Rusty Lansford, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor of Research Radiology
SchoolKeck School of Medicine of Usc
AddressCHLA MailStop135
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90027
Phone+1 323 361 4707
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-2159-3699 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Columbia University, New York, NYPhD1996Molecular Immunology
    U.C. Berkeley, Berkeley, CAAB1986Microbiology & Immunology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    U.S. Fulbright NSF Arctic Scholar to Iceland2020  - 2021Conservation and assisted reproduction using Atlantic Puffin germline stem cells
    Bridge Art + Science Alliance2017New Ways of Seeing the Pattern: Exploring Heart Formation in a Gestural Interface System
    NASA Space Act Award 2003Two-photon Microscope Imaging Spectrometer for Multiple Fluorescent Probes (along with Greg Bearman
    R&D 100 Award2003META multispectral imager (along with Greg Bearman, Scott Fraser, and Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Form and function of embryogenesis and pathogenesis
    Many diseases can be considered as a failure of development. Investigating the borderland of embryology and pathology is a fundamental method for learning the rules of development. My group investigates the fundamental principles that guide how cells self-organize through collective interactions to bring about changes in embryonic form and function. By integrating advanced molecular, imaging, single cell transcriptomics, and statistical approaches, we study how molecules work together to control the timing and the spatial pattern of cell differentiation in developing tissues and stem cell systems.

    Germ cells retain the capacity for both totipotency and immortality. They link one generation to the next and so are fundamental to the survival and evolution of living organisms. Germ cells migrate during the critical process of gastrulation, when the three primary germ layers-ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm—are form and the primary body axes are established. We are taking an interdisciplinary approach to studying primordial germ cell (PGC) development in the context of gastrulating embryos by combining the power of molecular genetics with advanced optical imaging within living embryos. Transgenic quail that ubiquitously express fluorescent proteins provide a novel amniote model system that permits investigations in living embryos with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. The quail epiblast, like the human epiblast, flattens out to form a disc, from which the primitive streak arises at one end. The dynamics of spatial relationship between lineages in the gastrulating human remain unexplored. Our studies address outstanding questions fundamental to PGC development and early embryogenesis including when, where, and how they are specified, how balance their need to move with their need to proliferate, and how they move in and out of the living embryo. PGCs have important therapeutic implications for the field of reproductive medicine; however, further development of tools and studies of the mechanisms to specify and maintain germ cell niches in diverse systems are essential for an improved understanding of germline development and reproductive health.

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Follow Me! A Tale of Avian Heart Development with Comparisons to Mammal Heart Development. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2020 Mar 07; 7(1). Lansford R, Rugonyi S. PMID: 32156044; PMCID: PMC7151090.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4  
    2. The quail genome: insights into social behaviour, seasonal biology and infectious disease response. BMC Biol. 2020 02 12; 18(1):14. Morris KM, Hindle MM, Boitard S, Burt DW, Danner AF, Eory L, Forrest HL, Gourichon D, Gros J, Hillier LW, Jaffredo T, Khoury H, Lansford R, Leterrier C, Loudon A, Mason AS, Meddle SL, Minvielle F, Minx P, Pitel F, Seiler JP, Shimmura T, Tomlinson C, Vignal A, Webster RG, Yoshimura T, Warren WC, Smith J. PMID: 32050986; PMCID: PMC7017630.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Fast and Efficient Expression of Multiple Proteins in Avian Embryos Using mRNA Electroporation. J Vis Exp. 2019 06 07; (148). Tran M, Dave M, Lansford R. PMID: 31233018.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Avian Primordial Germ Cells Contribute to and Interact With the Extracellular Matrix During Early Migration. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019; 7:35. Huss DJ, Saias S, Hamamah S, Singh JM, Wang J, Dave M, Kim J, Eberwine J, Lansford R. PMID: 30984757; PMCID: PMC6447691.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12  
