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    W. Martin Kast, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Urology
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentMolecular Microbiology and Immunology
    AddressNRT 7507 1450 Biggy Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 3870
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      Other Positions
      TitleWalter A. Richter Cancer Research Chair

      TitleDirector Medical Biology Graduate Program


      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      W. Martin Kast, PhD is a Professor of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Urology at the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCCC) of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, CA. He holds the Walter A. Richter Cancer Research Chair and is the co-director of the NCCC Tumor Micro-environment program, the Director of the USC Medical Biology Graduate Program, a member of the USC Graduate School Admissions Committee, the Director of the Beckman Center for Immune Monitoring and the Assistant Dean of Academic Integrity. A native of the Netherlands, he earned his BS, MS, and PhD summa cum laude, from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. He has and is serving on multiple Study Sections including the National Institute of Health and the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas. His research involves the design of therapeutic cancer vaccines directed against human papilloma virus (HPV) and prostate cancer. Several of his therapeutic HPV vaccines have or are currently been tried out in clinical trials. He studies how HPV enters cells and also studies the interaction of HPV with the human immune system to find out how HPV escapes immune detection and how to reverse that. He has published over 270 articles that have been quoted more than 20,000 times and lead to a publication h-index of 75. He is also the inventor on 18 patents. His research is supported by NIH and DOD grants. He is a recipient of the 1991 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek award, the 1991 Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences award, the 2010 IRPC Eminent Scientist of the year Award for the USA, the 2012 Landsteiner Prize, the 2014 Mellon Award for graduate student mentoring, the 2015 STOP Cancer Award, the 2015 BeHEARD Award and the 2016 Affymetrix prize. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Translational Medicine, International Reviews of Immunology, HPV Today and Papillomavirus research. He also serves as the secretary/treasurer of the International Papillomavirus Society and on the advisory board of 6 biotechnology companies. In his free time he is a Scoutmaster and an actor.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamPhD07/1987Medicine
      University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamMS05/1983Medical Biology
      University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamBS11/1980Biology
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Affymetrix2016Affymetrix Prize
      Rare Genomics Institute2015BeHeard Ultimate Prize
      STOP Cancer2015STOP Cancer Award
      University of Southern California2014Mellon Award for Graduate Student Mentoring
      University of Amsterdam2012Landsteiner Prize
      World Scientist Forum2010North American Immunologist of the Year
      IRPC2010Eminent Scientist of the Year
      Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences1991  - 1995Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts & Sciences Award
      Netherlands Cancer Institute1991Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Prize

