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Mark S Borchert, MD

Title(s)Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology (Part-Time)
Phone+1 323 361 4510
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Baylor College of MedicineMD1983
    USC Roski Eye InstituteOphthalmology Residency1987
    Massachusetts Eye & Ear InfirmaryNeuro-Ophthalmology Fellowship1988
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Keck School of Medicine of USC1991  - 1994Resident Teaching Award
    Keck School of Medicine of USC1994Senior Resident Teaching Award
    Keck School of Medicine of USC1996Resident Teaching Award
    Keck School of Medicine of USC1999Resident Teaching Award
    Keck School of Medicine of USC2001Resident Teaching Award
    American Academy of Ophthalmology2002Achievement Award
    2006  - 2009America's Top Doctors
    2006Best Doctors in America Award
    2008Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award
    2009LA Magazine Best Doctors in Southern California
    2009Best Doctors in America Award
    LA Magazine2010Super Doctors Award
    2010Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award
    2013  - 2014Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Mark S. Borchert, MD earned a medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine. He completed his residency in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, and a fellowship in neuro-ophthalmology at the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Harvard University. Dr. Borchert is the Director of Eye Birth Defects, leading the world’s largest study into optic nerve hypoplasia. Dr. Borchert, who has been listed in “Best Doctors in America,” also has received honors from the Pan American Association of Ophthalmology, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and Society of Heed Fellows, as well as several teaching awards from the Keck School of Medicine. His research on the development of the retina and optic nerve in rats was part of an experiment on the NASA space shuttle.

    Borchert investigates the development of the optic nerve and its retinotopic connections in the tectum (part of the midbrain) and thalamus (part of the forebrain). He is interested in the role that inaccurate or inadequate development of these connections plays in the pathogenesis of optic nerve hypoplasia, the leading cause of blindness in infants in the United states and Europe. His research focus also includes developing diagnostic tools using spectroscopic methods in the measurement of glucose levels in the eye.

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Chang MY, Borchert MS. Papilledema Treated by Cranial Expansion in a 5-Year-Old Boy with Camurati-Engelmann Syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2019 Nov; 126(11):1579. PMID: 31635703.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Yang U, Gentleman S, Gai X, Gorin MB, Borchert MS, Lee TC, Villanueva A, Koenekoop R, Maguire AM, Bennett J, Redmond TM, Nagiel A. Utility of In Vitro Mutagenesis of RPE65 Protein for Verification of Mutational Pathogenicity Before Gene Therapy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 Oct 03; 1-9. PMID: 31580392.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Handa S, Saffari SE, Borchert M. Factors Associated With Lack of Vision Improvement in Children With Cortical Visual Impairment. J Neuroophthalmol. 2018 12; 38(4):429-433. PMID: 29232345.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Storey PP, Aziz HA, O'Keefe GAD, Borchert M, Lam LA, Puliafito CA, Olmos de Koo LC. Decreased severity of age-related macular degeneration in amblyopic eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 11; 102(11):1575-1578. PMID: 29437581.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Borchert M, Liu GT, Pineles S, Waldman AT. Pediatric Optic Neuritis: What Is New. J Neuroophthalmol. 2017 09; 37 Suppl 1:S14-S22. PMID: 28806345.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Garcia-Filion P, Almarzouki H, Fink C, Geffner M, Nelson M, Borchert M. Brain Malformations Do Not Predict Hypopituitarism in Young Children with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia. Horm Res Paediatr. 2017; 88(3-4):251-257. PMID: 28848142.
