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Michael B. Nichol, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Public Policy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Director of Graduate Health Programs. Sol Price School Vice Dean for Faculty Affairs
Phone+1 213 740 2355
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    Dr. Nichol's research interests include Health Care Utilization, Health Insurance Design, Health Care Costs, Adherence Analysis, Pharmacoeconomics, Patient-Centered Outcomes, Health Care Management.

    Dr. Nichol began his health care career as a health planner with the Oregon State Health Planning and Development Agency. He became planning director, associate director, and then executive director of the Western Oregon Health Systems Agency, between the years of 1978 and 1984. During his tenure as executive director, the Agency developed the first physician-specific fee guide, which was distributed to the general public. In addition, the Agency sponsored multiple public hearings as a part of the Oregon Health Decisions project, which resulted in a set of health priorities for the Oregon Medicaid program.

    While directing the Department of Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, Professor Nichol developed the Master of Science in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, which has become one of the premier graduate degrees in the field. He has served on a number of national boards and committees, including the National Commission on Quality Assurance Cardiovascular Work Group, the National Quality Forum’s National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Reporting of Therapeutic Drug Management Quality Education and Adherence Technical Advisory Panel, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Systems Research Study Section, and a study section for the Patient Centered Outcomes and Research Institute (PCORI). Professor Nichol was President of the USC Faculty during the 2008-2009 academic year.

    In addition to his present appointment as Professor of Health Policy, Dr. Nichol directs the Graduate Health Programs at the Price School of Public Policy. This program includes the Master in Health Administration and the Executive Master in Health Administration. In the last two years, both the MHA and the EMHA have been re-designed to create clear outcomes for student performance and career attainment. Dr. Nichol is also Professor of Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy in the School of Pharmacy.

    Dr. Nichol maintains an active research program enabled by federal and corporate grants. He has published more than 250 peer-reviewed articles and abstracts on a variety of health topics. He regularly consults for pharmaceutical and health insurance companies, as well as large physician groups within California.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Wang Y, Nichol MB, Yan BP, Wu J, Tomlinson B, Lee VW. Descriptive analysis of real-world medication use pattern of statins and antiplatelet agents among patients with acute coronary syndrome in Hong Kong and the USA. BMJ Open. 2019 Jul 16; 9(7):e024937. PMID: 31315855.
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    2. Chai-Adisaksopha C, Skinner MW, Curtis R, Frick N, Nichol MB, Noone D, O'Mahony B, Page D, Stonebraker J, Thabane L, Crowther MA, Iorio A. Exploring regional variations in the cross-cultural, international implementation of the Patient Reported Outcomes Burdens and Experience (PROBE) study. Haemophilia. 2019 Mar 12. PMID: 30861270.
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    3. Chai-Adisaksopha C, Skinner MW, Curtis R, Frick N, Nichol MB, Noone D, O'Mahony B, Page D, Stonebraker J, Thabane L, Crowther MA, Iorio A. Test-retest properties of the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burdens and Experiences (PROBE) questionnaire and its constituent domains. Haemophilia. 2019 Jan; 25(1):75-83. PMID: 30520534.
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    4. Chai-Adisaksopha C, Skinner MW, Curtis R, Frick N, Nichol MB, Noone D, O'Mahony B, Page D, Stonebraker J, Thabane L, Crowther M, Iorio A. Psychometric properties of the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burdens and Experiences (PROBE) questionnaire. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 08; 8(8):e021900. PMID: 30093520.
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    5. Skinner MW, Chai-Adisaksopha C, Curtis R, Frick N, Nichol M, Noone D, O'Mahony B, Page D, Stonebraker JS, Iorio A. The Patient Reported Outcomes, Burdens and Experiences (PROBE) Project: development and evaluation of a questionnaire assessing patient reported outcomes in people with haemophilia. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2018; 4:58. PMID: 29497561.