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Woodham AW, Yan L, Skeate JG, van der Veen D, Brand HH, Wong MK, Da Silva DM, Kast W. T cell ignorance is bliss: T cells are not tolerized by Langerhans cells presenting human papillomavirus antigens in the absence of costimulation. Papillomavirus Res. 2016 Dec; 2:21-30. PMID: 27182559.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Woodham AW, Sanna AM, Taylor JR, Skeate JG, Da Silva DM, Dekker LV, Kast W. Annexin A2 antibodies but not inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro. Virol J. 2016 Nov 18; 13(1):187. PMID: 27863502.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Wüstenhagen E, Hampe L, Boukhallouk F, Schneider MA, Spoden GA, Negwer I, Koynov K, Kast W, Florin L. The Cytoskeletal Adaptor Obscurin-Like 1 Interacts with the Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) Capsid Protein L2 and Is Required for HPV16 Endocytosis. J Virol. 2016 Dec 01; 90(23):10629-10641. PMID: 27654294.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Pulido MA, DerHartunian MK, Qin Z, Chung EM, Kang DS, Woodham AW, Tsou JA, Klooster R, Akbari O, Wang L, Kast W, Liu SV, Verschuuren JJ, Aswad DW, Laird-Offringa IA. Isoaspartylation appears to trigger small cell lung cancer-associated autoimmunity against neuronal protein ELAVL4. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Oct 15; 299:70-78. PMID: 27725125.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Nicol AF, Brunette LL, Nuovo GJ, Grinsztejn B, Friedman RK, Veloso VG, Cunha CB, Coutinho JR, Vianna de Andrade C, Oliveira NS, Woodham AW, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Expression and High-Risk HPV Infection in Anal Lesions of HIV-Positive Patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Sep 1; 73(1):27-33. PMID: 27149102.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Woodham AW, Skeate JG, Sanna AM, Taylor JR, Da Silva DM, Cannon PM, Kast W. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Cell Receptors, Coreceptors, and Cofactors: Implications for Prevention and Treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2016 Jul; 30(7):291-306. PMID: 27410493.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Skeate JG, Woodham AW, Einstein MH, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 Jun 2; 12(6):1418-29. PMID: 26835746.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Da Silva DM, Woodham AW, Naylor PH, Egan JE, Berinstein NL, Kast W. Immunostimulatory Activity of the Cytokine-Based Biologic, IRX-2, on Human Papillomavirus-Exposed Langerhans Cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2016 May; 36(5):291-301. PMID: 26653678.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Da Silva DM, Woodham AW, Rijkee LK, Skeate JG, Taylor JR, Koopman ME, Brand HE, Wong MK, McKee GM, Salazar AM, Kast W. Human papillomavirus-exposed Langerhans cells are activated by stabilized Poly-I:C. Papillomavirus Res. 2015 Dec 1; 1:12-21. PMID: 26665182.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Skeate JG, Porras TB, Woodham AW, Jang JK, Taylor JR, Brand HE, Kelly TJ, Jung JU, Da Silva DM, Yuan W, Kast W. Herpes Simplex Virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances Human Papillomavirus type 16 infection. J Gen Virol. 2015 Nov 10. PMID: 26555393.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Da Silva DM, Woodham AW, Skeate JG, Rijkee LK, Taylor JR, Brand HE, Muderspach LI, Roman LD, Yessaian AA, Pham HQ, Matsuo K, Lin YG, McKee GM, Salazar AM, Martin Kast W. Langerhans cells from women with cervical precancerous lesions become functionally responsive against human papillomavirus after activation with stabilized poly-I:C. Clin Immunol. 2015 Sep 7. PMID: 26360252.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Bogaert L, Woodham AW, Da Silva DM, Martens A, Meyer E, Kast W. A novel murine model for evaluating bovine papillomavirus prophylactics/therapeutics for equine sarcoid-like tumours. J Gen Virol. 2015 Sep; 96(9):2764-8. PMID: 26044793.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Woodham AW, Taylor JR, Jimenez AI, Skeate JG, Schmidt T, Brand HE, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Small molecule inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer prevent human papillomavirus type 16 infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Jun; 70(6):1686-90. PMID: 25712315.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Yan L, Woodham AW, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Functional Analysis of HPV-Like Particle-Activated Langerhans Cells In Vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1249:333-50. PMID: 25348318.