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    Young-Kwon Hong, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor of Surgery
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentSurgery
    Address1450 Biggy St.
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 7825
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      Collapse Overview 
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      Dr. Hong obtained his Ph.D. in Microbiology at University of California, Davis. He then went to Harvard Institute of Human Genetics for his post-doctoral fellowship to study the global gene regulation in mouse embryonic stem cells. He then was recruited in 2001 as an Instructor at the Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. In 2005, he joined Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine. Currently, Dr. Hong is an Associate Professor of Surgery and affiliated with Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. His main research interest is to dissect the molecular and cellular controls of tissue fluid homeostasis in diseases, including cancer, vascular malformation, inflammation, viral infection and wound healing, and to translate the acquired knowledge from the basic science research to benefit human health. Dr. Hong has trained more than 60 students (high school, undergraduate, graduate and medical), post-doctoral fellows, surgical residents, visiting scholars and junior faculty members during the past 12 years in the Keck School of Medicine.

      The research interests in the Hong laboratory are listed as below.

      1. Lymphatic Development and Differentiation
      Although the blood and lymphatic system were simultaneously discovered by Hippocrates, the lymphatic system has been extremely understudied despite its vital roles in human health and diseases, compared to the blood vascular system. About 100 years ago, Sabin proposed that lymphatics are generated from the blood vascular system. This Sabin’s theory has recently been confirmed using newly discovered molecular and cellular markers and research tools. We are interested to how various signal pathways control lymphatic development and differentiation. A better understanding of lymphatic development and differentiation will significantly help to treat many human diseases related to the lymphatic system.

      2. Organ-On-Chips
      We have recently launched a Organ-On-Chips program. Collaborating with other biomedical engineer groups, we aim to grow blood and lymphatic vessels on a chip to investigate the mechanisms of physiological and pathological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This new technology is powerful as not only it enables us to study the biology of vascular development and differentiation, but it models our organs and tissues for many biomedical and therapeutic purposes.

      3. Development of Lymphedema Therapy
      Surgery-related lymphedema is the leading morbidity that is associated with breast cancer survivors. To date, non-invasive therapeutic approaches are not available for this disfiguring, painful and demoralizing illness. We have recently published the therapeutic efficacy of retinoic acid against surgery-associated lymphedema in the prestigious journal Circulation. Our study found that retinoic acid could regenerate damaged lymphatic system and prevent potential lymphedema using animal models. We aim to further confirm this new therapy in rats and large animals and eventually bring to clinical trials. Because retinoic acids have been extensively studied for their medicinal properties and are already used in the clinics for other diseases, the new approach presents great promise and hope to the patients suffering from surgery-associated lymphedema.

      4. Fluid Homeostasis and Outflow Facility in the Eye
      The lymphatics play the essential roles in tissue fluid homeostasis in the interstitial space. Similarly, Schlemm’s canal (SC), a specialized vascular structure in the eye, controls the fluid homeostasis of the anterior chamber of the eye. SC is an endothelium-lined channel that encircles the margin of the cornea, and drains the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye into the circulation through collector channels. As the intraocular pressure (IOP) is closely correlated with the aqueous humor outflow (AHO), SC plays a key role in regulating IOP in the eye. When the draining function of SC becomes compromised, the IOP could be dramatically elevated and damage the ocular nerve, possibly causing glaucoma. Directly connected to the aqueous vein, SC has long been thought to be a venous extension, whose inner wall is lined by blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs). Interestingly, SC has also been known to display molecular, structure and functional features of lymphatic vessels, which are responsible for draining the interstitial fluids into the circulation. During development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are differentiated from BECs and this BEC-to-LEC fate reprogramming process is exquisitely controlled by a homeodomain transcription factor Prox1. Recently, my group, together with a vascular biology group in Korea, has published an exciting study, demonstrating that lymphatic regulator PROX1 determines SC integrity and identity. In addition, we have also collaborated with other groups in other two studies on development and maintenance of SC. We are thrilled to utilize our expertise to better understand how fluid homeostasis and the intraocular pressure are controlled in the healthy and glaucoma eyes. We are interested in defining the molecular mechanism by which fluid flow directs development and maintenance of SC through the shear stress regulator, Klf4. Our experience and resource would contribute to the advancement of the knowledge on the molecular controls of the intraocular pressure with therapeutic implications to glaucoma.