      View in: PubMed
    7. McCulloch D, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Fisher AC, Eleuteri A, Borchert MS. Predictive value of N95 waveforms of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Doc Ophthalmol. 2017 10; 135(2):97-106. PMID: 28795295.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ryabets-Lienhard A, Stewart C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. The Optic Nerve Hypoplasia Spectrum: Review of the Literature and Clinical Guidelines. Adv Pediatr. 2016 08; 63(1):127-46. PMID: 27426898.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Binder NR, Kruglyakova J, Borchert MS. Strabismus in patients with cortical visual impairment: outcomes of surgery and observations of spontaneous resolution. J AAPOS. 2016 Apr; 20(2):121-5. PMID: 27079591.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Borchert M, Bruce S, Wirta D, Yoelin SG, Lee S, Mao C, VanDenburgh A. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of bimatoprost for eyelash growth in pediatric subjects. Clin Ophthalmol. 2016; 10:419-29. PMID: 27022239.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Stewart C, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Ryabets-Lienhard A, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Efficacy of growth hormone replacement on anthropometric outcomes, obesity, and lipids in children with optic nerve hypoplasia and growth hormone deficiency. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016; 2016:5. PMID: 26937243.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Borchert MS, Lessell S. Fanfare for the Uncommon Neuro-Ophthalmologist: A Tribute to Irma Miller Lessell. J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Sep; 35(3):e24-5. PMID: 26505049.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Fisher AC, McCulloch DL, Borchert MS, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Eleuteri A, Simpson DM. Comparison of human expert and computer-automated systems using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) and bootstrap distribution statistics for the interpretation of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Doc Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug; 131(1):25-34. PMID: 25761929.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Fink C, Borchert M, Simon CZ, Saper C. Hypothalamic dysfunction without hamartomas causing gelastic seizures in optic nerve hypoplasia. J Child Neurol. 2015 Feb; 30(2):233-7. PMID: 24700666.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Borchert M, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Geffner M, Nelson M. Re: Ramakrishnaiah et al.: Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (Ophthalmology 2014;121:387-91). Ophthalmology. 2014 May; 121(5):e26-7. PMID: 24565741.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Sutedja J, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Borchert M. Absence of age-related optic disk changes in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Eye (Lond). 2014 May; 28(5):562-6. PMID: 24556885.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Prenatal determinants of optic nerve hypoplasia: review of suggested correlates and future focus. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov-Dec; 58(6):610-9. PMID: 24160732.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Fink C, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Failure of stem cell therapy to improve visual acuity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. J AAPOS. 2013 Oct; 17(5):490-3. PMID: 24160969.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Williams ME, Fink C, Zamora I, Borchert M. Autism assessment in children with optic nerve hypoplasia and other vision impairments. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014 Jan; 56(1):66-72. PMID: 24000901.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wen G, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Borchert M, Lin J, Kim J, Varma R. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white and Asian children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct; 120(10):2109-16. PMID: 23953098.
      View in: PubMed
    21. McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wen G, Kim J, Borchert M, Varma R. Prevalence of amblyopia or strabismus in asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct; 120(10):2117-24. PMID: 23697956.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, Kim J, Varma R. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun; 120(6):1220-6. PMID: 23561327.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome: a review of the epidemiology and clinical associations. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013 Feb; 15(1):78-89. PMID: 23233151.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Fink C, Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Ma NS, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone in children with optic nerve hypoplasia: associations with hypothyroidism and vision. J AAPOS. 2012 Oct; 16(5):418-23. PMID: 23084376.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Prasov L, Masud T, Khaliq S, Mehdi SQ, Abid A, Oliver ER, Silva ED, Lewanda A, Brodsky MC, Borchert M, Kelberman D, Sowden JC, Dattani MT, Glaser T. ATOH7 mutations cause autosomal recessive persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Aug 15; 21(16):3681-94. PMID: 22645276.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Serum prolactin concentrations in relation to hypopituitarism and obesity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012; 77(5):277-80. PMID: 22572701.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Borchert M. Reappraisal of the optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol. 2012 Mar; 32(1):58-67. PMID: 22330852.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Vedin AM, Karlsson H, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Presenting features and long-term effects of growth hormone treatment of children with optic nerve hypoplasia/septo-optic dysplasia. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011 Nov 15; 2011(1):17. PMID: 22085631.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Varma R, Cotter SA, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Borchert MS, Torres M, Wen G, Azen SP, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for decreased visual acuity in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov; 118(11):2262-73. PMID: 21856014.
      View in: PubMed
    30. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Borchert MS, Lin JH, Wen G, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct; 118(10):1974-81. PMID: 21856010.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Borchert MS, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Wen G, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct; 118(10):1966-73. PMID: 21856013.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, Wei J, Borchert M, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors associated with childhood strabismus: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov; 118(11):2251-61. PMID: 21856012.
      View in: PubMed
    33. O'Neil S, Ji L, Buranahirun C, Azoff J, Dhall G, Khatua S, Patel S, Panigrahy A, Borchert M, Sposto R, Finlay J. Neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric and adolescent patients with central nervous system germinoma treated with a strategy of chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and volume irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Oct; 57(4):669-73. PMID: 21495164.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Fozailoff A, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Wen G, Lin J, Borchert M, Azen S, Varma R. Prevalence of astigmatism in 6- to 72-month-old African American and Hispanic children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb; 118(2):284-93. PMID: 20888047.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Wen G, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, Azen S. General health-related quality of life in preschool children with strabismus or amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar; 118(3):574-80. PMID: 20884059.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Rivkees SA, Fink C, Nelson M, Borchert M. Prevalence and risk factors for disrupted circadian rhythmicity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Oct; 94(10):1358-62. PMID: 20576785.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Ma NS, Fink C, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Evolving central hypothyroidism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan-Feb; 23(1-2):53-8. PMID: 20432806.