    5. Multi-scale quantification of tissue behavior during amniote embryo axis elongation. Development. 2017 Dec 01; 144(23):4462-4472. Bénazéraf B, Beaupeux M, Tchernookov M, Wallingford A, Salisbury T, Shirtz A, Shirtz A, Huss D, Pourquié O, François P, Lansford R. PMID: 28835474.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Basal filopodia and vascular mechanical stress organize fibronectin into pillars bridging the mesoderm-endoderm gap. Development. 2017 01 15; 144(2):281-291. Sato Y, Nagatoshi K, Hamano A, Imamura Y, Huss D, Uchida S, Lansford R. PMID: 28096216.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Fluorescent Quail: A Transgenic Model System for the Dynamic Study of Avian Development. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1650:125-147. Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 28809018.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Mapping a multiplexed zoo of mRNA expression. Development. 2016 10 01; 143(19):3632-3637. Choi HM, Calvert CR, Husain N, Huss D, Barsi JC, Deverman BE, Hunter RC, Kato M, Lee SM, Abelin AC, Rosenthal AZ, Akbari OS, Li Y, Hay BA, Sternberg PW, Patterson PH, Davidson EH, Mazmanian SK, Prober DA, van de Rijn M, Leadbetter JR, Newman DK, Readhead C, Bronner ME, Wold B, Lansford R, Sauka-Spengler T, Fraser SE, Pierce NA. PMID: 27702788; PMCID: PMC5087610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 94     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. In vivo time-lapse imaging reveals extensive neural crest and endothelial cell interactions during neural crest migration and formation of the dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. Dev Biol. 2016 May 01; 413(1):70-85. George L, Dunkel H, Hunnicutt BJ, Filla M, Little C, Lansford R, Lefcort F. PMID: 26988118; PMCID: PMC4834247.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. A transgenic quail model that enables dynamic imaging of amniote embryogenesis. Development. 2015 Aug 15; 142(16):2850-9. Huss D, Benazeraf B, Wallingford A, Filla M, Yang J, Fraser SE, Lansford R. PMID: 26209648; PMCID: PMC4550965.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Dynamic imaging of the growth plate cartilage reveals multiple contributors to skeletal morphogenesis. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 13; 6:6798. Li Y, Trivedi V, Truong TV, Koos DS, Lansford R, Chuong CM, Warburton D, Moats RA, Fraser SE. PMID: 25865282; PMCID: PMC4403347.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Combinatorial analysis of mRNA expression patterns in mouse embryos using hybridization chain reaction. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2015 Mar 02; 2015(3):259-68. Huss D, Choi HM, Readhead C, Fraser SE, Pierce NA, Lansford R. PMID: 25734068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Identification of emergent motion compartments in the amniote embryo. Organogenesis. 2014; 10(4):350-64. Loganathan R, Little CD, Joshi P, Filla MB, Cheuvront TJ, Lansford R, Rongish BJ. PMID: 25482403; PMCID: PMC4594473.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. The left-right Pitx2 pathway drives organ-specific arterial and lymphatic development in the intestine. Dev Cell. 2014 Dec 22; 31(6):690-706. Mahadevan A, Welsh IC, Sivakumar A, Gludish DW, Shilvock AR, Noden DM, Huss D, Lansford R, Kurpios NA. PMID: 25482882; PMCID: PMC4326534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Generation and analysis of lentivirus expressing a 2A peptide-linked bicistronic fluorescent construct. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2014 Dec 01; 2014(12):1290-311. Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 25447284.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Airway branching has conserved needs for local parasympathetic innervation but not neurotransmission. BMC Biol. 2014 Nov 11; 12:92. Bower DV, Lee HK, Lansford R, Zinn K, Warburton D, Fraser SE, Jesudason EC. PMID: 25385196; PMCID: PMC4255442.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Prometastatic GPCR CD97 is a direct target of tumor suppressor microRNA-126. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Feb 21; 9(2):334-8. Lu YY, Sweredoski MJ, Huss D, Lansford R, Hess S, Tirrell DA. PMID: 24274104; PMCID: PMC3944050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Embryogenesis of the first circulating endothelial cells. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e60841. Cui C, Filla MB, Jones EA, Lansford R, Cheuvront T, Al-Roubaie S, Rongish BJ, Little CD. PMID: 23737938; PMCID: PMC3667859.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Transgenesis and imaging in birds, and available transgenic reporter lines. Dev Growth Differ. 2013 May; 55(4):406-21. Sato Y, Lansford R. PMID: 23621574.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Transgenic quail as a model for research in the avian nervous system: a comparative study of the auditory brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Jan 01; 521(1):5-23. Seidl AH, Sanchez JT, Schecterson L, Tabor KM, Wang Y, Kashima DT, Poynter G, Huss D, Fraser SE, Lansford R, Rubel EW. PMID: 22806400; PMCID: PMC3488602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Time-lapse microscopy of macrophages during embryonic vascular development. Dev Dyn. 2012 Sep; 241(9):1423-31. Al-Roubaie S, Hughes JH, Filla MB, Lansford R, Lehoux S, Jones EA. PMID: 22815139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Convective tissue movements play a major role in avian endocardial morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012 Mar 15; 363(2):348-61. Aleksandrova A, Czirók A, Szabó A, Filla MB, Hossain MJ, Whelan PF, Lansford R, Rongish BJ. PMID: 22280991; PMCID: PMC3288244.