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Sofia Gruskin, JD, MIA

Title(s)Director, Institute on Inequalities in Global Health
SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
Phone+1 323 865 0826
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    Title(s)Director

    Title(s)Professor, Preventive Medicine (Keck)

    Title(s)Professor, Law (Gould)


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    Sofia Gruskin directs the Institute on Inequalities in Global Health at the University of Southern California. She holds an appointment as professor of preventive medicine and serves as chief of the Policy and Global Health division at the Keck School of Medicine of USC Department of Preventive Medicine. In addition, she is a professor of law at the USC Gould School of Law, an affiliate faculty member with the Department of American Studies and Ethnicity and Spatial Sciences Institute—both at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences—and serves on the USC Academic Senate Executive Board. She leads the USC Law & Global Health Collaboration alongside professors Alexander Capron and Charlie Kaplan from USC Gould School of Law and USC Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, respectively.

    A pioneer in global health and human rights, Gruskin’s work, which ranges from global policy to the grassroots level, has been instrumental in developing the conceptual, methodological and empirical links between health and human rights, with a focus on HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health, gender-based violence, non-communicable disease and health systems. Her current partners include the World Health Organization, United Nations Development Programme, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, Open Society Foundations and local organizations and universities in Brazil, India and Vietnam.
    Gruskin sits on numerous boards and committees including the PEPFAR Scientific Advisory Board and the technical advisory group for the High-Level Working Group on the Health and Human Rights of Women, Children and Adolescents, jointly initiated by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and WHO. She is co-coordinator of the Rights-Oriented Research and Education Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health, an international network of sexual and reproductive health and rights researchers and advocates.

    In recent years Gruskin served on the board of directors for the Guttmacher Institute, the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on the Outcome and Impact Evaluation of Global HIV/AIDS Programs Implemented Under the Lantos/Hyde Act of 2008, the technical advisory Group of the UN Global Commission on HIV and the Law, and the UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Human Rights. Gruskin was with Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health for many years; director of the Program on International Health and Human Rights and associate professor in the department of Global Health and Population; and co-director of the Interdepartmental Program on Women, Gender and Health.

    Gruskin has published extensively, including several books, and serves on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Public Health, Global Public Health, Reproductive Health Matters and Revue Tiers Monde.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Carvalho PGC, Cabral CDS, Ferguson L, Gruskin S, Diniz CSG. 'We are not infertile': challenges and limitations faced by women in same-sex relationships when seeking conception services in São Paulo, Brazil. Cult Health Sex. 2019 Jan 11; 1-16. PMID: 30633635.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gruskin S, Everhart A, Olivia DF, Baral S, Reisner SL, Kismödi E, Cruz D, Klemmer C, Reich MR, Ferguson L. "In transition: ensuring the sexual and reproductive health and rights of transgender populations." A roundtable discussion. Reprod Health Matters. 2018 Dec; 26(52):1490624. PMID: 30070172.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Footer K, Windle M, Ferguson L, Hatcher J, Lyons C, Gorin E, Stangl AL, Golub S, Gruskin S, Baral S. A Meta-Narrative Literature Synthesis and Framework to Guide Future Evaluation of Legal Empowerment Interventions. Health Hum Rights. 2018 Dec; 20(2):65-84. PMID: 30568403.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ferguson L, Nicholson A, Henry I, Saha A, Sellers T, Gruskin S. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0192765. PMID: 29474486.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Kumar S, Nicholson A, Ali M, Khosla R. A novel methodology for strengthening human rights based monitoring in public health: Family planning indicators as an illustrative example. PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0186330. PMID: 29220365.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Feldman JM, Gruskin S, Coull BA, Krieger N. Correction: Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis. PLoS Med. 2017 10; 14(10):e1002449. PMID: 29073133.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Feldman JM, Gruskin S, Coull BA, Krieger N. Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis. PLoS Med. 2017 Oct; 14(10):e1002399. PMID: 29016598.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Feldman JM, Gruskin S, Coull BA, Krieger N. Killed by Police: Validity of Media-Based Data and Misclassification of Death Certificates in Massachusetts, 2004-2016. Am J Public Health. 2017 10; 107(10):1624-1626. PMID: 28817335.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Torres MA, Gruskin S, Buse K, Erkkola T, Bendaud V, Alfvén T. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jul; 21(Suppl 1):51-61. PMID: 28084561.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Rasanathan JJ, MacCarthy S, Diniz D, Torreele E, Gruskin S. Engaging Human Rights in the Response to the Evolving Zika Virus Epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2017 04; 107(4):525-531. PMID: 28207337.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hartmann M, Khosla R, Krishnan S, George A, Gruskin S, Amin A. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167542. PMID: 28002440.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Krieger N, Gruskin S, Singh N, Kiang MV, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Beckfield J, Coull BA. Reproductive justice & preventable deaths: state funding, family planning, abortion, and infant mortality, US 1980-2010. SSM Popul Health. 2016 Dec; 2:277-293. PMID: 27453928.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Capron AM, Gruskin S. No "Shared Governance" Without Attention to Law, Broadly Conceived. Am J Bioeth. 2016 10; 16(10):54-6. PMID: 27653403.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Ferguson L, Tarantola D, Hoffmann M, Gruskin S. Non-communicable diseases and human rights: Global synergies, gaps and opportunities. Glob Public Health. 2017 10; 12(10):1200-1227. PMID: 28278754.