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    6. Wang Y, Yan BP, Nichol MB, Tomlinson B, Lee VWY. Real-world study of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and cardiovascular outcomes in Chinese: A retrospective cohort study in post-percutaneous coronary intervention acute coronary syndrome patients. Int J Cardiol. 2017 Dec 15; 249:18-24. PMID: 29121725.
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    7. Chen CX, Baker JR, Nichol MB. Economic Burden of Illness among Persons with Hemophilia B from HUGS Vb: Examining the Association of Severity and Treatment Regimens with Costs and Annual Bleed Rates. Value Health. 2017 09; 20(8):1074-1082. PMID: 28964439.
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    8. Payán DD, Lewis LB, Cousineau MR, Nichol MB. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies. Soc Sci Med. 2017 03; 177:78-86. PMID: 28161674.
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    9. Curtis R, Baker J, Riske B, Ullman M, Niu X, Norton K, Lou M, Nichol MB. Young adults with hemophilia in the U.S.: demographics, comorbidities, and health status. Am J Hematol. 2015 Dec; 90 Suppl 2:S11-6. PMID: 26619192.
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    10. Blume SW, Yeomans K, Allen-Ramey F, Smith N, Kim H, Lockey RF, Nichol MB. Administration and Burden of Subcutaneous Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis in U.S. and Canadian Clinical Practice. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2015 Nov; 21(11):982-90. PMID: 26521110.
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    11. Navarro AE, Wysong J, DeLiema M, Schwartz EL, Nichol MB, Wilber KH. Inside the Black Box: The Case Review Process of an Elder Abuse Forensic Center. Gerontologist. 2016 08; 56(4):772-81. PMID: 26248723.
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    12. Zhou ZY, Koerper MA, Johnson KA, Riske B, Baker JR, Ullman M, Curtis RG, Poon JL, Lou M, Nichol MB. Burden of illness: direct and indirect costs among persons with hemophilia A in the United States. J Med Econ. 2015 Jun; 18(6):457-65. PMID: 25660324.
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    13. Niu X, Poon JL, Riske B, Zhou ZY, Ullman M, Lou M, Baker J, Koerper M, Curtis R, Nichol MB. Physical activity and health outcomes in persons with haemophilia B. Haemophilia. 2014 Nov; 20(6):814-21. PMID: 25156277.
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    14. Poon JL, Doctor JN, Nichol MB. Longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases: an example in hemophilia A. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Aug; 29 Suppl 3:S760-6. PMID: 25029975.
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    15. Kawatkar AA, Knight TK, Moss RA, Sikirica V, Chu LH, Hodgkins P, Haim Erder M, Nichol MB. Impact of mental health comorbidities on health care utilization and expenditure in a large US managed care adult population with ADHD. Value Health. 2014 Sep; 17(6):661-8. PMID: 25236989.
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    16. Knight TK, Kawatkar A, Hodgkins P, Moss R, Chu LH, Sikirica V, Erder MH, Nichol MB. Prevalence and incidence of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a large managed care population. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014 Jul; 30(7):1291-9. PMID: 24597796.
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    17. An J, Nichol MB. Multiple medication adherence and its effect on clinical outcomes among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Med Care. 2013 Oct; 51(10):879-87. PMID: 23929398.
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    18. Chu LH, Portugal C, Kawatkar AA, Stohl W, Nichol MB. Racial/ethnic differences in the use of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs among California Medicaid rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Feb; 65(2):299-303. PMID: 22807272.
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    19. Wallner LP, Frencher SK, Hsu JW, Chao CR, Nichol MB, Loo RK, Jacobsen SJ. Changes in serum prostate-specific antigen levels and the identification of prostate cancer in a large managed care population. BJU Int. 2013 Jun; 111(8):1245-52. PMID: 23320750.
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    20. Yen L, Wu J, Hodgkins PL, Cohen RD, Nichol MB. Medication use patterns and predictors of nonpersistence and nonadherence with oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis. J Manag Care Pharm. 2012 Nov-Dec; 18(9):701-12. PMID: 23206213.
