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Ricky Bluthenthal, PhD

TitleProfessor of Preventive Medicine
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentInstitute for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention
AddressSSB 302R 2001 N. Soto Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
Phone+1 323 442 8236
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    Ricky N. Bluthenthal is a Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Institute for Prevention Research at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. He received a BA in History and Sociology from the University of California Santa Cruz and a PhD in sociology from the University of California Berkeley. His research has established the effectiveness of syringe exchange programs, tested novel interventions and strategies to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV testing among injection drug users and men who has sex with men, documented how community conditions contribute to health disparities, and examined health policy implementation. His current studies include an exploratory, mixed-method study on people who initiated drug injection in their thirties, a community-based participatory research project to reduce multiple health risk among Latinos, and a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a single session intervention to reduce injection initiation risk behaviors among established people who inject drugs. Dr. Bluthenthal has authored or co-authored over 125 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Social Science and Medicine, The Lancet, Addiction, and Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research among others.


    Collapse Research 
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    Preventing injection initiation: The Change The Cycle Randomized Controlled Trial
    NIH/NIDA R01DA038965Aug 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Partners for Strong, Healthy Families (PSHF)
    NIH/NIMHD R24MD007978Aug 8, 2013 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exploratory Research on Late Initiation of Drug Injection
    NIH/NIDA R01DA027689Sep 30, 2010 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PS08-002, THE HJ MILE HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTION
    CDC/NCHHSTP UR6PS001098Sep 30, 2008 - Sep 29, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Impact of Business Improvement District on Youth Violenc
    CDC/NCIPC U49CE000773Sep 1, 2005 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Understanding Outcome Disparities in Alcohol Treatment
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA013813May 8, 2003 - Apr 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    COMMUNITY CONTEXT, SEP OPERATIONS, &HIV RISK AMONG IDUs
    NIH/NIDA R01DA014210Sep 30, 2002 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Malt beverage use &outcomes in a minority community
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA013534Sep 29, 2001 - Aug 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SYRINGE EXCHANGE PEER MOBILIZATION INTERVENTION
    NIH/NIDA R01DA009532Jul 15, 1995 - Mar 31, 2007
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Dangerfield DT, Harawa NT, McWells C, Hilliard C, Bluthenthal RN. Exploring the preferences of a culturally congruent, peer-based HIV prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men. Sex Health. 2018 Sep 06. PMID: 30185352.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Williams JE, Dangerfield DT, Kral AH, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal RN. Correlates of Sexual Coercion among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA. J Urban Health. 2018 Apr 03. PMID: 29616449.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Harawa NT, Guentzel-Frank H, McCuller WJ, Williams JK, Millet G, Belcher L, Joseph HA, Bluthenthal RN. Efficacy of a Small-Group Intervention for Post-Incarcerated Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW). J Urban Health. 2018 Mar 14. PMID: 29541962.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Collins AB, Bluthenthal RN, Boyd J, McNeil R. Harnessing the language of overdose prevention to advance evidence-based responses to the opioid crisis. Int J Drug Policy. 2018 Mar 07; 55:77-79. PMID: 29524736.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Dangerfield DT, Ober AJ, Smith LR, Shoptaw S, Bluthenthal RN. Exploring and Adapting a Conceptual Model of Sexual Positioning Practices and Sexual Risk Among HIV-Negative Black Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Sex Res. 2018 Feb 21; 1-11. PMID: 29466064.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bluthenthal RN, Chu D, Wenger LD, Bourgois P, Valente T, Kral AH. Differences in time to injection onset by drug in California: Implications for the emerging heroin epidemic. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Feb 15; 185:253-259. PMID: 29477084.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Werb D, Bluthenthal RN, Kolla G, Strike C, Kral AH, Uusküla A, Des Jarlais D. Preventing Injection Drug use Initiation: State of the Evidence and Opportunities for the Future. J Urban Health. 