 9468618.
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    36. Bluml S, McComb JG, Ross BD. Differentiation between cortical atrophy and hydrocephalus using 1H MRS. Magn Reson Med. 1997 Mar; 37(3):395-403. PMID: 9055230.
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    37. Kanamori K, Bluml S, Ross B. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the study of hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 420:185-94. PMID: 9286434.
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    38. Haseler LJ, Arcinue E, Danielsen ER, Bluml S, Ross BD. Evidence from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for a metabolic cascade of neuronal damage in shaken baby syndrome. Pediatrics. 1997 Jan; 99(1):4-14. PMID: 8989330.
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