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    21. Kawatkar AA, Hay JW, Stohl W, Nichol MB. Incremental expenditure of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic treatment using instrumental variables in panel data. Health Econ. 2013 Jul; 22(7):807-23. PMID: 22718267.
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    22. Wallner L, Frencher S, Hsu JW, Loo R, Huang J, Nichol M, Jacobsen S. Prostate cancer screening trends in a large, integrated health care system. Perm J. 2012; 16(3):4-9. PMID: 23012592.
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    23. Nichol MB, Wu J, Huang J, Denham D, Frencher SK, Jacobsen SJ. Cost-effectiveness of Prostate Health Index for prostate cancer detection. BJU Int. 2012 Aug; 110(3):353-62. PMID: 22077934.
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    24. Nichol MB, Wu J, An JJ, Huang J, Denham D, Frencher S, Jacobsen SJ. Budget impact analysis of a new prostate cancer risk index for prostate cancer detection. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011 Sep; 14(3):253-61. PMID: 21537346.
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    25. Patino CM, Varma R, Azen SP, Conti DV, Nichol MB, McKean-Cowdin R. The impact of change in visual field on health-related quality of life the los angeles latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jul; 118(7):1310-7. PMID: 21458074.
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    26. Yu AP, Yu YF, Nichol MB. Estimating the effect of medication adherence on health outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes--an application of marginal structural models. Value Health. 2010 Dec; 13(8):1038-45. PMID: 20946182.
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    27. Zeng F, An JJ, Scully R, Barrington C, Patel BV, Nichol MB. The impact of value-based benefit design on adherence to diabetes medications: a propensity score-weighted difference in difference evaluation. Value Health. 2010 Sep-Oct; 13(6):846-52. PMID: 20561344.
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    28. Nichol MB, Knight TK, Priest JL, Wu J, Cantrell CR. Nonadherence to clinical practice guidelines and medications for multiple chronic conditions in a California Medicaid population. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Jul-Aug; 50(4):496-507. PMID: 20621868.
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    29. Kymes SM, Plotzke MR, Li JZ, Nichol MB, Wu J, Fain J. The increased cost of medical services for people diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma: a decision analytic approach. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jul; 150(1):74-81. PMID: 20493465.
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    30. Benner JS, Nichol MB, Rovner ES, Jumadilova Z, Alvir J, Hussein M, Fanning K, Trocio JN, Brubaker L. Patient-reported reasons for discontinuing overactive bladder medication. BJU Int. 2010 May; 105(9):1276-82. PMID: 19912188.
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    31. Chapman RH, Benner JS, Girase P, Benigno M, Axelsen K, Liu LZ, Nichol MB. Generic and therapeutic statin switches and disruptions in therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 May; 25(5):1247-60. PMID: 19344292.
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    32. Nichol MB, Knight TK, Wu J, Barron R, Penson DF. Evaluating use patterns of and adherence to medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2009 May; 181(5):2214-21; discussion 2221-2. PMID: 19296986.
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    33. Gwadry-Sridhar FH, Manias E, Zhang Y, Roy A, Yu-Isenberg K, Hughes DA, Nichol MB. A framework for planning and critiquing medication compliance and persistence research using prospective study designs. Clin Ther. 2009 Feb; 31(2):421-35. PMID: 19302915.
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    34. Nichol MB, Knight TK, Wu J, Tang SS, Cherry SB, Benner JS, Hussein M. Transition probabilities and predictors of adherence in a California Medicaid population using antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Value Health. 2009 Jun; 12(4):544-50. PMID: 19138308.
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    35. Cherry SB, Benner JS, Hussein MA, Tang SS, Nichol MB. The clinical and economic burden of nonadherence with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients. Value Health. 2009 Jun; 12(4):489-97. PMID: 18783393.
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    36. Cella D, Nichol MB, Eton D, Nelson JB, Mulani P. Estimating clinically meaningful changes for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--Prostate: results from a clinical trial of patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Value Health. 2009 Jan-Feb; 12(1):124-9. PMID: 18647260.