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Woodham AW, Raff AB, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Molecular analysis of human papillomavirus virus-like particle activated langerhans cells in vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1249:135-49. PMID: 25348303.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Yan L, Silva DM, Verma B, Gray A, Brand HE, Skeate JG, Porras TB, Kanodia S, Kast W. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes. Prostate. 2015 Feb; 75(3):280-91. PMID: 25399517.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Woodham AW, Raff AB, Raff LM, Da Silva DM, Yan L, Skeate JG, Wong MK, Lin YG, Kast W. Inhibition of langerhans cell maturation by human papillomavirus type 16: a novel role for the annexin A2 heterotetramer in immune suppression. J Immunol. 2014 May 15; 192(10):4748-57. PMID: 24719459.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Da Silva DM, Movius CA, Raff AB, Brand HE, Skeate JG, Wong MK, Kast W. Suppression of Langerhans cell activation is conserved amongst human papillomavirus a and ß genotypes, but not a µ genotype. Virology. 2014 Mar; 452-453:279-86. PMID: 24606705.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Raff AB, Woodham AW, Raff LM, Skeate JG, Yan L, Da Silva DM, Schelhaas M, Kast W. The evolving field of human papillomavirus receptor research: a review of binding and entry. J Virol. 2013 Jun; 87(11):6062-72. PMID: 23536685.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Hoffmann M, Quabius ES, Tribius S, Hebebrand L, Görögh T, Halec G, Kahn T, Hedderich J, Röcken C, Haag J, Waterboer T, Schmitt M, Giuliano AR, Kast W. Human papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancer: the role of the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Oncol Rep. 2013 May; 29(5):1962-8. PMID: 23467841.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Bot A, Ahn M, Bosch M, Brockstedt D, Butterfield LH, Cornforth A, Harrop R, Kast W, Koya R, Marincola F, Margolin K, McCoy C, Pawelec G, Rothman J, Ramirez-Montagut T, Schlom J, Srivastava P, Wallis S, Walter S, Wang E, Waslif J. A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies. J Transl Med. 2012; 10:218. PMID: 23127127.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Pandey A, Kurup A, Shrivastava A, Radhi S, Nguyen DD, Arentz C, D'Chuna N, Hardwick F, D'Souza MJ, Jenkins M, Grizzi F, Kast W, Cobos E, Rahman R, Chiriva-Internati M, Chiaramonte R, Platonova N. Cancer testes antigens in breast cancer: biological role, regulation, and therapeutic applicability. Int Rev Immunol. 2012 Oct; 31(5):302-20. PMID: 23083343.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Woodham AW, Da Silva DM, Skeate JG, Raff AB, Ambroso MR, Brand HE, Isas JM, Langen R, Kast W. The S100A10 Subunit of the Annexin A2 Heterotetramer Facilitates L2-Mediated Human Papillomavirus Infection. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43519. PMID: 22927980.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Chiriva-Internati M, Kast W, Bot A. In this Issue: Targeting Human Papilloma Virus-Associated Disease, from Cervical to Head and Neck Carcinoma… and more. Int Rev Immunol. 2012 Feb; 31(1):1-2. PMID: 22251004.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Schutt C, Bumm K, Mirandola L, Bernardini G, Cunha ND, Tijani L, Nguyen D, Cordero J, Jenkins MR, Cobos E, Kast W, Chiriva-Internati M. Immunological treatment options for locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int Rev Immunol. 2012 Feb; 31(1):22-42. PMID: 22251006.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Jenkins M, Chiriva-Internati M, Mirandola L, Tonroy C, Tedjarati SS, Davis N, D'Cunha N, Tijani L, Hardwick F, Nguyen D, Kast W, Cobos E. Perspective for prophylaxis and treatment of cervical cancer: an immunological approach. Int Rev Immunol. 2012 Feb; 31(1):3-21. PMID: 22251005.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Mirandola L, Chiriva-Internati M, Montagna D, Locatelli F, Zecca M, Ranzani M, Basile A, Locati M, Cobos E, Kast W, Asselta R, Paraboschi EM, Comi P, Chiaramonte R. Notch1 regulates chemotaxis and proliferation by controlling the CC-chemokine receptors 5 and 9 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. J Pathol. 2012 Apr; 226(5):713-22. PMID: 21984373.