2018 Feb; 95(1):91-98. PMID: 28948444.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Dangerfield DT, Harawa NT, Fernandez MI, Hosek S, Lauby J, Joseph H, Frank HG, Bluthenthal RN. Age Cohort Differences in Sexual Behaviors Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women. J Sex Res. 2018 Jan 29; 1-10. PMID: 29377734.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Joseph HA, Pan Y, Mendoza M, Harawa NT, Lauby J, Hosek SG, Bluthenthal RN, Milnamow M, Fernandez MI, Jeffries WL, Belcher L, Millett GA. HIV Acquisition and Transmission Potential Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in Three U.S. Cities. Arch Sex Behav. 2018 Jan; 47(1):183-194. PMID: 29124541.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Dangerfield DT, Smith LR, Anderson JN, Bruce OJ, Farley J, Bluthenthal R. Sexual Positioning Practices and Sexual Risk Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men: A Life Course Perspective. AIDS Behav. 2017 Oct 27. PMID: 29079948.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Shonkoff ET, Dunton GF, Chou CP, Leventhal AM, Bluthenthal R, Pentz MA. Direct and indirect effects of parent stress on child obesity risk and added sugar intake in a sample of Southern California adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Dec; 20(18):3285-3294. PMID: 28980520.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Leah I. Stein Duker, Benjamin F. Henwood, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Emma Juhlin, José C. Polido, Sharon A. Cermak .Parents’ perceptions of dental care challenges in male children with autism spectrum disorder: An initial qualitative exploration. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2017; 39(July 2017):63-72.
    13. Duker LIS, Henwood BF, Bluthenthal RN, Juhlin E, Polido JC, Cermak SA. Parents' perceptions of dental care challenges in male children with autism spectrum disorder: An initial qualitative exploration. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2017 Jul; 39:63-72. PMID: 29098015.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Tsai JY, Bluthenthal R, Allem JP, Garcia R, Garcia J, Unger J, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Sussman SY. Vape shop retailers' perceptions of their customers, products and services: A content analysis. Tob Prev Cessat. 2016; 2(Suppl). PMID: 28736758.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Jennifer Y. Tsai, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Jon-Patrick Allem, Robert Garcia, Jocelyn Garcia, Jennifer B. Unger, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Steve Y. Sussman.Vape Shop Retailers’ Perceptions of Their Products, Customers, and Services: A Qualitative Study. Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. 2017; 2(Supplement):3.
    16. Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Bourgois P, Kral AH. Drug use generations and patterns of injection drug use: Birth cohort differences among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 06 01; 175:210-218. PMID: 28448905.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Irwin A, Jozagi E, Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH.A cost-benefit analysis of a potential supervised injection facility in San Francisco, California, USA. Journal of Drug Issues. 2016.
    18. Jennifer Tsai, Davida Becker, Steve Sussman, Ricky Bluthenthal, Jennifer Unger, Seth Schwartz.Oxford Handbook of Acculturation and Health. Edited by Seth J. Schwartz & Jennifer Unger. Acculturation and risky sexual behavior in adolescents and emerging adults from immigrant families. 2016.
    19. Wenger LD, Lopez AM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Moral ambivalence and the decision to initiate others into injection drug use: A qualitative study in two California cities. Int J Drug Policy. 2016 11; 37:42-51. PMID: 27572714.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Li MJ, Thing JP, Galvan FH, Gonzalez KD, Bluthenthal RN. Contextualising family microaggressions and strategies of resilience among young gay and bisexual men of Latino heritage. Cult Health Sex. 2017 Jan; 19(1):107-120. PMID: 27426889.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Dangerfield DT, Smith LR, Williams J, Unger J, Bluthenthal R. Sexual Positioning Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Narrative Review. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May; 46(4):869-884. PMID: 27178171.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Li MJ, Frank HG, Harawa NT, Williams JK, Chou CP, Bluthenthal RN. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention. Arch Sex Behav. 2018 Jan; 47(1):169-181. PMID: 27115618.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Schmitz J, Kral AH, Chu D, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal RN. Food insecurity among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Public Health Nutr. 2016 08; 19(12):2204-12. PMID: 26956477.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Novak SP, Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Kral AH. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort. Am J Public Health. 2016 Feb; 106(2):298-300. PMID: 26691120; PMCID: PMC4815622 [Available on 02/01/17].