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    37. Nichol MB, Epstein JD. Separating gains and losses in health when calculating the minimum important difference for mapped utility measures. Qual Life Res. 2008 Aug; 17(6):955-61. PMID: 18615271.
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    38. Yu AP, Yu YF, Nichol MB, Gwadry-Sridhar F. Delay in filling the initial prescription for a statin: a potential early indicator of medication nonpersistence. Clin Ther. 2008 Apr; 30(4):761-74; discussion 716. PMID: 18498924.
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    39. Epstein JD, Knight TK, Epstein JB, Bride MA, Nichol MB. Cost of care for early- and late-stage oral and pharyngeal cancer in the California Medicaid population. Head Neck. 2008 Feb; 30(2):178-86. PMID: 17694558.
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    40. Thiebaud P, Patel BV, Nichol MB. The demand for statin: the effect of copay on utilization and compliance. Health Econ. 2008 Jan; 17(1):83-97. PMID: 17585395.
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    41. Patel BV, Leslie RS, Thiebaud P, Nichol MB, Tang SS, Solomon H, Honda D, Foody JM. Adherence with single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin vs a two-pill regimen. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008; 4(3):673-81. PMID: 18827917.
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    42. Nichol MB, Knight TK, Dow T, Wygant G, Borok G, Hauch O, O'Connor R. Quality of anticoagulation monitoring in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients: comparison of anticoagulation clinic versus usual care. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Jan; 42(1):62-70. PMID: 18094348.
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    43. Nichol MB, Knight TK, Epstein J, Honda DH, Tretiak R. Opinions regarding the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy dossier submission guidelines: results of a small survey of managed care organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers. J Manag Care Pharm. 2007 May; 13(4):360-71. PMID: 17506602.
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    44. Peterson AM, Nau DP, Cramer JA, Benner J, Gwadry-Sridhar F, Nichol M. A checklist for medication compliance and persistence studies using retrospective databases. Value Health. 2007 Jan-Feb; 10(1):3-12. PMID: 17261111.
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    45. Thiebaud P, Patel BV, Nichol MB. Impact of rofecoxib withdrawal on cyclooxygenase-2 utilization among patients with and without cardiovascular risk. Value Health. 2006 Nov-Dec; 9(6):361-8. PMID: 17076866.
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    46. Nichol MB. The role of outcomes research in defining and measuring value in benefit decisions. J Manag Care Pharm. 2006 Aug; 12(6 Suppl B):S19-23; quiz S24-6. PMID: 17274693.
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    47. Nichol MB. Medicare Part D and the challenge of a dynamic marketplace. Manag Care Interface. 2006 May; 19(5):17, 19. PMID: 16786966.
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    48. Thiebaud P, Patel BV, Nichol MB, Berenbeim DM. The effect of switching on compliance and persistence: the case of statin treatment. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Nov; 11(11):670-4. PMID: 16268750.
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    49. Nichol MB, Zhang L. Depression and health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005 Oct; 5(5):645-53. PMID: 19807590.
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    50. Yu YF, Nichol MB, Yu AP, Ahn J. Persistence and adherence of medications for chronic overactive bladder/urinary incontinence in the california medicaid program. Value Health. 2005 Jul-Aug; 8(4):495-505. PMID: 16091027.
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    51. Nichol MB, Shi S, Knight TK, Wallace DJ, Weisman MH. Eligibility, utilization, and costs in a California Medicaid lupus population. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec 15; 51(6):996-1003. PMID: 15593358.
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    52. Sengupta N, Nichol MB, Wu J, Globe D. Mapping the SF-12 to the HUI3 and VAS in a managed care population. Med Care. 2004 Sep; 42(9):927-37. PMID: 15319619.
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    53. Krapek K, King K, Warren SS, George KG, Caputo DA, Mihelich K, Holst EM, Nichol MB, Shi SG, Livengood KB, Walden S, Lubowski TJ. Medication adherence and associated hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Sep; 38(9):1357-62. PMID: 15238621.