      5. Stem Cell Research
      We study the molecular mechanism underlying the vascular differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) with three goals. (a) to acquire a better understanding on the embryonic and postnatal genetic program that specifies vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, (b) to develop technology that allow maximal differentiation efficiency for 3-D printing of organs and (c) to acquire the clinical-grade vascular building blocks to treat vascular diseases, including vascular malformation and lymphedema.

      6. Cancer Development and Metastasis
      The majority of cancers recruits and invades lymphatic vessels for their metastasis. We are interested to know more about how breast and colon cancers interact with lymphatic vessels to promote their metastasis. Our preliminary data suggest that tumor-induced tissue pressure could play a previously unidentified role in their spread. Separately, various pathogens, such as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), directly infect vascular endothelial cells and cause neoplasm in HIV- and organ transplant patients. We are studying the molecular and cellular interactions between the host and the pathogens.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Korea University, SeoulBA1990Agricultural Chemistry
      University of California, DavisPh.D.1997Microbiology
      Harvard Institute of Human Genetics, BostonPostdoctoral2001Embryonic Stem Cells

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Baluk P, Yao LC, Flores JC, Choi D, Hong Y, McDonald DM. Rapamycin reversal of VEGF-C-driven lymphatic anomalies in the respiratory tract. JCI Insight. 2017 Aug 17; 2(16). PMID: 28814666.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Jung E, Gardner D, Choi D, Park E, Jin Seong Y, Yang S, Castorena-Gonzalez J, Louveau A, Zhou Z, Lee GK, Perrault DP, Lee S, Johnson M, Daghlian G, Lee M, Jin Hong Y, Kato Y, Kipnis J, Davis MJ, Wong AK, Hong Y. Development and Characterization of A Novel Prox1-EGFP Lymphatic and Schlemm's Canal Reporter Rat. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 17; 7(1):5577. PMID: 28717161.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Yan KS, Gevaert O, Zheng GXY, Anchang B, Probert CS, Larkin KA, Davies PS, Cheng ZF, Kaddis JS, Han A, Roelf K, Calderon RI, Cynn E, Hu X, Mandleywala K, Wilhelmy J, Grimes SM, Corney DC, Boutet SC, Terry JM, Belgrader P, Ziraldo SB, Mikkelsen TS, Wang F, von Furstenberg RJ, Smith NR, Chandrakesan P, May R, Chrissy MAS, Jain R, Cartwright CA, Niland JC, Hong Y, Carrington J, Breault DT, Epstein J, Houchen CW, Lynch JP, Martin MG, Plevritis SK, Curtis C, Ji HP, Li L, Henning SJ, Wong MH, Kuo CJ. Intestinal Enteroendocrine Lineage Cells Possess Homeostatic and Injury-Inducible Stem Cell Activity. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 Jul 06; 21(1):78-90.e6. PMID: 28686870.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Johnson MB, Pang B, Gardner DJ, Niknam-Benia S, Soundarajan V, Bramos A, Perrault DP, Banks K, Lee GK, Baker RY, Kim GH, Lee S, Chai Y, Chen M, Li W, Kwong L, Hong Y, Wong AK. Topical Fibronectin Improves Wound Healing of Irradiated Skin. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 20; 7(1):3876. PMID: 28634413.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Choi D, Park E, Jung E, Seong YJ, Yoo J, Lee E, Hong M, Lee S, Ishida H, Burford J, Peti-Peterdi J, Adams RH, Srikanth S, Gwack Y, Chen CS, Vogel HJ, Koh CJ, Wong AK, Hong Y. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting. J Clin Invest. 2017 Apr 03; 127(4):1225-1240. PMID: 28263185.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Choi D, Park E, Jung E, Seong YJ, Hong M, Lee S, Burford J, Gyarmati G, Peti-Peterdi J, Srikanth S, Gwack Y, Koh CJ, Boriushkin E, Hamik A, Wong AK, Hong Y. ORAI1 Activates Proliferation of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Response to Laminar Flow Through Krüppel-Like Factors 2 and 4. Circ Res. 2017 Apr 28; 120(9):1426-1439. PMID: 28167653.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Bramos A, Perrault D, Yang S, Jung E, Hong Y, Wong AK. Prevention of Postsurgical Lymphedema by 9-cis Retinoic Acid. Ann Surg. 2016 Aug; 264(2):353-61. PMID: 26655920.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Hong M, Jung E, Yang S, Jung W, Seong YJ, Park E, Bramos A, Kim KE, Lee S, Daghlian G, Seo JI, Choi I, Choi IS, Koh CJ, Kobielak A, Ying QL, Johnson M, Gardner D, Wong AK, Choi D, Hong Y. Efficient Assessment of Developmental, Surgical and Pathological Lymphangiogenesis Using a Lymphatic Reporter Mouse and Its Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157126. PMID: 27280889; PMCID: PMC4900649.