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    15. Miller AM, Kismödi E, Cottingham J, Gruskin S. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health. Reprod Health Matters. 2015 Nov; 23(46):16-30. PMID: 26718993.
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    16. Miller AM, Gruskin S, Cottingham J, Kismödi E. Sound and Fury--engaging with the politics and the law of sexual rights. Reprod Health Matters. 2015 Nov; 23(46):7-15. PMID: 26718992.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kumar S, Gruskin S, Khosla R, Narasimhan M. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV--a literature review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18(Suppl 5):20290. PMID: 26643461; PMCID: PMC4672398.
    18. Fleming PJ, Gruskin S, Rojo F, Dworkin SL. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Dec; 146:249-56. PMID: 26482359.
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    19. Dourado I, MacCarthy S, Reddy M, Calazans G, Gruskin S. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2015 Sep; 18 Suppl 1:63-88. PMID: 26630299.
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    20. Tarantola D, Camargo K, Gruskin S. Searching for Justice and Health. Am J Public Health. 2015 Aug; 105(8):1511-2. PMID: 26066934.
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    21. Reidpath DD, Gruskin S, Allotey P. Is the right to health compatible with sustainability? J Glob Health. 2015 Jun; 5(1):010301. PMID: 25734001; PMCID: PMC4337599.
    22. Krieger N, Singh N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Beckfield J, Kiang MV, Waterman PD, Gruskin S. Why history matters for quantitative target setting: Long-term trends in socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in US infant death rates (1960-2010). J Public Health Policy. 2015 Aug; 36(3):287-303. PMID: 25971237; PMCID: PMC4711344.
    23. Lazarus JV, Balabanova D, Safreed-Harmon K, Daniels K, Mabaso KM, McKee M, Mirzoev T, Hyder AA, Gruskin S. Roundtable discussion on the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research: why prioritise talk over aid in the midst of the Ebola crisis? BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 May 07; 15:192. PMID: 25947957; PMCID: PMC4435911.
    24. MacCarthy S, Hoffmann M, Ferguson L, Nunn A, Irvin R, Bangsberg D, Gruskin S, Dourado I. The HIV care cascade: models, measures and moving forward. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18:19395. PMID: 25735869; PMCID: PMC4348400.
    25. Krieger N, Gruskin S, Singh N, Kiang MV, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Gottlieb J, Beckfield J, Coull BA. Reproductive justice and the pace of change: socioeconomic trends in US infant death rates by legal status of abortion, 1960-1980. Am J Public Health. 2015 Apr; 105(4):680-2. PMID: 25713932.
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    26. Kismödi E, Cottingham J, Gruskin S, Miller AM. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law. Glob Public Health. 2015; 10(2):252-67. PMID: 25539286; PMCID: PMC4318115.
    27. Gruskin S, Safreed-Harmon K, Moore CL, Steiner RJ, Dworkin SL. HIV and gender-based violence: welcome policies and programmes, but is the research keeping up? Reprod Health Matters. 2014 Nov; 22(44):174-84. PMID: 25555774.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Samet JM, Gruskin S. Air pollution, health, and human rights. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Feb; 3(2):98-100. PMID: 25465640; PMCID: PMC4384827.
    29. Dourado I, MacCarthy S, Lima C, Veras MA, Kerr L, de Brito AM, Gruskin S. What's pregnancy got to do with it? Late presentation to HIV/AIDS services in Northeastern Brazil. AIDS Care. 2014; 26(12):1514-20. PMID: 25033205; PMCID: PMC4591536.
    30. Gruskin S, Ravindran TK. Realising the ICPD 20 years later: shifting the paradigms for research and education. Glob Public Health. 2014; 9(6):647-52. PMID: 24953348.