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    54. Sullivan PW, Nichol MB. The economic impact of payer policies after the Rx-to-OTC switch of second-generation antihistamines. Value Health. 2004 Jul-Aug; 7(4):402-12. PMID: 15449632.
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    55. Shi CW, Asch SM, Fielder E, Gelberg L, Nichol MB. Consumer knowledge of over-the-counter phenazopyridine. Ann Fam Med. 2004 May-Jun; 2(3):240-4. PMID: 15209201; PMCID: PMC1466662.
    56. Sullivan PW, Follin SL, Nichol MB. Cost-benefit analysis of first-generation antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacoeconomics. 2004; 22(14):929-42. PMID: 15362929.
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    57. Sullivan PW, Follin SL, Nichol MB. Transitioning the second-generation antihistamines to over-the-counter status: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Med Care. 2003 Dec; 41(12):1382-95. PMID: 14668671.
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    58. Shi CW, Asch SM, Fielder E, Gelberg L, Brook RH, Leake B, Shapiro MF, Dowling P, Nichol M. Usage patterns of over-the-counter phenazopyridine (pyridium). J Gen Intern Med. 2003 Apr; 18(4):281-7. PMID: 12709095; PMCID: PMC1494847.
    59. Burk CT, Gilderman A, Salas J, Berenbeim D, Nichol MB. The impact of an over-the-counter migraine medication program on quality of life. Headache. 2003 Mar; 43(3):191-201. PMID: 12603637.
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    60. Nichol MB, Sengupta N, Globe DR. Evaluating quality-adjusted life years: estimation of the health utility index (HUI2) from the SF-36. Med Decis Making. 2001 Mar-Apr; 21(2):105-12. PMID: 11310943.
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    61. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Johnstone BM, Stimmel GL, Shi J, Smith R. Antipsychotic drug use patterns and the cost of treating schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 2000 Apr; 51(4):525-7. PMID: 10737831.
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    62. Yang R, Ng S, Nichol M, Laine L. A cost and performance evaluation of disposable and reusable biopsy forceps in GI endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Mar; 51(3):266-70. PMID: 10699769.
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    63. Nichol MB, Harada AS. Measuring the effects of medication use on health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A review. Pharmacoeconomics. 1999 Nov; 16(5 Pt 1):433-48. PMID: 10662391.
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    64. Liu GG, Nguyen T, Nichol MB. An economic analysis of antimicrobial prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Clin Ther. 1999 Sep; 21(9):1589-604. PMID: 10509853.
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    65. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Stimmel GL. The role of SSRI antidepressants for treating depressed patients in the California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) program. Value Health. 1999 Jul-Aug; 2(4):269-80. PMID: 16674317.
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    66. Nichol MB, Venturini F, Sung JC. A critical evaluation of the methodology of the literature on medication compliance. Ann Pharmacother. 1999 May; 33(5):531-40. PMID: 10369613.
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    67. Venturini F, Nichol MB, Sung JC, Bailey KL, Cody M, McCombs JS. Compliance with sulfonylureas in a health maintenance organization: a pharmacy record-based study. Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Mar; 33(3):281-8. PMID: 10200850.
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    68. Williams BR, Nichol MB, Lowe B, Yoon PS, McCombs JS, Margolies J. Medication use in residential care facilities for the elderly. Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Feb; 33(2):149-55. PMID: 10084408.
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    69. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Stimmel GL, Shi J, Smith RR. Use patterns for antipsychotic medications in medicaid patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60 Suppl 19:5-11; discussion 12-3. PMID: 10507275.
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    70. McCombs JS, Liu G, Shi J, Feng W, Cody M, Parker JP, Nichol MB, Hay JW, Johnson KA, Groshen SL, Nye MT. The Kaiser Permanente/USC Patient Consultation Study: change in use and cost of health care services. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1998 Dec 01; 55(23):2485-99. PMID: 9853633.