    25. Aguirre CG, Bello MS, Andrabi N, Pang RD, Hendricks PS, Bluthenthal RN, Leventhal AM. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers. Behav Modif. 2016 Jan; 40(1-2):281-302. PMID: 26438665; PMCID: PMC4861042 [Available on 01/01/17].
    26. Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH. Next steps in research on injection initiation incidence and prevention. Addiction. 2015 Aug; 110(8):1258-9. PMID: 26173157.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Kral AH, Wenger L, Novak SP, Chu D, Corsi KF, Coffa D, Shapiro B, Bluthenthal RN. Is cannabis use associated with less opioid use among people who inject drugs? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 01; 153:236-41. PMID: 26051162; PMCID: PMC4509857.
    28. Dyal SR, Kral AH, Dominguez Gonzalez K, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal RN. Consistency of self-reported drug use events in a mixed methods study of people who inject drugs. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2015; 41(4):332-8. PMID: 25970020; PMCID: PMC4593486.
    29. Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Lorvick J, Quinn B, Thing JP, Kral AH. Factors associated with being asked to initiate someone into injection drug use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Apr 01; 149:252-8. PMID: 25735468.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Davidson PJ, Martinez A, Lutnick A, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Drug-related deaths and the sales of needles through pharmacies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 01; 147:229-34. PMID: 25499730; PMCID: PMC4297731.
    31. Roth AM, Armenta RA, Wagner KD, Roesch SC, Bluthenthal RN, Cuevas-Mota J, Garfein RS. Patterns of drug use, risky behavior, and health status among persons who inject drugs living in San Diego, California: a latent class analysis. Subst Use Misuse. 2015 Jan; 50(2):205-14. PMID: 25313832; PMCID: PMC4356115.
    32. Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Quinn B, Thing J, Kral AH. Factors associated with initiating someone into illicit drug injection. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Nov 01; 144:186-92. PMID: 25282308; PMCID: PMC4276720.
    33. Quinn B, Chu D, Wenger L, Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH. Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles: the role of sterile syringe source. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Sep; 25(5):905-10. PMID: 24930425.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Arreola S, Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Thing J, Kral AH. Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 May 01; 138:244-50. PMID: 24661392; PMCID: PMC4035351.
    35. Wagner KD, Simon-Freeman R, Bluthenthal RN. The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behav. 2013 Oct; 17(8):2637-43. PMID: 23620243; PMCID: PMC3788094.
    36. Fink DS, Lindsay SP, Slymen DJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Abscess and self-treatment among injection drug users at four California syringe exchanges and their surrounding communities. Subst Use Misuse. 2013 May; 48(7):523-31. PMID: 23581506; PMCID: PMC4334130.
    37. Lutnick A, Cooper E, Dodson C, Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010. J Urban Health. 2013 Apr; 90(2):276-83. PMID: 22718357; PMCID: PMC3675724.
    38. Anderson JM, MacDonald J, Bluthenthal RN, Ashwood JS. .Reducing crime by shaping the built environment with zoning: An empirical study of Los Angeles. University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2013; 161:699-757.
    39. MacDonald J, Stokes RJ, Grunwald B, Bluthenthal RN. 2013;47(3):621-652.. The privatization of public safety in urban neighborhoods: Do business improvement districts reduce violent crime among adolescents?. Law and Society Review. 2013; 47(3):621-52.
    40. Bluthenthal RN, Palar K, Mendel P, Kanouse DE, Corbin DE, Derose KP. Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2012 May; 74(10):1520-7. PMID: 22445157; PMCID: PMC3519280.
    41. Martinez A, D’Amico EJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. 2012; 42(3):216-225. .. Non-medical prescription drug use among injection drug users. Journal Drug Issues. 2012; 42(3):216-225.
    42. Bluthenthal RN, Fehringer JA. Commentary for Li et al., "Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiates users with concurrent sexual partnerships: An egocentric network study in Yunnan, China." Addiction. 2011 Oct; 106(10). PMID: 24187443.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A framework for the specificity of addictions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 08; 8(8):3399-415. PMID: 21909314; PMCID: PMC3166750.