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    31. MacCarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Dourado I, Gruskin S. Quality, not just quantity: lessons learned from HIV testing in Salvador, Brazil. Glob Public Health. 2014; 9(6):723-39. PMID: 24881693; PMCID: PMC4484761.
    32. Samet JM, Wipfli HL, Gruskin S. Banning the hiring of tobacco users: where's the fire? Acad Med. 2014 Jun; 89(6):837-9. PMID: 24871231.
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    33. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Tarantola D, Beaglehole R. Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy. Am J Public Health. 2014 May; 104(5):773-5. PMID: 24625165; PMCID: PMC3987606.
    34. Maccarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Crawford-Roberts A, Dourado I, Gruskin S. Contemplating abortion: HIV-positive women's decision to terminate pregnancy. Cult Health Sex. 2014; 16(2):190-201. PMID: 24387297; PMCID: PMC4485403.
    35. Gruskin S, Safreed-Harmon K, Ezer T, Gathumbi A, Cohen J, Kameri-Mbote P. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013 Nov 13; 16(3 Suppl 2):18726. PMID: 24242267; PMCID: PMC3833108.
    36. Gruskin S, Pierce GW, Ferguson L. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia. Cult Health Sex. 2014; 16(1):14-29. PMID: 23947573.
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    37. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Alfven T, Rugg D, Peersman G. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013 Apr 26; 16:18000. PMID: 23621903; PMCID: PMC3638120.
    38. Gruskin S. Safeguarding abortion: a matter of reproductive rights. Am J Public Health. 2013 Jan; 103(1):4. PMID: 23215954; PMCID: PMC3518357.
    39. Gruskin S. Pregnancy decisions of women living with HIV: the need for multidisciplinary perspectives. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Dec; 20(39 Suppl):1-4. PMID: 23177674.
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    40. MacCarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Ferguson L, Gruskin S. The pregnancy decisions of HIV-positive women: the state of knowledge and way forward. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Dec; 20(39 Suppl):119-40. PMID: 23177686.
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    41. Nunn A, Dickman S, Nattrass N, Cornwall A, Gruskin S. The impacts of AIDS movements on the policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and South Africa: a comparative analysis. Glob Public Health. 2012; 7(10):1031-44. PMID: 23137055; PMCID: PMC3738204.
    42. Gruskin S, Ahmed S, Bogecho D, Ferguson L, Hanefeld J, Maccarthy S, Raad Z, Steiner R. Human rights in health systems frameworks: what is there, what is missing and why does it matter? Glob Public Health. 2012; 7(4):337-51. PMID: 22263700.
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    43. Allotey PA, Diniz S, Dejong J, Delvaux T, Gruskin S, Fonn S. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. Reprod Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):56-68. PMID: 22118142.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Gruskin S. Tackling violence and HIV/AIDS: global health imperatives. Am J Public Health. 2011 Jun; 101(6):968. PMID: 21566042; PMCID: PMC3093273.
    45. Dickens BM, Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Avoiding plagiarism: the assurance of original publication. Am J Public Health. 2011 Jun; 101(6):969. PMID: 21493939; PMCID: PMC3093287.
    46. Gruskin S, Raad Z. Are drug companies living up to their human rights responsibilities? Moving toward assessment. PLoS Med. 2010 Sep 28; 7(9):e1000310. PMID: 20927356; PMCID: PMC2946953.
    47. Gruskin S, Bogecho D, Ferguson L. 'Rights-based approaches' to health policies and programs: articulations, ambiguities, and assessment. J Public Health Policy. 2010 Jul; 31(2):129-45. PMID: 20535096.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Ouyang H, Gruskin S. Human rights and humanitarian assistance: helping health professionals lead the way in Haiti and beyond. Med Confl Surviv. 2010 Jul-Sep; 26(3):195-8. PMID: 21291166.
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    49. Krieger N, Alegría M, Almeida-Filho N, Barbosa da Silva J, Barreto ML, Beckfield J, Berkman L, Birn AE, Duncan BB, Franco S, Garcia DA, Gruskin S, James SA, Laurell AC, Schmidt MI, Walters KL. Who, and what, causes health inequities? Reflections on emerging debates from an exploratory Latin American/North American workshop. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Sep; 64(9):747-9. PMID: 20584723.
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    50. Cottingham J, Kismodi E, Hilber AM, Lincetto O, Stahlhofer M, Gruskin S. Using human rights for sexual and reproductive health: improving legal and regulatory frameworks. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Jul 01; 88(7):551-5. PMID: 20616975; PMCID: PMC2897980.