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      28. Mirandola L, Comi P, Cobos E, Kast W, Chiriva-Internati M, Chiaramonte R. Notch-ing from T-cell to B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Cancer Lett. 2011 Sep 1; 308(1):1-13. PMID: 21652011.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Chiriva-Internati M, Mirandola L, Yu Y, Jenkins MR, Gornati R, Bernardini G, Gioia M, Chiaramonte R, Cannon MJ, Kast W, Cobos E. Cancer testis antigen, ropporin, is a potential target for multiple myeloma immunotherapy. J Immunother. 2011 Jul-Aug; 34(6):490-9. PMID: 21654522.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Chiriva-Internati M, Yu Y, Mirandola L, D'Cunha N, Hardwicke F, Cannon MJ, Cobos E, Kast W. Identification of AKAP-4 as a new cancer/testis antigen for detection and immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2012 Jan; 72(1):12-23. PMID: 21520158.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Cordes C, Häsler R, Werner C, Görögh T, Röcken C, Hebebrand L, Kast W, Hoffmann M, Schreiber S, Ambrosch P. The level of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is decreased in metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2011 Jul; 39(1):185-91. PMID: 21503571.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Mirandola L, J Cannon M, Cobos E, Bernardini G, Jenkins MR, Kast W, Chiriva-Internati M. Cancer testis antigens: novel biomarkers and targetable proteins for ovarian cancer. Int Rev Immunol. 2011 Apr-Jun; 30(2-3):127-37. PMID: 21557639.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Chiriva-Internati M, Mirandola L, Kast W, Jenkins MR, Cobos E, Cannon MJ. Understanding the cross-talk between ovarian tumors and immune cells: mechanisms for effective immunotherapies. Int Rev Immunol. 2011 Apr-Jun; 30(2-3):71-86. PMID: 21557635.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Gray A, Yan L, Kast W. Prevention is better than cure: the case for clinical trials of therapeutic cancer vaccines in the prophylactic setting. Mol Interv. 2010 Aug; 10(4):197-203. PMID: 20729485.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Bogaert L, Martens A, Kast W, Van Marck E, De Cock H. Bovine papillomavirus DNA can be detected in keratinocytes of equine sarcoid tumors. Vet Microbiol. 2010 Dec 15; 146(3-4):269-75. PMID: 21095508.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Chiriva-Internati M, Yu Y, Mirandola L, Jenkins MR, Chapman C, Cannon M, Cobos E, Kast W. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer. PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10471. PMID: 20485677.
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      37. Kanodia S, Da Silva DM, Karamanukyan T, Bogaert L, Fu YX, Kast W. Expression of LIGHT/TNFSF14 combined with vaccination against human papillomavirus Type 16 E7 induces significant tumor regression. Cancer Res. 2010 May 15; 70(10):3955-64. PMID: 20460520.
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      38. Clark JI, Moon J, Hutchins LF, Sosman JA, Kast W, Da Silva DM, Liu PY, Thompson JA, Flaherty LE, Sondak VK. Phase 2 trial of combination thalidomide plus temozolomide in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma: Southwest Oncology Group S0508. Cancer. 2010 Jan 15; 116(2):424-31. PMID: 19918923.
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      39. Gray A, de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez M, van West M, Kanodia S, Hubby B, Kast W. Prostate cancer immunotherapy yields superior long-term survival in TRAMP mice when administered at an early stage of carcinogenesis prior to the establishment of tumor-associated immunosuppression at later stages. Vaccine. 2009 Dec 30; 27 Suppl 6:G52-9. PMID: 20006141.
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      40. Adelstein DJ, Ridge JA, Gillison ML, Chaturvedi AK, D'Souza G, Gravitt PE, Westra W, Psyrri A, Kast W, Koutsky LA, Giuliano A, Krosnick S, Trotti A, Schuller DE, Forastiere A, Ullmann CD. Head and neck squamous cell cancer and the human papillomavirus: summary of a National Cancer Institute State of the Science Meeting, November 9-10, 2008, Washington, D.C. Head Neck. 2009 Nov; 31(11):1393-422. PMID: 19787782.
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      41. Fahey LM, Raff AB, Da Silva DM, Kast W. A major role for the minor capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 16 in immune escape. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 15; 183(10):6151-6. PMID: 19864613.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Smith KA, Meisenburg BL, Tam VL, Pagarigan RR, Wong R, Joea DK, Lantzy L, Carrillo MA, Gross TM, Malyankar UM, Chiang CS, Da Silva DM, Kündig TM, Kast W, Qiu Z, Bot A. Lymph node-targeted immunotherapy mediates potent immunity resulting in regression of isolated or metastatic human papillomavirus-transformed tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Oct 1; 15(19):6167-76. PMID: 19789304.
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      43. Chiriva-Internati M, Gagliano N, Donetti E, Costa F, Grizzi F, Franceschini B, Albani E, Levi-Setti PE, Gioia M, Jenkins M, Cobos E, Kast W. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath. J Transl Med. 2009; 7:61. PMID: 19604394.