    44. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Neilands T, Kral AH. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California. Health Place. 2011 Nov; 17(6):1258-65. PMID: 21908228.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Palar K, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Castaneda LW, Corbin DE, Domínguez BX, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata MA, Oden CW. Religious congregations' involvement in HIV: a case study approach. AIDS Behav. 2011 Aug; 15(6):1220-32. PMID: 20953903; PMCID: PMC3087861.
    46. Kral AH, Lorvick J, Martinez A, Lewis MA, Orr WA, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal RN. HIV prevalence and risk among heterosexual methamphetamine injectors in California. Subst Use Misuse. 2011; 46(9):1081-9. PMID: 21391786; PMCID: PMC3813018.
    47. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Kral AH. HIV risks and seroprevalence among Mexican American injection drug users in California. AIDS Behav. 2011 Jan; 15(1):95-102. PMID: 20020194; PMCID: PMC3023026.
    48. Wagner KD, Unger JB, Bluthenthal RN, Andreeva VA, Pentz MA. Cognitive behavioral theories used to explain injection risk behavior among injection drug users: a review and suggestions for the integration of cognitive and environmental models. Health Educ Behav. 2010 Aug; 37(4):504-32. PMID: 20705809; PMCID: PMC3084153.
    49. Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Castaneda LW, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata M, Oden CW. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):617-30. PMID: 20361357; PMCID: PMC2900568.
    50. Riley ED, Kral AH, Stopka TJ, Garfein RS, Reuckhaus P, Bluthenthal RN. Access to sterile syringes through San Francisco pharmacies and the association with HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):534-42. PMID: 20526690; PMCID: PMC2900569.
    51. Garfein RS, Stopka TJ, Pavlinac PB, Ross A, Haye BK, Riley ED, Bluthenthal RN. Three years after legalization of nonprescription pharmacy syringe sales in California: where are we now? J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):576-85. PMID: 20535641; PMCID: PMC2900579.
    52. Cooper EN, Dodson C, Stopka TJ, Riley ED, Garfein RS, Bluthenthal RN. Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):543-52. PMID: 20549568; PMCID: PMC2900565.
    53. MacDonald J, Golinelli D, Stokes RJ, Bluthenthal R. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes. Inj Prev. 2010 Oct; 16(5):327-32. PMID: 20587814; PMCID: PMC2976613.
    54. Green TC, Bluthenthal RN, Singer M, Beletsky L, Grau LE, Marshall P, Heimer R. Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 01; 111(1-2):74-81. PMID: 20537814; PMCID: PMC3087197.
    55. Bluthenthal R, Kral A. Commentary on Palmateer et al. (2010): next steps in the global research agenda on syringe access for injection drug users. Addiction. 2010 May; 105(5):860-1. PMID: 20402974.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Cohen DA, Sturm R, Scott M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks? Public Health Rep. 2010 Jan-Feb; 125(1):88-95. PMID: 20402200; PMCID: PMC2789820.
    57. MacDonald JM, Stokes R, Bluthenthal RN. 2010:33(3):436-458. .. The role of community context in business district revitalization strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles. Public Performance and Management Review. 2010; 33(3):436-58.
    58. Grau LE, Green TC, Singer M, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall PA, Heimer R. Getting the message straight: effects of a brief hepatitis prevention intervention among injection drug users. Harm Reduct J. 2009 Dec 15; 6:36. PMID: 20003518; PMCID: PMC2804675.
    59. Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal RN, Schonlau M, Lynch S, Farley TA. The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidity. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 44(5):491-9. PMID: 19671569; PMCID: PMC2800249.
    60. Farley TA, Rice J, Bodor JN, Cohen DA, Bluthenthal RN, Rose D. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores. J Urban Health. 2009 Sep; 86(5):672-82. PMID: 19603271; PMCID: PMC2729874.
    61. Robinson PL, Boscardin WJ, George SM, Teklehaimanot S, Heslin KC, Bluthenthal RN. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002. J Urban Health. 2009 Jul; 86(4):511-23. PMID: 19247837; PMCID: PMC2704266.