      9. Chang JH, Putra I, Huang YH, Chang M, Han K, Zhong W, Gao X, Wang S, Dugas-Ford J, Nguyen T, Hong Y, Azar DT. Limited versus total epithelial debridement ocular surface injury: Live fluorescence imaging of hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::Myr-mCherry mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 10; 1860(10):2148-56. PMID: 27233452; PMCID: PMC4961530 [Available on 10/01/17].
      10. Klein S, Dieterich LC, Mathelier A, Chong C, Sliwa-Primorac A, Hong Y, Shin JW, Lizio M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Daub CO, Arner E, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, Forrest AR, Wasserman WW, Detmar M. DeepCAGE transcriptomics identify HOXD10 as a transcription factor regulating lymphatic endothelial responses to VEGF-C. J Cell Sci. 2016 Jul 01; 129(13):2573-85. PMID: 27199372.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Gonzalez JM, Ko MK, Masedunskas A, Hong Y, Weigert R, Tan JCH. Toward in vivo two-photon analysis of mouse aqueous outflow structure and function. Exp Eye Res. 2017 May; 158:161-170. PMID: 27179411.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Kwon S, Jeon JS, Kim SB, Hong Y, Ahn C, Sung JS, Choi I. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1. Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Feb 27; 15:41. PMID: 26922671; PMCID: PMC4769820.
      13. Choi D, Ramu S, Park E, Jung E, Yang S, Jung W, Choi I, Lee S, Kim KE, Seong YJ, Hong M, Daghlian G, Kim D, Shin E, Seo JI, Khatchadourian V, Zou M, Li W, De Filippo R, Kokorowski P, Chang A, Kim S, Bertoni A, Furlanetto TW, Shin S, Li M, Chen Y, Wong A, Koh C, Geliebter J, Hong Y. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 Feb 01; 76(3):582-93. PMID: 26609053; PMCID: PMC4738160 [Available on 02/01/17].
      14. Kumasaka T, Hoshika Y, Kobayashi E, Mitani K, Okura MK, Hong Y, Takahashi K, Seyama K. A Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a Three-Dimensional Culture System. Lymphat Res Biol. 2015 Dec; 13(4):248-52. PMID: 26574997.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Dieterich LC, Klein S, Mathelier A, Sliwa-Primorac A, Ma Q, Hong Y, Shin JW, Hamada M, Lizio M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Daub CO, Arner E, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, Forrest ARR, Wasserman WW, Detmar M. DeepCAGE Transcriptomics Reveal an Important Role of the Transcription Factor MAFB in the Lymphatic Endothelium. Cell Rep. 2015 Nov 17; 13(7):1493-1504. PMID: 26549461.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Choe K, Jang JY, Park I, Kim Y, Ahn S, Park DY, Hong Y, Alitalo K, Koh GY, Kim P. Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility. J Clin Invest. 2015 Nov 02; 125(11):4042-52. PMID: 26436648; PMCID: PMC4639990.
      17. Zhu J, Dugas-Ford J, Chang M, Purta P, Han KY, Hong Y, Dickinson ME, Rosenblatt MI, Chang JH, Azar DT. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel growth in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice. FEBS J. 2015 Apr; 282(8):1458-1467. PMID: 25688651; PMCID: PMC4400230.