    51. Gruskin S. From conception to realization: a human right to health. Hastings Cent Rep. 2010 May-Jun; 40(3):4; author reply 5-6. PMID: 20549862.
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    52. Landers S, Gruskin S. Gender, sex, and sexuality--same, different, or equal? Am J Public Health. 2010 Mar; 100(3):397. PMID: 20075304; PMCID: PMC2820053.
    53. Peersman G, Ferguson L, Torres MA, Smith S, Gruskin S. Increasing civil society participation in the national HIV response: the role of UNGASS reporting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S97-103. PMID: 19901632.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Peersman G, Rugg D. Human rights in the global response to HIV: findings from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Reports. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S104-10. PMID: 19901622.
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    55. Gruskin S, Ferguson L. Government regulation of sex and sexuality: in their own words. Reprod Health Matters. 2009 Nov; 17(34):108-18. PMID: 19962644.
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    56. Gruskin S, Ferguson L. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts. Bull World Health Organ. 2009 Sep; 87(9):714-9. PMID: 19784452; PMCID: PMC2739915.
    57. Nunn AS, da Fonseca EM, Bastos FI, Gruskin S. AIDS treatment in Brazil: impacts and challenges. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Jul-Aug; 28(4):1103-13. PMID: 19597210; PMCID: PMC2782963.
    58. Ouyang H, Vanrooyen M, Gruskin S. The sphere project: next steps in moving toward a rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009 May-Jun; 24(3):147-52. PMID: 19618348.
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    59. Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M. Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 01; 49(4):410-5. PMID: 19186354.
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    60. Gruskin S, Firestone R, Maccarthy S, Ferguson L. HIV and pregnancy intentions: do services adequately respond to women's needs? Am J Public Health. 2008 Oct; 98(10):1746-50. PMID: 18703432; PMCID: PMC2636477.
    61. Gruskin S. Reproductive and sexual rights: do words matter? Am J Public Health. 2008 Oct; 98(10):1737. PMID: 18703426; PMCID: PMC2636466.
    62. Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans. AIDS. 2008 Aug; 22 Suppl 2:S123-32. PMID: 18641464; PMCID: PMC3356157.
    63. Gruskin S, Cottingham J, Hilber AM, Kismodi E, Lincetto O, Roseman MJ. Using human rights to improve maternal and neonatal health: history, connections and a proposed practical approach. Bull World Health Organ. 2008 Aug; 86(8):589-93. PMID: 18797615; PMCID: PMC2649451.
    64. Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Pragmatic pathways to universal access: leadership, equity, accountability and partnerships in HIV prevention and care. AIDS. 2008 Aug; 22 Suppl 2:S1-2. PMID: 18641462.
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    65. Gruskin S, Daniels N. Process is the point: justice and human rights: priority setting and fair deliberative process. Am J Public Health. 2008 Sep; 98(9):1573-7. PMID: 18633088; PMCID: PMC2509612.
    66. Gruskin S, Ahmed S, Ferguson L. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in health facilities--what does this mean for the health and human rights of pregnant women? Dev World Bioeth. 2008 Apr; 8(1):23-32. PMID: 18315722.
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    67. Nunn AS, Fonseca EM, Bastos FI, Gruskin S, Salomon JA. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment. PLoS Med. 2007 Nov 13; 4(11):e305. PMID: 18001145; PMCID: PMC2071936.
    68. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Bogecho DO. Beyond the numbers: using rights-based perspectives to enhance antiretroviral treatment scale-up. AIDS. 2007 Oct; 21 Suppl 5:S13-9. PMID: 18090263.
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    69. Safreed-Harmon K, Siripong A, Kerr SJ, Gruskin S, Pancharoen C, Ananworanich J. Antiretroviral therapy adherence did not differ between Thai children with biological and those with nonbiological parents. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 01; 45(5):669-70. PMID: 17683013.
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    70. Gruskin S, Mills EJ, Tarantola D. History, principles, and practice of health and human rights. Lancet. 2007 Aug 04; 370(9585):449-55. PMID: 17679022.
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    71. Tarantola D, Gruskin S. New guidance on recommended HIV testing and counselling. Lancet. 2007 Jul 21; 370(9583):202-203. PMID: 17658377.
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    72. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, O'Malley J. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health for people living with HIV: an overview of key human rights, policy and health systems issues. Reprod Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29 Suppl):4-26. PMID: 17531746.
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    73. Gruskin S. Male circumcision, in so many words... Reprod Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29):49-52. PMID: 17512374.