    62. Vilamovska AM, Brown Taylor D, Bluthenthal RN. Adverse drinking-related consequences among lower income, racial, and ethnic minority drinkers: cross-sectional results. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Apr; 33(4):645-53. PMID: 19183136.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Schonlau M, Scribner R, Farley TA, Theall K, Bluthenthal RN, Scott M, Cohen DA. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana. Geospat Health. 2008 Nov; 3(1):91-101. PMID: 19021112; PMCID: PMC3741099.
    64. Scott MM, Cohen DA, Schonlau M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal RN. Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Sep; 35(3):203-9. PMID: 18692735; PMCID: PMC2920147.
    65. Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal RN, Schonlau M, Farley TA. Social capital and the neighborhood alcohol environment. Health Place. 2009 Mar; 15(1):323-32. PMID: 18672392; PMCID: PMC2613262.
    66. Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal RN. Improving coverage and scale-up of HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users: moving the agenda forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr; 19 Suppl 1:S1-4. PMID: 18262403.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Bluthenthal RN, Cohen DA, Farley TA, Scribner R, Beighley C, Schonlau M, Robinson PL. Alcohol availability and neighborhood characteristics in Los Angeles, California and southern Louisiana. J Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):191-205. PMID: 18228148; PMCID: PMC2430119.
    68. Bluthenthal RN.. Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. Needle exchange programs. 2008; 629-32.
    69. Bluthenthal RN, Jacobson JO, Robinson PL. Are racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion associated with racial differences in treatment modality entry? Comparison of outpatient treatment and residential treatment in Los Angeles County, 1998 to 2000. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov; 31(11):1920-6. PMID: 17908265.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Cohen DA, Schoeff D, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R, Scribner R, Overton A. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods. J Urban Health. 2007 Nov; 84(6):807-13. PMID: 17763963; PMCID: PMC2232033.
    71. Bluthenthal RN, Do DP, Finch B, Martinez A, Edlin BR, Kral AH. Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis. J Urban Health. 2007 Sep; 84(5):653-66. PMID: 17657607; PMCID: PMC1988782.
    72. Bluthenthal RN, Heinzerling KG, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Approval of syringe exchange programs in California: results from a local approach to HIV prevention. Am J Public Health. 2008 Feb; 98(2):278-83. PMID: 17538068; PMCID: PMC2376876.
    73. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Anderson R, Flynn N, Kral AH. The impact of legalizing syringe exchange programs on arrests among injection drug users in California. J Urban Health. 2007 May; 84(3):423-35. PMID: 17265133; PMCID: PMC2231826.
    74. Jacobson JO, Robinson PL, Bluthenthal RN. Racial disparities in completion rates from publicly funded alcohol treatment: economic resources explain more than demographics and addiction severity. Health Serv Res. 2007 Apr; 42(2):773-94. PMID: 17362217; PMCID: PMC1955365.
    75. Bluthenthal RN, Ridgeway G, Schell T, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Examination of the association between syringe exchange program (SEP) dispensation policy and SEP client-level syringe coverage among injection drug users. Addiction. 2007 Apr; 102(4):638-46. PMID: 17286637.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Bluthenthal RN, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Higher syringe coverage is associated with lower odds of HIV risk and does not increase unsafe syringe disposal among syringe exchange program clients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Jul 10; 89(2-3):214-22. PMID: 17280802; PMCID: PMC2562866.
    77. Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal RN. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus testing services at syringe exchange programs: availability and outcomes. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007 Jun; 32(4):423-9. PMID: 17481466.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal R. Coverage of HIV prevention programmes for injection drug users: confusions, aspirations, definitions and ways forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Mar; 18(2):92-8. PMID: 17689351; PMCID: PMC1945164.
    79. Stopka TJ, Marshall C, Bluthenthal RN, Webb DS, Truax SR. HCV and HIV counseling and testing integration in California: an innovative approach to increase HIV counseling and testing rates. Public Health Rep. 2007; 122 Suppl 2:68-73. PMID: 17542457; PMCID: PMC1831799.
