Carl Castro, PhD

Title(s)Director, Center for Innovation and Research (CIR) on Veterans and Military Families
SchoolSchool of Social Work
AddressATT T1400
University Park Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089-1400
Phone+1 213 821 3623
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    Carl Castro joined the USC School of Social Work faculty in 2013 after serving 33 years in the Army, where he obtained the rank of colonel. He is also the research director for the USC Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families. Castro began his military career as an infantryman in 1981. Throughout his military career, Castro has served in a variety of research and leadership positions, including commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Europe in Heidelberg, Germany; chief of the Department of Military Psychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, D.C.; and director of the Military Operational Medicine Research Program, Headquarters, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Md. Castro has completed two tours in Iraq and peacekeeping missions to Bosnia and Kosovo.

    He is currently chair of a NATO research group on military mental health training and serves as an advisor for several Department of Defense research panels focused on psychological health. Castro has authored more than 150 scientific articles and reports in numerous research areas. His current research efforts focus on assessing the effects of combat and operations tempo (OPTEMPO) on soldier, family and unit readiness, and evaluating the process of service members’ transitions from military to civilian life.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Bidirectional Associations Between Pain and Perceived Stress Among Veterans: Depressive Disorder as a Predisposing Factor. Psychosom Med. 2024 Jan 01; 86(1):44-51. Saba SK, Davis JP, Prindle JJ, Howe E, Tran DD, Bunyi J, Hummer JF, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 37774110; PMCID: PMC10841244.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Longitudinal associations between insomnia, cannabis use and stress among US veterans. J Sleep Res. 2024 Feb; 33(1):e13945. Davis JP, Prindle J, Saba SK, Castro CA, Hummer J, Canning L, Pedersen ER. PMID: 37243415; PMCID: PMC10676445.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    3. Moral injury events and behavioral health outcomes among American veterans. J Anxiety Disord. 2022 08; 90:102605. Saba SK, Davis JP, Lee DS, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 35868033.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. What's sleep got to do with it? Longitudinal associations between insomnia, PTSD, and alcohol use among U.S. Veterans. Addict Behav. 2022 09; 132:107358. Davis JP, Prindle J, Saba SK, DiGuiseppi GT, Hummer J, Lee DS, Fitzke R, Sedano A, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 35552069.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Changes in perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among American veterans. Stress Health. 2022 Dec; 38(5):1014-1028. Davis JP, Prindle J, Saba SK, Tran DD, Lee DS, Sedano A, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 35460535; PMCID: PMC9111081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    6. Childhood adversity, combat experiences, and military sexual trauma: a test and extension of the stress sensitization hypothesis. Psychol Med. 2023 07; 53(9):4055-4063. Davis JP, Prindle J, Saba S, Lee DS, Leightley D, Tran DD, Sedano A, Fitzke R, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 35440343.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Satisfaction of the Use of Telehealth and Access to Care for Veterans During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Telemed J E Health. 2022 05; 28(5):706-711. Kintzle S, Rivas WA, Castro CA. PMID: 34551276.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    8. Associations between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and alcohol use disorder among OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Addict Behav. 2021 11; 122:107031. Saba SK, Davis JP, Prindle JJ, Castro CA, Pedersen ER. PMID: 34237611; PMCID: PMC8489848.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Health and Service-related Impact of Sexual and Stalking Victimization During United States Military Service on LGBT Service Members. J Interpers Violence. 2022 05; 37(9-10):NP7554-NP7579. Klemmer CL, Schuyler AC, Mamey MR, Schrager SM, Castro CA, Goldbach J, Holloway IW. PMID: 33121327.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Host tissue response to floating microelectrode arrays chronically implanted in the feline spinal nerve. J Neural Eng. 2020 07 10; 17(4):046012. Kolarcik CL, Castro CA, Lesniak A, Demetris AJ, Fisher LE, Gaunt RA, Weber DJ, Cui XT. PMID: 32434161; PMCID: PMC7768891.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Experiences of Sexual Harassment, Stalking, and Sexual Assault During Military Service Among LGBT and Non-LGBT Service Members. J Trauma Stress. 2020 06; 33(3):257-266. Schuyler AC, Klemmer C, Mamey MR, Schrager SM, Goldbach JT, Holloway IW, Castro CA. PMID: 32216140.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Support for Transgender Military Service from Active Duty United States Military Personnel. Sex Res Social Policy. 