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    74. Miller CM, Gruskin S, Subramanian SV, Heymann J. Emerging health disparities in Botswana: examining the situation of orphans during the AIDS epidemic. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Jun; 64(12):2476-86. PMID: 17442471.
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    75. Tarantola D, Gruskin S, Brown TM, Fee E. Jonathan Mann: founder of the health and human rights movement. Am J Public Health. 2006 Nov; 96(11):1942-3. PMID: 17018812; PMCID: PMC1751796.
    76. Gruskin S, Dickens B. Human rights and ethics in public health. Am J Public Health. 2006 Nov; 96(11):1903-5. PMID: 17018811; PMCID: PMC1751819.
    77. Miller CM, Gruskin S, Subramanian SV, Rajaraman D, Heymann SJ. Orphan care in Botswana's working households: growing responsibilities in the absence of adequate support. Am J Public Health. 2006 Aug; 96(8):1429-35. PMID: 16809585; PMCID: PMC1522103.
    78. Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Health and human rights education in academic settings. Health Hum Rights. 2006; 9(2):297-300. PMID: 17265765.
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    79. Gruskin S. Rights-based approaches to health: something for everyone. Health Hum Rights. 2006; 9(2):5-9. PMID: 17265752.
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    80. Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors' ability to practice harm reduction: a qualitative study. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Aug; 61(3):673-84. PMID: 15899325.
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    81. Gruskin S, Jürgens R. The more things change... Health Hum Rights. 2005; 8(2):1-7. PMID: 17136895.
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    82. Gruskin S. Bangkok 2004. Current issues and concerns in HIV testing: a health and human rights approach. HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2004 Dec; 9(3):99-103. PMID: 15812933.
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    83. Gruskin S. Stalled on the road to reproductive health. Am J Public Health. 2004 Aug; 94(8):1297. PMID: 15326703; PMCID: PMC1448439.
    84. Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am J Public Health. 2004 Jul; 94(7):1109-18. PMID: 15226128; PMCID: PMC1448406.
    85. Gruskin S. What are health and human rights? Lancet. 2004 Jan 24; 363(9405):329. PMID: 14751714.
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    86. Smith-Estelle A, Gruskin S. Vulnerability to HIV/STIs among rural women from migrant communities in Nepal: a health and human rights framework. Reprod Health Matters. 2003 Nov; 11(22):142-51. PMID: 14708405.
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    87. Braveman P, Gruskin S. Poverty, equity, human rights and health. Bull World Health Organ. 2003; 81(7):539-45. PMID: 12973647; PMCID: PMC2572503.
    88. Roseman MJ, Gruskin S. The UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: one year later. Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2003 Apr; 8(1):1, 7-14. PMID: 12924286.
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    89. Gruskin S, Loff B. Do human rights have a role in public health work? Lancet. 2002 Dec 07; 360(9348):1880. PMID: 12480383.
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    90. Gruskin S, Ayres JR, Khamranksi B, Lalloo U, Marlink R. GAVI, the first steps: lessons for the Global Fund. Lancet. 2002 Jul 13; 360(9327):176. PMID: 12126856.
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    91. Putney SB, Gruskin S. Time, place, and consciousness: three dimensions of meaning for US institutional review boards. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jul; 92(7):1067-70. PMID: 12084680; PMCID: PMC1447189.
    92. Gruskin S. Ethics, human rights, and public health. Am J Public Health. 2002 May; 92(5):698; author reply 698-9. PMID: 11988422; PMCID: PMC1447140.
    93. Gruskin S. The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS: were some lessons of the last 20 years ignored? Am J Public Health. 2002 Mar; 92(3):337-8. PMID: 11867301; PMCID: PMC1447070.
    94. Gruskin S, Mann J, Tarantola D. Past, present, and future: AIDS and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 2(4):1-3. PMID: 11657136.
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    95. Gruskin S. The highest priority: making use of UN conference documents to remind governments of their commitments to HIV/AIDS. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 3(1):107-42. PMID: 10347377.
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    96. Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Children confronting HIV/AIDS: charting the confluence of rights and health. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 3(1):60-86. PMID: 10347375.
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    97. Gruskin S. Negotiating the relationship of HIV/AIDS to reproductive health and reproductive rights. Am Univ Law Rev. 1995; 44:1191-205. PMID: 11653369.
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    98. Mann JM, Gostin L, Gruskin S, Brennan T, Lazzarini Z, Fineberg HV. Health and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 1994; 1(1):6-23. PMID: 10395709.
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