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      44. Hitzeroth II, Passmore JA, Shephard E, Stewart D, Müller M, Williamson AL, Rybicki EP, Kast W. Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2009 Oct 30; 27(46):6432-4. PMID: 19559114.
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      45. Koh YT, Gray A, Higgins SA, Hubby B, Kast W. Androgen ablation augments prostate cancer vaccine immunogenicity only when applied after immunization. Prostate. 2009 May 1; 69(6):571-84. PMID: 19143030.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Fahey LM, Raff AB, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Reversal of human papillomavirus-specific T cell immune suppression through TLR agonist treatment of Langerhans cells exposed to human papillomavirus type 16. J Immunol. 2009 Mar 1; 182(5):2919-28. PMID: 19234187.
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      47. Leffers N, Gooden MJ, Mokhova AA, Kast W, Boezen HM, Ten Hoor KA, Hollema H, Daemen T, van der Zee AG, Nijman HW. Down-regulation of proteasomal subunit MB1 is an independent predictor of improved survival in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009 May; 113(2):256-63. PMID: 19243813.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Yu Y, Pilgrim P, Zhou W, Gagliano N, Frezza EE, Jenkins M, Weidanz JA, Lustgarten J, Cannon M, Bumm K, Cobos E, Kast W, Chiriva-Internati M. rAAV/Her-2/neu loading of dendritic cells for a potent cellular-mediated MHC class I restricted immune response against ovarian cancer. Viral Immunol. 2008 Dec; 21(4):435-42. PMID: 19115932.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Kanodia S, Kast W. Peptide-based vaccines for cancer: realizing their potential. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Dec; 7(10):1533-45. PMID: 19053209.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Raff AB, Gray A, Kast W. Prostate stem cell antigen: a prospective therapeutic and diagnostic target. Cancer Lett. 2009 May 18; 277(2):126-32. PMID: 18838214.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Yu Y, Pilgrim P, Yan J, Zhou W, Jenkins M, Gagliano N, Bumm K, Cannon M, Milzani A, Dalle-Donne I, Kast W, Cobos E, Chiriva-Internati M. Protective CD8+ T-cell responses to cytomegalovirus driven by rAAV/GFP/IE1 loading of dendritic cells. J Transl Med. 2008; 6:56. PMID: 18834548.
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      52. Moore TV, Lyons GE, Brasic N, Roszkowski JJ, Voelkl S, Mackensen A, Kast W, Le Poole IC, Nishimura MI. Relationship between CD8-dependent antigen recognition, T cell functional avidity, and tumor cell recognition. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009 May; 58(5):719-28. PMID: 18836717.
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      53. Chiriva-Internati M, Weidanz JA, Yu Y, Frezza EE, Jenkins MR, Kennedy RC, Cobos E, Kast W. Sperm protein 17 is a suitable target for adoptive T-cell-based immunotherapy in human ovarian cancer. J Immunother. 2008 Oct; 31(8):693-703. PMID: 18779750.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Song LL, Peng Y, Yun J, Rizzo P, Chaturvedi V, Weijzen S, Kast W, Stone PJ, Santos L, Loredo A, Lendahl U, Sonenshein G, Osborne B, Qin JZ, Pannuti A, Nickoloff BJ, Miele L. Notch-1 associates with IKKalpha and regulates IKK activity in cervical cancer cells. Oncogene. 2008 Oct 2; 27(44):5833-44. PMID: 18560356.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Chiriva-Internati M, Cobos E, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Sperm fibrous sheath proteins: a potential new class of target antigens for use in human therapeutic cancer vaccines. Cancer Immun. 2008; 8:8. PMID: 18433090.
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      56. Gray A, Raff AB, Chiriva-Internati M, Chen SY, Kast W. A paradigm shift in therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients: the need to apply therapeutic vaccination strategies in the preventive setting. Immunol Rev. 2008 Apr; 222:316-27. PMID: 18364011.
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      57. Chiriva-Internati M, Ferrari R, Yu Y, Hamrick C, Gagliano N, Grizzi F, Frezza E, Jenkins MR, Hardwick F, D'Cunha N, Kast W, Cobos E. AKAP-4: a novel cancer testis antigen for multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 2008 Feb; 140(4):465-8. PMID: 18217892.