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2011 Nov 01; 2011(11):1291-4. Canaria CA, Lansford R. PMID: 22046043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    24. Preparation and 4D fluorescent imaging of quail embryos. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2011 Nov 01; 2011(11):1375-82. Canaria CA, Lansford R. PMID: 22046044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. High-speed multicolor microscopy of repeating dynamic processes. Genesis. 2011 Jul; 49(7):514-21. Ohn J, Yang J, Fraser SE, Lansford R, Liebling M. PMID: 21638751; PMCID: PMC3344748.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Dynamic lineage analysis of embryonic morphogenesis using transgenic quail and 4D multispectral imaging. Genesis. 2011 Jul; 49(7):619-43. Bower DV, Sato Y, Lansford R. PMID: 21509927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis. BMC Dev Biol. 2010 Sep 24; 10:101. Kulesa PM, Teddy JM, Smith M, Alexander R, Cooper CH, Lansford R, McLennan R. PMID: 20868502; PMCID: PMC2954993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    28. Dynamic analysis of vascular morphogenesis using transgenic quail embryos. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 14; 5(9):e12674. Sato Y, Poynter G, Huss D, Filla MB, Czirok A, Rongish BJ, Little CD, Fraser SE, Lansford R. PMID: 20856866; PMCID: PMC2939056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Advanced optical imaging in living embryos. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010 Oct; 67(20):3489-97. Canaria CA, Lansford R. PMID: 20614161; PMCID: PMC2943067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. Watching the assembly of an organ a single cell at a time using confocal multi-position photoactivation and multi-time acquisition. Organogenesis. 2009 Oct; 5(4):238-47. Kulesa PM, Stark DA, Steen J, Lansford R, Kasemeier-Kulesa JC. PMID: 20539744; PMCID: PMC2878753.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    
    31. Dynamic positional fate map of the primary heart-forming region. Dev Biol. 2009 Aug 15; 332(2):212-22. Cui C, Cheuvront TJ, Lansford RD, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Schultheiss TM, Rongish BJ. PMID: 19497319; PMCID: PMC2720636.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. Japanese quail: an efficient animal model for the production of transgenic avians. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009 Jan; 2009(1):pdb.emo112. Poynter G, Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 20147007.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    33. Generation of high-titer lentivirus for the production of transgenic quail. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009 Jan; 2009(1):pdb.prot5117. Poynter G, Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 20147012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Injection of lentivirus into stage-X blastoderm for the production of transgenic quail. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009 Jan; 2009(1):pdb.prot5118. Poynter G, Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 20147013.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Screening for transgenic Japanese quail offspring. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009 Jan; 2009(1):pdb.prot5119. Poynter G, Huss D, Lansford R. PMID: 20147014.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a laboratory animal model. Lab Anim (NY). 2008 Nov; 37(11):513-9. Huss D, Poynter G, Lansford R. PMID: 18948991.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    37. Generating transgenic quail using lentiviruses. Methods Cell Biol. 2008; 87:281-93. Poynter G, Lansford R. PMID: 18485303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Ex Ovo Electroporation of DNA Vectors into Pre-gastrulation Avian Embryos. CSH Protoc. 2007 Dec 01; 2007:pdb.prot4894. Cui C, Rongish B, Little C, Lansford R. PMID: 21356997.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    39. Nociceptive sensory neurons derive from contralaterally migrating, fate-restricted neural crest cells. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Oct; 10(10):1287-93. George L, Chaverra M, Todd V, Lansford R, Lefcort F. PMID: 17828258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Digital three-dimensional atlas of quail development using high-resolution MRI. ScientificWorldJournal. 2007 May 11; 7:592-604. Ruffins SW, Martin M, Keough L, Truong S, Fraser SE, Jacobs RE, Lansford R. PMID: 17525824; PMCID: PMC5901279.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. Electroporation and EGFP labeling of gastrulating quail embryos. Dev Dyn. 2006 Oct; 235(10):2802-10. Cui C, Lansford R, Filla MB, Little CD, Cheuvront TJ, Rongish BJ. PMID: 16894628.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Formation and removal of alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayers on gold in aqueous solutions. Lab Chip. 2006 Feb; 6(2):289-95. Canaria CA, So J, Maloney JR, Yu CJ, Smith JO, Roukes ML, Fraser SE, Lansford R. PMID: 16450040.