      View in: PubMed
    38. McCulloch DL, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Chaplin CA, Borchert MS. Clinical electrophysiology and visual outcome in optic nerve hypoplasia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug; 94(8):1017-23. PMID: 19955198.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Borchert M, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Liu N, Azen SP, Varma R. Anisometropia in Hispanic and african american infants and young children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2010 Jan; 117(1):148-153.e1. PMID: 19818509.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Chaplin C, Borchert MS, Fink C, Garcia-Filion P, McCulloch DL. Light-adapted electroretinograms in optic nerve hypoplasia. Doc Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct; 119(2):123-32. PMID: 19669817.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Pan Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Wen G, Borchert MS, Azen SP, Varma R. Visual acuity norms in pre-school children: the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Jun; 86(6):607-12. PMID: 19430325.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Optic nerve hypoplasia in North America: a re-appraisal of perinatal risk factors. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug; 88(5):527-34. PMID: 19141149.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Song E, Lin J, Borchert M, Azen SP, Varma R. Fixation preference and visual acuity testing in a population-based cohort of preschool children with amblyopia risk factors. Ophthalmology. 2009 Jan; 116(1):145-53. PMID: 18962921.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Borchert M, Garcia-Filion P. The syndrome of optic nerve hypoplasia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2008 Sep; 8(5):395-403. PMID: 18713575.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Chirapapaisan N, Borchert MS. Pediatric optic neuritis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008 Mar; 91(3):323-30. PMID: 18575284.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Lin J, Deneen J, Cotter SA, Azen SP, Borchert MS, Wang Y, Varma R. Stereoacuity testability in African-American and Hispanic pre-school children. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Mar; 85(3):158-63. PMID: 18317330.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Ahmad T, Borchert M, Geffner M. Optic nerve hypoplasia and hypopituitarism. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2008 Mar; 5(3):772-7. PMID: 18367998.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Garcia-Filion P, Epport K, Nelson M, Azen C, Geffner ME, Fink C, Borchert M. Neuroradiographic, endocrinologic, and ophthalmic correlates of adverse developmental outcomes in children with optic nerve hypoplasia: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):e653-9. PMID: 18250116.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Borchert M, Wang Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Deneen J, Azen S, Varma R. Testability of the Retinomax autorefractor and IOLMaster in preschool children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug; 115(8):1422-5, 1425.e1. PMID: 18164067.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Ortiz S, Borchert M. Long-term outcomes of pediatric ocular myasthenia gravis. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jul; 115(7):1245-1248.e1. PMID: 18155768.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wang Y, Azen SP, Dilauro A, Borchert M, Varma R. Visual acuity testability in African-American and Hispanic children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Nov; 144(5):663-7. PMID: 17868633.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Engel BC, Podsakoff GM, Ireland JL, Smogorzewska EM, Carbonaro DA, Wilson K, Shah A, Kapoor N, Sweeney M, Borchert M, Crooks GM, Weinberg KI, Parkman R, Rosenblatt HM, Wu SQ, Hershfield MS, Candotti F, Kohn DB. Prolonged pancytopenia in a gene therapy patient with ADA-deficient SCID and trisomy 8 mosaicism: a case report. Blood. 2007 Jan 15; 109(2):503-6. PMID: 16973956.
      View in: PubMed
    53. McCulloch DL, Garcia-Filion P, Garcia-Fillion P, van Boemel GB, Borchert MS. Retinal function in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia: electroretinograms to large patterns and photopic flash. Eye (Lond). 2007 Jun; 21(6):712-20. PMID: 16601748.
      View in: PubMed
    54. La Via WV, Lambert JL, Pelletier MJ, Morookian JM, Sirk SJ, Mickiene D, Walsh TJ, Borchert MS. Measurement of amphotericin B concentration by resonant Raman spectroscopy--a novel technique that may be useful for non-invasive monitoring. Med Mycol. 2006 Mar; 44(2):169-74. PMID: 16519020.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Borchert M, Lambert J, Sliney D. Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits. Health Phys. 2006 Jan; 90(1):3-10. PMID: 16340602.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Ahmad T, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M, Kaufman F, Burkett L, Geffner M. Endocrinological and auxological abnormalities in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia: a prospective study. J Pediatr. 2006 Jan; 148(1):78-84. PMID: 16423602.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Pelletier CC, Lambert JL, Borchert M. Determination of glucose in human aqueous humor using Raman spectroscopy and designed-solution calibration. Appl Spectrosc. 2005 Aug; 59(8):1024-31. PMID: 16105211.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Lambert JL, Pelletier CC, Borchert M. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2005 May-Jun; 10(3):031110. PMID: 16229635.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, Aller SK, Burger E, Turkel SB, Borchert MS, Hollar S, Padilla S. Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by childhood neuroblastoma: developmental and neurologic sequelae. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan; 109(1):86-98. PMID: 11773546.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Chung M, Stout JT, Borchert MS. Clinical diversity of hereditary Duane's retraction syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2000 Mar; 107(3):500-3. PMID: 10711888.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Appukuttan B, Gillanders E, Juo SH, Freas-Lutz D, Ott S, Sood R, Van Auken A, Bailey-Wilson J, Wang X, Patel RJ, Robbins CM, Chung M, Annett G, Weinberg K, Borchert MS, Trent JM, Brownstein MJ, Stout JT. Localization of a gene for Duane retraction syndrome to chromosome 2q31. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Dec; 65(6):1639-46. PMID: 10577917.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Hwang JM, Matsumoto ER, Borchert MS. The relationship between stereopsis and monocular optokinetic optokinetic nystagmus after infantile cataracts. J AAPOS. 1999 Aug; 3(4):221-6. PMID: 10477224.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Ott S, Borchert M, Chung M, Appukuttan B, Wang X, Weinberg K, Stout JT. Exclusion of candidate genetic loci for Duane retraction syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999 Mar; 127(3):358-60. PMID: 10088756.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Cinciripini GS, Donahue S, Borchert MS. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal pediatric patients: characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999 Feb; 127(2):178-82. PMID: 10030560.