    80. Bluthenthal RN, Riehman K, Jaycox LH, Morral A. Perspectives on therapeutic treatment from adolescent probationers. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2006 Dec; 38(4):461-71. PMID: 17373562.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Jacobson JO, Robinson P, Bluthenthal RN. A multilevel decomposition approach to estimate the role of program location and neighborhood disadvantage in racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Jan; 64(2):462-76. PMID: 17055634.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Galvan FH, Bluthenthal RN, Ani C, Bing EG. Increasing HIV testing among latinos by bundling HIV testing with other tests. J Urban Health. 2006 Sep; 83(5):849-59. PMID: 16755390; PMCID: PMC2438590.
    83. Heinzerling KG, Etzioni DA, Hurley B, Holtom P, Bluthenthal RN, Asch SM. Hospital utilization for injection drug use-related soft tissue infections in urban versus rural counties in California. J Urban Health. 2006 Mar; 83(2):176-81. PMID: 16736367; PMCID: PMC2527156.
    84. Cohen DA, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, Farley TA, Bluthenthal RN, Brown-Taylor D. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun; 62(12):3062-71. PMID: 16423436; PMCID: PMC2040035.
    85. Bluthenthal RN, Jones L, Fackler-Lowrie N, Ellison M, Booker T, Jones F, McDaniel S, Moini M, Williams KR, Klap R, Koegel P, Wells KB. Witness for Wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research mental health initiative. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S18-34. PMID: 16681126.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Wells KB, Staunton A, Norris KC, Bluthenthal R, Chung B, Gelberg L, Jones L, Kataoka S, Koegel P, Miranda J, Mangione CM, Patel K, Rodriguez M, Shapiro M, Wong M. Building an academic-community partnered network for clinical services research: the Community Health Improvement Collaborative (CHIC). Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S3-17. PMID: 16681125.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Punzalan C, Paxton KC, Guentzel H, Bluthenthal RN, Staunton AD, Mejia G, Morales L, Miranda J. Seeking community input to improve implementation of a lifestyle modification program. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S79-88. PMID: 16681131.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Lorvick J, Bluthenthal RN, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Riehman KS, Anderson RL, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Secondary syringe exchange among users of 23 California syringe exchange programs. Subst Use Misuse. 2006; 41(6-7):865-82. PMID: 16809176.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall P, Singer M, Heimer R. Psychosocial and behavioral differences among drug injectors who use and do not use syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):495-504. PMID: 16237501.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal RN. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):423-32. PMID: 16249946.
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    91. French MT, Browntaylor D, Bluthenthal RN. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study. Soc Sci Med. 2006 May; 62(9):2101-11. PMID: 16297518.
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    92. Cohen DA, Kanouse DE, Iguchi MY, Bluthenthal RN, Galvan FH, Bing EG. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in non-traditional settings: a personal view. Int J STD AIDS. 2005 Aug; 16(8):521-7. PMID: 16105185.
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    93. Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal RN. Unmet need for recommended preventive health services among clients of California syringe exchange programs: implications for quality improvement. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Feb 01; 81(2):167-78. PMID: 16043308.
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    94. Bluthenthal RN, Browntaylor D, Guzmán-Becerra N, Robinson PL. Characteristics of malt liquor beer drinkers in a low-income, racial minority community sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar; 29(3):402-9. PMID: 15770116.
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    95. Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Bogart L, Iguchi MY, Perry S, Sand K, Shoptaw S. Recruiting drug-using men who have sex with men into behavioral interventions: a two-stage approach. J Urban Health. 2005 Mar; 82(1 Suppl 1):i109-19. PMID: 15738314; PMCID: PMC3456171.
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    97. Bluthenthal RN, Heinzerling K, Martinez A, Kral, AH.International Journal of Drug Policy. Police crackdowns, societal cost, and the need for alternative approaches. 2005; 16:137-8.
    98. Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Bluthenthal RN. Injection risk behaviors among clients of syringe exchange programs with different syringe dispensation policies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 01; 37(2):1307-12. PMID: 15385739.
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    99. Bluthenthal RN, Malik MR, Grau LE, Singer M, Marshall P, Heimer R. Sterile syringe access conditions and variations in HIV risk among drug injectors in three cities. Addiction. 2004 Sep; 99(9):1136-46. PMID: 15317634.
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    100. Riehman KS, Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal RN. Sexual relationships, secondary syringe exchange, and gender differences in HIV risk among drug injectors. J Urban Health. 2004 Jun; 81(2):249-59. PMID: 15136658; PMCID: PMC3456452.