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    43. Four-color, 4-D time-lapse confocal imaging of chick embryos. Biotechniques. 2005 Nov; 39(5):703-10. Teddy JM, Lansford R, Kulesa PM. PMID: 16312219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Circulating blood island-derived cells contribute to vasculogenesis in the embryo proper. Dev Biol. 2003 Oct 01; 262(1):162-72. LaRue AC, Lansford R, Drake CJ. PMID: 14512026.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Becoming a new neuron in the adult olfactory bulb. Nat Neurosci. 2003 May; 6(5):507-18. Carleton A, Petreanu LT, Lansford R, Alvarez-Buylla A, Lledo PM. PMID: 12704391.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 327     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimension to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Biotechniques. 2001 Dec; 31(6):1272, 1274-6, 1278. Dickinson ME, Bearman G, Tille S, Lansford R, Fraser SE. PMID: 11768655.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    
    47. Gene transfer to the embryo: strategies for the delivery and expression of proteins at 48 to 56 hours postfertilization. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Aug; 36(8):1304-7. Thakur A, Lansford R, Thakur V, Narone JN, Atkinson JB, Buchmiller-Crair T, Fraser SE. PMID: 11479882.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Resolution of multiple green fluorescent protein color variants and dyes using two-photon microscopy and imaging spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2001 Jul; 6(3):311-8. Lansford R, Bearman G, Fraser SE. PMID: 11516321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    49. Imaging cells in the developing nervous system with retrovirus expressing modified green fluorescent protein. Exp Neurol. 1999 Apr; 156(2):394-406. Okada A, Lansford R, Weimann JM, Fraser SE, McConnell SK. PMID: 10328944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Germline transcription and recombination of a murine VDJmudeltagamma1 transgene. Int Immunol. 1998 Aug; 10(8):1027-37. Cunningham K, Ackerly H, Claflin L, Collins J, Wu P, Ford C, Lansford R, Alt F, Dunnick WA. PMID: 9723688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Ku70 is required for late B cell development and immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. J Exp Med. 1998 Jun 15; 187(12):2081-9. Manis JP, Gu Y, Lansford R, Sonoda E, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Rajewsky K, Alt FW. PMID: 9625768; PMCID: PMC2212369.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 95     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Ig heavy chain class switching in Rag-deficient mice. Int Immunol. 1998 Mar; 10(3):325-32. Lansford R, Manis JP, Sonoda E, Rajewsky K, Alt FW. PMID: 9576620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Interactions of Eph-related receptors and ligands confer rostrocaudal pattern to trunk neural crest migration. Curr Biol. 1997 Aug 01; 7(8):571-80. Krull CE, Lansford R, Gale NW, Collazo A, Marcelle C, Yancopoulos GD, Fraser SE, Bronner-Fraser M. PMID: 9259560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 91     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. A class switch control region at the 3' end of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Cell. 1994 Jun 03; 77(5):737-47. Cogné M, Lansford R, Bottaro A, Zhang J, Gorman J, Young F, Cheng HL, Alt FW. PMID: 8205622.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. Influence of immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain expression on B-cell differentiation. Genes Dev. 1994 May 01; 8(9):1043-57. Young F, Ardman B, Shinkai Y, Lansford R, Blackwell TK, Mendelsohn M, Rolink A, Melchers F, Alt FW. PMID: 7926786.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. S region transcription per se promotes basal IgE class switch recombination but additional factors regulate the efficiency of the process. EMBO J. 1994 Feb 01; 13(3):665-74. Bottaro A, Lansford R, Xu L, Zhang J, Rothman P, Alt FW. PMID: 8313911; PMCID: PMC394857.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. RAG-2-deficient blastocyst complementation: an assay of gene function in lymphocyte development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 May 15; 90(10):4528-32. Chen J, Lansford R, Stewart V, Young F, Alt FW. PMID: 8506294; PMCID: PMC46545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 143     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. A promoter element that exerts positive and negative control of the interleukin 2-responsive J-chain gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 01; 89(13):5966-70. Lansford RD, McFadden HJ, Siu ST, Cox JS, Cann GM, Koshland ME. PMID: 1631082; PMCID: PMC402119.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Isolation of coordinately regulated genes that are expressed in discrete stages of B-cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug; 87(15):5759-63. Yancopoulos GD, Oltz EM, Rathbun G, Berman JE, Smith RK, Lansford RD, Rothman P, Okada A, Lee G, Morrow M, et al. PMID: 1696011; PMCID: PMC54407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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