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    65. Kushner BJ, Alvares MG, Paysse EA, Brooks SE, Borchert M. Grand rounds #53: A case of small angle strabismus, torsion, aniseikonia and diplopia associated with epiretinal membranes [clincical conference]. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999; 14(1):46-51; discussion 51-2. PMID: 10076106.
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    66. Borchert MS, Storrie-Lombardi MC, Lambert JL. A noninvasive glucose monitor: preliminary results in rabbits. Diabetes Technol Ther. 1999; 1(2):145-51. PMID: 11475286.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Rostomian K, Thach AB, Isfahani A, Pakkar A, Pakkar R, Borchert M. Open globe injuries in children. J AAPOS. 1998 Aug; 2(4):234-8. PMID: 10532742.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Edelman PM, Borchert MS. Visual outcome in high hypermetropia. J AAPOS. 1997 Sep; 1(3):147-50. PMID: 10532776.
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    69. Legmann Simon A, Borchert M. Etiology and prognosis of acute, late-onset esotropia. Ophthalmology. 1997 Aug; 104(8):1348-52. PMID: 9261325.
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    70. McCulloch DL, Van Boemel GB, Borchert MS. Comparisons of contact lens, foil, fiber and skin electrodes for patterns electroretinograms. Doc Ophthalmol. 1997-1998; 94(4):327-40. PMID: 9858093.
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    71. Borchert MS, Lessell S, Hoyt WF. Hemifield slide diplopia from altitudinal visual field defects. J Neuroophthalmol. 1996 Jun; 16(2):107-9. PMID: 8797166.
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    72. Borchert M, McCulloch D, Rother C, Stout AU. Clinical assessment, optic disk measurements, and visual-evoked potential in optic nerve hypoplasia. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995 Nov; 120(5):605-12. PMID: 7485362.
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    73. Aiello A, Wright KW, Borchert M. Independence of optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry and binocularity in infantile esotropia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Dec; 112(12):1580-3. PMID: 7993213.
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    74. Stout AU, Borchert M. Etiology of eyelid retraction in children: a retrospective study. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1993 Mar-Apr; 30(2):96-9. PMID: 8501625.
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    75. Gonzalez VH, Ober RR, Borchert MS, Bui KC, Ramos AD, Stout AU. Ocular findings in neonates after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Retina. 1993; 13(3):202-7. PMID: 8235100.
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    76. Rismondo V, Borchert M. Position-dependent Parinaud's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul 15; 114(1):107-8. PMID: 1621779.
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    77. Branley MG, Wright KW, Borchert MS. Third nerve palsy due to cerebral artery aneurysm in a child. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1992 May; 20(2):137-40. PMID: 1389132.
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    78. Wagner WH, Weaver FA, Brinkley JR, Borchert M, Lindsay SF. Chronic ocular ischemia and neovascular glaucoma: a result of extracranial carotid artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 1988 Nov; 8(5):551-7. PMID: 3184312.
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    79. Borchert M, Lessell S. Progressive and recurrent nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988 Oct 15; 106(4):443-9. PMID: 3177563.
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    80. Borchert M, Sadun AA. Bright light stimuli as a mask of relative afferent pupillary defects. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988 Jul 15; 106(1):98-9. PMID: 3394776.
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    81. Schwartz SD, Borchert M, Oberman A. Hypopyon keratouveitis in acute angle-closure glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987 Oct 15; 104(4):430-1. PMID: 3661656.
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    82. Sadun AA, Borchert M, DeVita E, Hinton DR, Bassi CJ. Assessment of visual impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987 Aug 15; 104(2):113-20. PMID: 3618708.
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