    101. Anderson RL, Clancey L, Flynn NM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN.. Delivering syringe exchange services through “Satellite Exchangers”: Sacramento Area Needle Exchange. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2003; 14(5/6):461-3.
    102. Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN.. International Journal of Drug Policy. What is it about needle and syringe exchange programs that make them effective for preventing HIV transmission?. 2003; 14(5/6):361-3.
    103. Heimer R, Clair S, Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall PA, Singer M. Hepatitis-associated knowledge is low and risks are high among HIV-aware injection drug users in three US cities. Addiction. 2002 Oct; 97(10):1277-87. PMID: 12359032.
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    104. Seal KH, Kral AH, Gee L, Moore LD, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Edlin BR. Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999. Am J Public Health. 2001 Nov; 91(11):1842-6. PMID: 11684613; PMCID: PMC1446888.
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    106. Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Gee L, Bacchetti P, Edlin BR. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis. Lancet. 2001 May 05; 357(9266):1397-401. PMID: 11356437.
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    107. Bluthenthal RN, Gogineni A, Longshore D, Stein M. Factors associated with readiness to change drug use among needle-exchange users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 May 01; 62(3):225-30. PMID: 11295327.
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    108. Longshore D, Bluthenthal RN, Stein MD. Needle exchange program attendance and injection risk in Providence, Rhode Island. AIDS Educ Prev. 2001 Feb; 13(1):78-90. PMID: 11252456.
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    109. Galvan FH, Bing EG, Bluthenthal RN. Accessing HIV testing and care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 15; 25 Suppl 2:S151-6. PMID: 11256736.
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    110. Moss NE, Lemp G, Bluthenthal R, Goldsmith MA, Haubrich R, Kahn JO. From the cell to the community: AIDS research in California. The University of California Universitywide AIDS Research Program annual meeting, February 2000. West J Med. 2000 Aug; 173(2):119-24. PMID: 10924438; PMCID: PMC1071020.
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    112. Binswanger IA, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Rybold DJ, Edlin BR. High prevalence of abscesses and cellulitis among community-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 30(3):579-81. PMID: 10722447.
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    113. Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Erringer EA, Lorvick J, Edlin BR. Risk factors among IDUs who give injections to or receive injections from other drug users. Addiction. 1999 May; 94(5):675-83. PMID: 10563032.
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    114. Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Kahn JG. 1999;10:25-38.Collateral damage in the War on Drugs: HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. The International Journal of Drug Policy. 1999; 10:25-38.
    115. Needle RH, Coyle S, Cesari H, Trotter R, Clatts M, Koester S, Price L, McLellan E, Finlinson A, Bluthenthal RN, Pierce T, Johnson J, Jones TS, Williams M. HIV risk behaviors associated with the injection process: multiperson use of drug injection equipment and paraphernalia in injection drug user networks. Subst Use Misuse. 1998 Oct; 33(12):2403-23. PMID: 9781822.
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    116. Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Aug 15; 18(5):505-11. PMID: 9715848.
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    118. Bluthenthal RN. Syringe exchange as a social movement: a case study of harm reduction in Oakland, California. Subst Use Misuse. 1998 Apr; 33(5):1147-71. PMID: 9596381.
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    119. Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Booth RE, Watters JK. HIV seroprevalence among street-recruited injection drug and crack cocaine users in 16 US municipalities. Am J Public Health. 1998 Jan; 88(1):108-13. PMID: 9584014; PMCID: PMC1508387.
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    122. Heimer R, Bluthenthal RN, Singer M, Khoshnood K. Structural impediments to operational syringe-exchange programs. AIDS Public Policy J. 1996; 11(4):169-84. PMID: 10915251.
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    124. Bluthenthal RN, Watters JK. Multimethod research from targeted sampling to HIV risk environments. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 157:212-30. PMID: 8684438.
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    125. Skolnick J, Bluthenthal RN, Correl T.GANGS: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States. Gang Organization and Migration. 1993; 193-217.
    126. Latent Classes of Sexual Risk Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women. Arch Sex Behav. 2018 Mar 14. PMID: 29541914.
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