      18. Shin K, Kataru RP, Park HJ, Kwon BI, Kim TW, Hong Y, Lee SH. TH2 cells and their cytokines regulate formation and function of lymphatic vessels. Nat Commun. 2015 Feb 04; 6:6196. PMID: 25648335.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Miyashita T, Burford JL, Hong Y, Gevorgyan H, Lam L, Hoshikawa H, Mori N, Peti-Peterdi J. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jan 30; 457(1):19-22. PMID: 25529452.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Thomson BR, Heinen S, Jeansson M, Ghosh AK, Fatima A, Sung HK, Onay T, Chen H, Yamaguchi S, Economides AN, Flenniken A, Gale NW, Hong Y, Fawzi A, Liu X, Kume T, Quaggin SE. A lymphatic defect causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma in mice. J Clin Invest. 2014 Oct; 124(10):4320-4. PMID: 25202984; PMCID: PMC4191022.
      21. Park DY, Lee J, Park I, Choi D, Lee S, Song S, Hwang Y, Hong KY, Nakaoka Y, Makinen T, Kim P, Alitalo K, Hong Y, Koh GY. Lymphatic regulator PROX1 determines Schlemm's canal integrity and identity. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep; 124(9):3960-74. PMID: 25061877; PMCID: PMC4153702.
      22. Truong TN, Li H, Hong Y, Chen L. Novel characterization and live imaging of Schlemm's canal expressing Prox-1. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e98245. PMID: 24827370; PMCID: PMC4020937.
      23. Baluk P, Adams A, Phillips K, Feng J, Hong Y, Brown MB, McDonald DM. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2014 May; 184(5):1577-92. PMID: 24631179; PMCID: PMC4005985.
      24. Kunstfeld R, Hawighorst T, Streit M, Hong Y, Nguyen L, Brown LF, Detmar M. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically induced multistep skin carcinogenesis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014 May; 74(2):106-15. PMID: 24507936; PMCID: PMC3975683.
      25. Lee YS, Choi D, Kim NY, Yang S, Jung E, Hong M, Yang D, Lenz HJ, Hong Y. CXCR2 inhibition enhances sulindac-mediated suppression of colon cancer development. Int J Cancer. 2014 Jul 01; 135(1):232-7. PMID: 24338666; PMCID: PMC4166491.
      26. Bowles J, Secker G, Nguyen C, Kazenwadel J, Truong V, Frampton E, Curtis C, Skoczylas R, Davidson TL, Miura N, Hong Y, Koopman P, Harvey NL, François M. Control of retinoid levels by CYP26B1 is important for lymphatic vascular development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2014 Feb 01; 386(1):25-33. PMID: 24361262.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Hong Y. Protective role of the lymphatics from sepsis. Blood. 2013 Sep 26; 122(13):2143-4. PMID: 24072845.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Miyashita T, Burford JL, Hong Y, Gevorgyan H, Lam L, Mori N, Peti-Peterdi J. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 25; 440(3):371-3. PMID: 24055876.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Nguyen GK, Hwang BH, Zhang Y, Monahan JF, Davis GB, Lee YS, Ragina NP, Wang C, Zhou ZY, Hong Y, Spivak RM, Wong AK. Novel biomarkers of arterial and venous ischemia in microvascular flaps. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71628. PMID: 23977093; PMCID: PMC3743756.
      30. Choi I, Lee YS, Chung HK, Choi D, Ecoiffier T, Lee HN, Kim KE, Lee S, Park EK, Maeng YS, Kim NY, Ladner RD, Petasis NA, Koh CJ, Chen L, Lenz HJ, Hong Y. Interleukin-8 reduces post-surgical lymphedema formation by promoting lymphatic vessel regeneration. Angiogenesis. 2013 Jan; 16(1):29-44. PMID: 22945845; PMCID: PMC4166493.
      31. Aguilar B, Choi I, Choi D, Chung HK, Lee S, Yoo J, Lee YS, Maeng YS, Lee HN, Park E, Kim KE, Kim NY, Baik JM, Jung JU, Koh CJ, Hong Y. Lymphatic reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus promotes the oncogenic activity of the virus-encoded G-protein-coupled receptor. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 15; 72(22):5833-42. PMID: 22942256; PMCID: PMC3500425.
      32. Yoo J, Lee HN, Choi I, Choi D, Chung HK, Kim KE, Lee S, Aguilar B, Kang J, Park E, Lee YS, Maeng YS, Kim NY, Koh CJ, Hong Y. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(6):e1002770. PMID: 22719258; PMCID: PMC3375311.