2021 Mar; 18(1):137-143. Dunlap SL, Holloway IW, Pickering CE, Tzen M, Goldbach JT, Castro CA. PMID: 34276831; PMCID: PMC8281881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    13. An Examination of Stalking Experiences During Military Service Among Female and Male Veterans and Associations With PTSD and Depression. J Interpers Violence. 2021 11; 36(21-22):NP11894-NP11915. Lucas CL, Cederbaum JA, Kintzle S, Castro CA. PMID: 31789112.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. PTSD in U.S. Veterans: The Role of Social Connectedness, Combat Experience and Discharge. Healthcare (Basel). 2018 Aug 22; 6(3). Kintzle S, Barr N, Corletto G, Castro CA. PMID: 30131470; PMCID: PMC6164108.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12  
    15. Military Sexual Assault as a Mediator of the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2018 08; 31(4):613-619. Lucas CL, Goldbach JT, Mamey MR, Kintzle S, Castro CA. PMID: 30088291.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Moving Beyond Housing: Service Implications for Veterans Entering Permanent Supportive Housing. Clin Soc Work J. 2018 Jun; 46(2):130-144. Harris T, Winetrobe H, Rhoades H, Castro CA, Wenzel S. PMID: 30416223; PMCID: PMC6219637.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5  
    17. Expanding the Understanding of Risk Behavior Associated With Homelessness Among Veterans. Mil Med. 2017 09; 182(9):e1900-e1907. Harris T, Kintzle S, Wenzel S, Castro CA. PMID: 28885953.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016 Jun; 18(6):56. Goldbach JT, Castro CA. PMID: 27086317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Sexual assault in the military. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015 Jul; 17(7):54. Castro CA, Kintzle S, Schuyler AC, Lucas CL, Warner CH. PMID: 25980511.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. The US framework for understanding, preventing, and caring for the mental health needs of service members who served in combat in Afghanistan and Iraq: a brief review of the issues and the research. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014; 5. Castro CA. PMID: 25206943; PMCID: PMC4138700.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    
    21. Suicides in the military: the post-modern combat veteran and the Hemingway effect. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014 Aug; 16(8):460. Castro CA, Kintzle S. PMID: 24930521.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. NATO survey of mental health training in army recruits. Mil Med. 2013 Jul; 178(7):760-6. Adler AB, Delahaij R, Bailey SM, Van den Berge C, Parmak M, van Tussenbroek B, Puente JM, Landratova S, Kral P, Kreim G, Rietdijk D, McGurk D, Castro CA. PMID: 23820350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Postdeployment military mental health training: cross-national evaluations. Psychol Serv. 2013 May; 10(2):152-60. Foran HM, Garber BG, Zamorski MA, Wray M, Mulligan K, Greenberg N, Castro CA, Adler AB. PMID: 23730961.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Mental health training with soldiers four months after returning from Iraq: randomization by platoon. J Trauma Stress. 2012 Aug; 25(4):376-83. Castro CA, Adler AB, McGurk D, Bliese PD. PMID: 22833447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Effect of transition home from combat on risk-taking and health-related behaviors. J Trauma Stress. 2011 Aug; 24(4):381-9. Adler AB, Britt TW, Castro CA, McGurk D, Bliese PD. PMID: 21818784.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from iraq: Randomization by platoon. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009 Oct; 77(5):928-40. Adler AB, Bliese PD, McGurk D, Hoge CW, Castro CA. PMID: 19803572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Time-driven battlemind psychological debriefing: a group-level early intervention in combat. Mil Med. 2009 Jan; 174(1):21-8. Adler AB, Castro CA, McGurk D. PMID: 19216294.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. A group randomized trial of critical incident stress debriefing provided to U.S. peacekeepers. J Trauma Stress. 2008 Jun; 21(3):253-63. Adler AB, Litz BT, Castro CA, Suvak M, Thomas JL, Burrell L, McGurk D, Wright KM, Bliese PD. PMID: 18553407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. The stigma of mental health problems in the military. Mil Med. 2007 Feb; 172(2):157-61. Greene-Shortridge TM, Britt TW, Castro CA. PMID: 17357770.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Self-engagement, stressors, and health: a longitudinal study. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005 Nov; 31(11):1475-86. Britt TW, Castro CA, Adler AB. PMID: 16207767.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. The impact of deployment length and experience on the well-being of male and female soldiers. J Occup Health Psychol. 2005 Apr; 10(2):121-37. Adler AB, Huffman AH, Bliese PD, Castro CA. PMID: 15826223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. How leaders can influence the impact that stressors have on soldiers. Mil Med. 2004 Jul; 169(7):541-5. Britt TW, Davison J, Bliese PD, Castro CA. PMID: 15291187.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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