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      58. Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, Gray A, Hubby B, Klinger OJ, Kast W. Prostate stem cell antigen vaccination induces a long-term protective immune response against prostate cancer in the absence of autoimmunity. Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 1; 68(3):861-9. PMID: 18245488.
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      59. Kanodia S, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Recent advances in strategies for immunotherapy of human papillomavirus-induced lesions. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15; 122(2):247-59. PMID: 17973257.
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      60. Le Poole IC, ElMasri WM, Denman CJ, Kroll TM, Bommiasamy H, Lyons Eiben G, Kast W. Langerhans cells and dendritic cells are cytotoxic towards HPV16 E6 and E7 expressing target cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008 Jun; 57(6):789-97. PMID: 18004565.
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      61. Wong RM, Scotland RR, Lau RL, Wang C, Korman AJ, Kast W, Weber JS. Programmed death-1 blockade enhances expansion and functional capacity of human melanoma antigen-specific CTLs. Int Immunol. 2007 Oct; 19(10):1223-34. PMID: 17898045.
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      62. Janetzki S, Panageas KS, Ben-Porat L, Boyer J, Britten CM, Clay TM, Kalos M, Maecker HT, Romero P, Yuan J, Kast W, Hoos A. Results and harmonization guidelines from two large-scale international Elispot proficiency panels conducted by the Cancer Vaccine Consortium (CVC/SVI). Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008 Mar; 57(3):303-15. PMID: 17721781; PMCID: PMC2150634.
      63. Roman LD, Wilczynski S, Muderspach LI, Burnett AF, O'Meara A, Brinkman JA, Kast W, Facio G, Felix JC, Aldana M, Weber JS. A phase II study of Hsp-7 (SGN-00101) in women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Sep; 106(3):558-66. PMID: 17631950.
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      64. Da Silva DM, Fausch SC, Verbeek JS, Kast W. Uptake of human papillomavirus virus-like particles by dendritic cells is mediated by Fcgamma receptors and contributes to acquisition of T cell immunity. J Immunol. 2007 Jun 15; 178(12):7587-97. PMID: 17548594.
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      65. Daftarian PM, Mansour M, Pohajdak B, Fuentes-Ortega A, Korets-Smith E, Macdonald L, Weir G, Brown RG, Kast W. Rejection of large HPV-16 expressing tumors in aged mice by a single immunization of VacciMax encapsulated CTL/T helper peptides. J Transl Med. 2007; 5:26. PMID: 17555571.
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      66. Chiriva-Internati M, Cobos E, Kast W. Advances in immunotherapy of multiple myeloma: from the discovery of tumor-associated antigens to clinical trials. Int Rev Immunol. 2007 May-Aug; 26(3-4):197-222. PMID: 17558744.
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      67. Mansour M, Pohajdak B, Kast W, Fuentes-Ortega A, Korets-Smith E, Weir GM, Brown RG, Daftarian P. Therapy of established B16-F10 melanoma tumors by a single vaccination of CTL/T helper peptides in VacciMax. J Transl Med. 2007; 5:20. PMID: 17451606.
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      68. Lambeck AJ, Crijns AP, Leffers N, Sluiter WJ, ten Hoor KA, Braid M, van der Zee AG, Daemen T, Nijman HW, Kast W. Serum cytokine profiling as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in ovarian cancer: a potential role for interleukin 7. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 15; 13(8):2385-91. PMID: 17438097.
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      69. Chiriva-Internati M, Grizzi F, Weidanz JA, Ferrari R, Yuefei Y, Velez B, Shearer MH, Lowe DB, Frezza EE, Cobos E, Kast W, Kennedy RC. A NOD/SCID tumor model for human ovarian cancer that allows tracking of tumor progression through the biomarker Sp17. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Apr 10; 321(1-2):86-93. PMID: 17336323.
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      70. Kanodia S, Fahey LM, Kast W. Mechanisms used by human papillomaviruses to escape the host immune response. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Feb; 7(1):79-89. PMID: 17305480.