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    71. Sung JC, Nichol MB, Venturini F, Bailey KL, McCombs JS, Cody M. Factors affecting patient compliance with antihyperlipidemic medications in an HMO population. Am J Manag Care. 1998 Oct; 4(10):1421-30. PMID: 10338735.
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    72. Sanes JR, Apel ED, Burgess RW, Emerson RB, Feng G, Gautam M, Glass D, Grady RM, Krejci E, Lichtman JW, Lu JT, Massoulié J, Miner JH, Moscoso LM, Nguyen Q, Nichol M, Noakes PG, Patton BL, Son YJ, Yancopoulos GD, Zhou H. Development of the neuromuscular junction: genetic analysis in mice. J Physiol Paris. 1998 Jun-Aug; 92(3-4):167-72. PMID: 9789802.
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    73. Nichol MB, Margolies JE, Gill MA. Factors associated with antihypertensive prescribing. Ann Pharmacother. 1997 Feb; 31(2):154-9. PMID: 9034413.
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    74. Guo WX, Nichol M, Merlie JP. Cloning and expression of full length mouse utrophin: the differential association of utrophin and dystrophin with AChR clusters. FEBS Lett. 1996 Dec 02; 398(2-3):259-64. PMID: 8977119.
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    75. Nichol MB, Margolies JE, Lippa E, Rowe M, Quell J. The application of multiple quality-of-life instruments in individuals with mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Pharmacoeconomics. 1996 Dec; 10(6):644-53. PMID: 10164064.
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    76. McCombs JS, Cody M, Besinque K, Borok G, Ershoff D, Groshen S, Hay J, Johnson KA, Nichol MB, Nye MT. Measuring the impact of patient counseling in the outpatient pharmacy setting: the research design of the Kaiser Permanente/USC patient consultation study. Clin Ther. 1995 Nov-Dec; 17(6):1188-206. PMID: 8750409.
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    77. Gautam M, Noakes PG, Mudd J, Nichol M, Chu GC, Sanes JR, Merlie JP. Failure of postsynaptic specialization to develop at neuromuscular junctions of rapsyn-deficient mice. Nature. 1995 Sep 21; 377(6546):232-6. PMID: 7675108.
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    78. McCombs JS, Nichol MB. The use of first- and second-line outpatient antibiotics under the Saskatchewan Drug Plan. Pharmacoeconomics. 1995 Jun; 7(6):543-54. PMID: 10155339.
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    79. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Johnson KA, Hay JW, Ebin VJ, Lawrence GD, Schneider JS. Is pharmacy's vision of the future too narrow? Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995 Jun 01; 52(11):1208-14. PMID: 7656110.
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    80. Nichol MB, Stimmel GL, Lange SC. Factors predicting the use of multiple psychotropic medications. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995 Feb; 56(2):60-6. PMID: 7852254.
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    81. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Newman CM, Sclar DA. The costs of interrupting antihypertensive drug therapy in a Medicaid population. Med Care. 1994 Mar; 32(3):214-26. PMID: 8145599.
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    82. McCombs JS, Nichol MB. Pharmacy-enforced outpatient drug treatment protocols: a case study of Medi-Cal restrictions for cefaclor. Ann Pharmacother. 1993 Feb; 27(2):155-61. PMID: 8439688.
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    83. Nichol MB, McCombs JS, Johnson KA, Spacapan S, Sclar DA. The effects of consultation on over-the-counter medication purchasing decisions. Med Care. 1992 Nov; 30(11):989-1003. PMID: 1434962.
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    84. Nichol MB, Michael LW. Critical analysis of the content and enforcement of mandatory consultation and patient profile laws. Ann Pharmacother. 1992 Sep; 26(9):1149-55. PMID: 1421685.
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    85. McCombs JS, Nichol MB, Stimmel GL, Sclar DA, Beasley CM, Gross LS. The cost of antidepressant drug therapy failure: a study of antidepressant use patterns in a Medicaid population. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990 Jun; 51 Suppl:60-9; discussion 70-1. PMID: 2189876.
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