      33. Lee YS, Choi I, Ning Y, Kim NY, Khatchadourian V, Yang D, Chung HK, Choi D, LaBonte MJ, Ladner RD, Nagulapalli Venkata KC, Rosenberg DO, Petasis NA, Lenz HJ, Hong Y. Interleukin-8 and its receptor CXCR2 in the tumour microenvironment promote colon cancer growth, progression and metastasis. Br J Cancer. 2012 May 22; 106(11):1833-41. PMID: 22617157; PMCID: PMC3364111.
      34. Choi I, Lee S, Hong Y. The new era of the lymphatic system: no longer secondary to the blood vascular system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 Apr; 2(4):a006445. PMID: 22474611; PMCID: PMC3312397.
      35. Choi I, Lee S, Kyoung Chung H, Suk Lee Y, Eui Kim K, Choi D, Park EK, Yang D, Ecoiffier T, Monahan J, Chen W, Aguilar B, Lee HN, Yoo J, Koh CJ, Chen L, Wong AK, Hong Y. 9-cis retinoic acid promotes lymphangiogenesis and enhances lymphatic vessel regeneration: therapeutic implications of 9-cis retinoic acid for secondary lymphedema. Circulation. 2012 Feb 21; 125(7):872-82. PMID: 22275501; PMCID: PMC3327127.
      36. Choi I, Jeong HK, Hong Y . The Primo Vascular System. Detection of the Primo Vessels in the Rodent Thoracic Lymphatic Ducts. 2012.
      37. Ning Y, Manegold PC, Hong Y, Zhang W, Pohl A, Lurje G, Winder T, Yang D, LaBonte MJ, Wilson PM, Ladner RD, Lenz HJ. Interleukin-8 is associated with proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo in colon cancer cell line models. Int J Cancer. 2011 May 01; 128(9):2038-49. PMID: 20648559; PMCID: PMC3039715.
      38. Choi I, Chung HK, Ramu S, Lee HN, Kim KE, Lee S, Yoo J, Choi D, Lee YS, Aguilar B, Hong Y. Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse. Blood. 2011 Jan 06; 117(1):362-5. PMID: 20962325; PMCID: PMC3037757.
      39. Zhou F, Chang Z, Zhang L, Hong Y, Shen B, Wang B, Zhang F, Lu G, Tvorogov D, Alitalo K, Hemmings BA, Yang Z, He Y. Akt/Protein kinase B is required for lymphatic network formation, remodeling, and valve development. Am J Pathol. 2010 Oct; 177(4):2124-33. PMID: 20724596; PMCID: PMC2947305.
      40. Yoo J, Kang J, Lee HN, Aguilar B, Kafka D, Lee S, Choi I, Lee J, Ramu S, Haas J, Koh CJ, Hong Y. Kaposin-B enhances the PROX1 mRNA stability during lymphatic reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 12; 6(8):e1001046. PMID: 20730087; PMCID: PMC2921153.
      41. Zhang H, Tse J, Hu X, Witte M, Bernas M, Kang J, Tilahun F, Hong Y, Qiu M, Chen L. Novel discovery of LYVE-1 expression in the hyaloid vascular system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec; 51(12):6157-61. PMID: 20688736; PMCID: PMC3055750.
      42. Lee S, Choi I, Hong Y. Heterogeneity and plasticity of lymphatic endothelial cells. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010 Apr; 36(3):352-61. PMID: 20490985; PMCID: PMC3461948.
      43. Lin FJ, Chen X, Qin J, Hong Y, Tsai MJ, Tsai SY. Direct transcriptional regulation of neuropilin-2 by COUP-TFII modulates multiple steps in murine lymphatic vessel development. J Clin Invest. 2010 May; 120(5):1694-707. PMID: 20364082; PMCID: PMC2860940.
      44. Kang J, Yoo J, Lee S, Tang W, Aguilar B, Ramu S, Choi I, Otu HH, Shin JW, Dotto GP, Koh CJ, Detmar M, Hong Y. An exquisite cross-control mechanism among endothelial cell fate regulators directs the plasticity and heterogeneity of lymphatic endothelial cells. Blood. 2010 Jul 08; 116(1):140-50. PMID: 20351309; PMCID: PMC2904577.