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      71. Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, Gray A, Hubby B, Kast W. In vivo effects of vaccination with six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate: a candidate antigen for treating prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 1; 67(3):1344-51. PMID: 17283172.
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      72. Brinkman JA, Xu X, Kast W. The efficacy of a DNA vaccine containing inserted and replicated regions of the E7 gene for treatment of HPV-16 induced tumors. Vaccine. 2007 Apr 30; 25(17):3437-44. PMID: 17241713.
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      73. Brinkman JA, Hughes SH, Stone P, Caffrey AS, Muderspach LI, Roman LD, Weber JS, Kast W. Therapeutic vaccination for HPV induced cervical cancers. Dis Markers. 2007; 23(4):337-52. PMID: 17627067.
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      74. Koh YT, Higgins SA, Weber JS, Kast W. Immunological consequences of using three different clinical/laboratory techniques of emulsifying peptide-based vaccines in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. J Transl Med. 2006; 4:42. PMID: 17059610.
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      75. Daftarian P, Mansour M, Benoit AC, Pohajdak B, Hoskin DW, Brown RG, Kast W. Eradication of established HPV 16-expressing tumors by a single administration of a vaccine composed of a liposome-encapsulated CTL-T helper fusion peptide in a water-in-oil emulsion. Vaccine. 2006 Jun 12; 24(24):5235-44. PMID: 16675074.
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      76. Chiriva-Internati M, Grizzi F, Pinkston J, Morrow KJ, D'Cunha N, Frezza EE, Muzzio PC, Kast W, Cobos E. Gamma-radiation upregulates MHC class I/II and ICAM-I molecules in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary tumors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2006 Mar-Apr; 42(3-4):89-95. PMID: 16759154.
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      77. Lyons GE, Roszkowski JJ, Man S, Yee C, Kast W, Nishimura MI. T-cell receptor tetramer binding or the lack there of does not necessitate antigen reactivity in T-cell receptor transduced T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006 Sep; 55(9):1142-50. PMID: 16374636.
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      78. Bumm K, Grizzi F, Franceschini B, Koch M, Iro H, Wurm J, Ceva-Grimaldi G, Dimmler A, Cobos E, Dioguardi N, Sinha UK, Kast W, Chiriva-Internati M. Sperm protein 17 expression defines 2 subsets of primary esthesioneuroblastoma. Hum Pathol. 2005 Dec; 36(12):1289-93. PMID: 16311122.
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      79. Warrino DE, Olson WC, Scarrow MI, D'Ambrosio-Brennan LJ, Guido RS, Da Silva DM, Kast W, Storkus WJ. Human papillomavirus L1L2-E7 virus-like particles partially mature human dendritic cells and elicit E7-specific T-helper responses from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in vitro. Hum Immunol. 2005 Jul; 66(7):762-72. PMID: 16112023.
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      80. Fausch SC, Fahey LM, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Human papillomavirus can escape immune recognition through Langerhans cell phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 1; 174(11):7172-8. PMID: 15905561.
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      81. Fausch SC, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Heterologous papillomavirus virus-like particles and human papillomavirus virus-like particle immune complexes activate human Langerhans cells. Vaccine. 2005 Feb 25; 23(14):1720-9. PMID: 15705478.
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      82. Roszkowski JJ, Lyons GE, Kast W, Yee C, Van Besien K, Nishimura MI. Simultaneous generation of CD8+ and CD4+ melanoma-reactive T cells by retroviral-mediated transfer of a single T-cell receptor. Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 15; 65(4):1570-6. PMID: 15735047.
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      83. Brinkman JA, Caffrey AS, Muderspach LI, Roman LD, Kast W. The impact of anti HPV vaccination on cervical cancer incidence and HPV induced cervical lesions: consequences for clinical management. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2005; 26(2):129-42. PMID: 15857016.
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      84. Kast W, Levitsky H, Marincola FM. Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy. J Transl Med. 2004 Jun 22; 2(1):20. PMID: 15212694.