      45. Aguilar B and Hong YK. The origin of Kaposi sarcoma tumor cells. Kaposi sarcoma. A model of oncogenesis. 2010; 123-138.
      46. 33. Ramu S., Hong Y . The Molecular Mechanism of Tumor Lymphangiogenesis. Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapy. 2010.
      47. Kang J, Ramu S, Lee S, Aguilar B, Ganesan SK, Yoo J, Kalra VK, Koh CJ, Hong Y. Phosphate-buffered saline-based nucleofection of primary endothelial cells. Anal Biochem. 2009 Mar 15; 386(2):251-5. PMID: 19150324; PMCID: PMC2677097.
      48. Lee S, Kang J, Yoo J, Ganesan SK, Cook SC, Aguilar B, Ramu S, Lee J, Hong Y. Prox1 physically and functionally interacts with COUP-TFII to specify lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Blood. 2009 Feb 19; 113(8):1856-9. PMID: 18815287; PMCID: PMC2647678.
      49. Kafka, D. Hong YK. Current understanding of lymphatic system development. Endothelial Biomedicine. 2007; 1533-1567 .
      50. Lee C, Seol SK, Lee BC, Hong Y, Je JH, Soh KS. Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels. Lymphat Res Biol. 2006; 4(4):181-90. PMID: 17394401.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Shin JW, Min M, Larrieu-Lahargue F, Canron X, Kunstfeld R, Nguyen L, Henderson JE, Bikfalvi A, Detmar M, Hong Y. Prox1 promotes lineage-specific expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-3 in lymphatic endothelium: a role for FGF signaling in lymphangiogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Feb; 17(2):576-84. PMID: 16291864; PMCID: PMC1356570.
      52. Chang H, Dittmer DP, Shin YC, Chul SY, Hong Y, Jung JU. Role of Notch signal transduction in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14371-82. PMID: 16254371; PMCID: PMC1280196.
      53. Schacht V, Dadras SS, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Hong Y, Detmar M. Up-regulation of the lymphatic marker podoplanin, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, in human squamous cell carcinomas and germ cell tumors. Am J Pathol. 2005 Mar; 166(3):913-21. PMID: 15743802; PMCID: PMC1602360.
      54. Yano K, Kadoya K, Kajiya K, Hong Y, Detmar M. Ultraviolet B irradiation of human skin induces an angiogenic switch that is mediated by upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and by downregulation of thrombospondin-1. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Jan; 152(1):115-21. PMID: 15656811.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hong Y, Shin JW, Detmar M. Development of the lymphatic vascular system: a mystery unravels. Dev Dyn. 2004 Nov; 231(3):462-73. PMID: 15376314.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Kim KT, Ongusaha PP, Hong Y, Kurdistani SK, Nakamura M, Lu KP, Lee SW. Function of Drg1/Rit42 in p53-dependent mitotic spindle checkpoint. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 10; 279(37):38597-602. PMID: 15247272.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Hong Y, Foreman K, Shin JW, Hirakawa S, Curry CL, Sage DR, Libermann T, Dezube BJ, Fingeroth JD, Detmar M. Lymphatic reprogramming of blood vascular endothelium by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Nat Genet. 2004 Jul; 36(7):683-5. PMID: 15220917.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Hong Y, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Velasco P, Hirakawa S, Kunstfeld R, Brown LF, Bohlen P, Senger DR, Detmar M. VEGF-A promotes tissue repair-associated lymphatic vessel formation via VEGFR-2 and the alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 integrins. FASEB J. 2004 Jul; 18(10):1111-3. PMID: 15132990.
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      59. Kunstfeld R, Hirakawa S, Hong Y, Schacht V, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Velasco P, Lin C, Fiebiger E, Wei X, Wu Y, Hicklin D, Bohlen P, Detmar M. Induction of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in VEGF-A transgenic mice results in chronic skin inflammation associated with persistent lymphatic hyperplasia. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):1048-57. PMID: 15100155.