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      85. Warrino DE, Olson WC, Knapp WT, Scarrow MI, D'Ambrosio-Brennan LJ, Guido RS, Edwards RP, Kast W, Storkus WJ. Disease-stage variance in functional CD4(+) T-cell responses against novel pan-human leukocyte antigen-D region presented human papillomavirus-16 E7 epitopes. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 May 15; 10(10):3301-8. PMID: 15161683.
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      86. Schreiber K, Cannon RE, Karrison T, Beck-Engeser G, Huo D, Tennant RW, Jensen H, Kast W, Krausz T, Meredith SC, Chen L, Schreiber H. Strong synergy between mutant ras and HPV16 E6/E7 in the development of primary tumors. Oncogene. 2004 May 13; 23(22):3972-9. PMID: 15077191.
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      87. Grizzi F, Chiriva-Internati M, Franceschini B, Bumm K, Colombo P, Ciccarelli M, Donetti E, Gagliano N, Hermonat PL, Bright RK, Gioia M, Dioguardi N, Kast W. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human somatic ciliated epithelia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004 Apr; 52(4):549-54. PMID: 15034007.
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      88. Brinkman JA, Fausch SC, Weber JS, Kast W. Peptide-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004 Feb; 4(2):181-98. PMID: 14998777.
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      89. Cassetti MC, McElhiney SP, Shahabi V, Pullen JK, Le Poole IC, Eiben GL, Smith LR, Kast W. Antitumor efficacy of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles encoding mutated HPV16 E6 and E7 genes. Vaccine. 2004 Jan 2; 22(3-4):520-7. PMID: 14670335.
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      90. Markiewicz MA, Kast W. Progress in the development of immunotherapy of cancer using ex vivo-generated dendritic cells expressing multiple tumor antigen epitopes. Cancer Invest. 2004; 22(3):417-34. PMID: 15493363.
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      91. Harrison JS, Kast W. Cure of glioma: a space not yet occupied for the lesion. Cancer Invest. 2004; 22(3):479-80. PMID: 15493370.
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      92. Chiriva-Internati M, Grizzi F, Franceschini B, Hermonat PL, Bright RK, Bumm K, Dioguardi N, Kast W. Is sperm protein 17 a useful target for tumor immunotherapy? Blood. 2003 Sep 15; 102(6):2308-9. PMID: 12959941.
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      93. Wilcox RA, Tamada K, Flies DB, Zhu G, Chapoval AI, Blazar BR, Kast W, Chen L. Ligation of CD137 receptor prevents and reverses established anergy of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes in vivo. Blood. 2004 Jan 1; 103(1):177-84. PMID: 12969968.
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      94. Mitchell MS, Kast W. Synopsis of the 5th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2003 Oct; 52(10):655-60. PMID: 12942201.
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      95. Le Poole IC, Bommiasamy H, Bocchetta M, Kast W. Advances in prophylactic cancer vaccine research. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003 Aug; 3(4):537-45. PMID: 12934665.
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      96. Da Silva DM, Schiller JT, Kast W. Heterologous boosting increases immunogenicity of chimeric papillomavirus virus-like particle vaccines. Vaccine. 2003 Jul 4; 21(23):3219-27. PMID: 12804851.
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      97. Fausch SC, Da Silva DM, Kast W. Differential uptake and cross-presentation of human papillomavirus virus-like particles by dendritic cells and Langerhans cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 1; 63(13):3478-82. PMID: 12839929.
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      98. Le Poole IC, Bommiasamy H, Kast W. Recent progress in tumour vaccine development. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Jun; 12(6):971-81. PMID: 12783601.
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      99. Velders MP, Markiewicz MA, Eiben GL, Kast W. CD4+ T cell matters in tumor immunity. Int Rev Immunol. 2003 Mar-Apr; 22(2):113-40. PMID: 12962272.
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      100. Eiben GL, da Silva DM, Fausch SC, Le Poole IC, Nishimura MI, Kast W. Cervical cancer vaccines: recent advances in HPV research. Viral Immunol. 2003; 16(2):111-21. PMID: 12828864.
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