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      60. Yano K, Kajiya K, Ishiwata M, Hong Y, Miyakawa T, Detmar M. Ultraviolet B-induced skin angiogenesis is associated with a switch in the balance of vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Jan; 122(1):201-8. PMID: 14962109.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Noh YH, Matsuda K, Hong Y, Kunstfeld R, Riccardi L, Koch M, Oura H, Dadras SS, Streit M, Detmar M. An N-terminal 80 kDa recombinant fragment of human thrombospondin-2 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor induced endothelial cell migration in vitro and tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Dec; 121(6):1536-43. PMID: 14675207.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Hong Y, Detmar M. Prox1, master regulator of the lymphatic vasculature phenotype. Cell Tissue Res. 2003 Oct; 314(1):85-92. PMID: 12883994.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Schacht V, Ramirez MI, Hong Y, Hirakawa S, Feng D, Harvey N, Williams M, Dvorak AM, Dvorak HF, Oliver G, Detmar M. T1alpha/podoplanin deficiency disrupts normal lymphatic vasculature formation and causes lymphedema. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 15; 22(14):3546-56. PMID: 12853470; PMCID: PMC165612.
      64. Hirakawa S, Hong Y, Harvey N, Schacht V, Matsuda K, Libermann T, Detmar M. Identification of vascular lineage-specific genes by transcriptional profiling of isolated blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2003 Feb; 162(2):575-86. PMID: 12547715; PMCID: PMC1851142.
      65. Hong Y, Harvey N, Noh YH, Schacht V, Hirakawa S, Detmar M, Oliver G. Prox1 is a master control gene in the program specifying lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Dev Dyn. 2002 Nov; 225(3):351-7. PMID: 12412020.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Hawighorst T, Skobe M, Streit M, Hong Y, Velasco P, Brown LF, Riccardi L, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Detmar M. Activation of the tie2 receptor by angiopoietin-1 enhances tumor vessel maturation and impairs squamous cell carcinoma growth. Am J Pathol. 2002 Apr; 160(4):1381-92. PMID: 11943723; PMCID: PMC1867215.
      67. Kim DH, Hong Y, Egholm M, Strauss WM. Non-disruptive PNA-FISH protocol for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Biotechniques. 2001 Sep; 31(3):472, 475-6. PMID: 11570488.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Beletskii A, Hong Y, Pehrson J, Egholm M, Strauss WM. PNA interference mapping demonstrates functional domains in the noncoding RNA Xist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31; 98(16):9215-20. PMID: 11481485; PMCID: PMC55400.
      69. Hawighorst T, Velasco P, Streit M, Hong Y, Kyriakides TR, Brown LF, Bornstein P, Detmar M. Thrombospondin-2 plays a protective role in multistep carcinogenesis: a novel host anti-tumor defense mechanism. EMBO J. 2001 Jun 01; 20(11):2631-40. PMID: 11387198; PMCID: PMC125494.
      70. Hong Y, Kim DH, Beletskii A, Lee C, Memili E, Strauss WM. Development of two bacterial artificial chromosome shuttle vectors for a recombination-based cloning and regulated expression of large genes in mammalian cells. Anal Biochem. 2001 Apr 01; 291(1):142-8. PMID: 11262167.
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      71. Memili E, Hong Y, Kim DH, Ontiveros SD, Strauss WM. Murine Xist RNA isoforms are different at their 3' ends: a role for differential polyadenylation. Gene. 2001 Mar 21; 266(1-2):131-7. PMID: 11290427.
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      72. Maillet L, Tu C, Hong Y, Shuster EO, Collart MA. The essential function of Not1 lies within the Ccr4-Not complex. J Mol Biol. 2000 Oct 20; 303(2):131-43. PMID: 11023781.
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      73. Hong Y, Ontiveros SD, Strauss WM. A revision of the human XIST gene organization and structural comparison with mouse Xist. Mamm Genome. 2000 Mar; 11(3):220-4. PMID: 10723727.
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      74. Hong Y. Tetracycline-resistant gene cassette designed for construction of mutant libraries of a target gene. Biotechniques. 1999 Oct; 27(4):682-5. PMID: 10524306.
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      75. Hong Y, Ontiveros SD, Chen C, Strauss WM. A new structure for the murine Xist gene and its relationship to chromosome choice/counting during X-chromosome inactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 08; 96(12):6829-34. PMID: 10359798; PMCID: PMC22001.
      76. Chen C, Hong Y, Ontiveros SD, Egholm M, Strauss WM. Single base discrimination of CENP-B repeats on mouse and human Chromosomes with PNA-FISH. Mamm Genome. 1999 Jan; 10(1):13-8. PMID: 9892726.
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