Lily C. Chao, MD

Title(s)Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Clinician Educator)
SchoolKeck School of Medicine of Usc
AddressCHL Mail Stop 61
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90027
Phone+1 323 361 7116
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Endocrine Society2014Early Investigator Award
    Pediatric Endocrine Society2013Clinical Research Scholar
    2011  - 2014Pasadena Magazine's Top Doctors
    Society of Pediatric Research2007Fellow's Basic Research Award
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute-National Institutes of Health1999Research Scholar

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My research interest centers on mechanisms that regulate muscle metabolism and growth. As the largest organ in the human body, skeletal muscle plays an indispensible function in glucose utilization and metabolism. In addition to its metabolic function, coordinated contractility of skeletal muscle powers body movement and exercise performance.

    The nuclear receptor Nur77 (also known as NR4A1) integrates glucose metabolism in multiple tissues. We previously demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, Nur77 directs the transcription of a number of genes linked to glucose utilization. More recently, we identified Nur77 as a regulator of muscle mass and myofiber size in mice. These findings have led us to examine the crosstalk between muscle metabolism and growth. To address this question, we have active research projects investigation the function of Nur77 expression in muscle development, regeneration, and diabetic myopathy. Findings from these studies will broaden our fundamental knowledge of the signaling pathways that integrate metabolism and muscle mass, and may have translational applications in conditions such as diabetes, muscular dystrophy, cancer, cachexia, as well as other forms of muscle wasting.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by Skeletal Muscle Nuclear Receptor 4A
    NIH K08DK081683Sep 1, 2008 - Oct 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Required Scholarly Project Mentor

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Qualitative Study Guiding the Design of a Person-Centered Shared Medical Appointment Model to Optimize Diabetes Care Delivery. Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care. 2024 Jun 21; 26350106241258999. Sayegh CS, Carrera Diaz K, Smith J, Chang N, Chao LC. PMID: 38903019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Decline in case rates of youth onset type 2 diabetes in year three of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Apr 25; 37(4):360-362. Kim A, Geller D, Min H, Miyazaki B, Raymond J, Vidmar AP, Zipursky R, Chao LC. PMID: 38410000.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    3. Association Between COVID-19 and Severity of Illness for Children With Hyperglycemic Crisis. Hosp Pediatr. 2023 09 01; 13(9):794-801. Toomey V, Klein MJ, Vidmar AP, Chao LC, Pineda J, Bhalla A. PMID: 37539478.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    4. Risk Factors for Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2023; 2023. Everett EM, Copeland T, Wisk LE, Chao LC. PMID: 37614411; PMCID: PMC10445777.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    5. Continuous Glucose Monitoring versus Standard of Care in Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2023 09; 17(5):1419-1420. Chang N, Barber ROB, Llovido Alula J, Durazo-Arvizu R, Chao LC. PMID: 37278187; PMCID: PMC10563525.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth. touchREV Endocrinol. 2023 May; 19(1):38-45. Berman C, Vidmar AP, Chao LC. PMID: 37313232; PMCID: PMC10258616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    7. Youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: an urgent challenge. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2023 03; 19(3):168-184. Bjornstad P, Chao LC, Cree-Green M, Dart AB, King M, Looker HC, Magliano DJ, Nadeau KJ, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Shah AS, van Raalte DH, Pavkov ME, Nelson RG. PMID: 36316388; PMCID: PMC10182876.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic is Associated with a Substantial Rise in Frequency and Severity of Presentation of Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. J Pediatr. 2022 12; 251:51-59.e2. Magge SN, Wolf RM, Pyle L, Brown EA, Benavides VC, Bianco ME, Chao LC, Cymbaluk A, Balikcioglu PG, Halpin K, Hsia DS, Huerta-Saenz L, Kim JJ, Kumar S, Levitt Katz LE, Marks BE, Neyman A, O'Sullivan KL, Pillai SS, Shah AS, Shoemaker AH, Siddiqui JAW, Srinivasan S, Thomas IH, Tryggestad JB, Yousif MF, Kelsey MM, COVID-19 and Type 2 Diabetes Consortium. PMID: 35985535; PMCID: PMC9383958.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    9. Once-Weekly Dulaglutide for the Treatment of Youths with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2022 08 04; 387(5):433-443. Arslanian SA, Hannon T, Zeitler P, Chao LC, Boucher-Berry C, Barrientos-Pérez M, Bismuth E, Dib S, Cho JI, Cox D, AWARD-PEDS Investigators. PMID: 35658022.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Diabetes Distress in Young Adults With Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: TODAY2 Study Results. Diabetes Care. 2022 03 01; 45(3):529-537. Trief PM, Uschner D, Tung M, Marcus MD, Rayas M, MacLeish S, Farrell R, Keady J, Chao L, Weinstock RS. PMID: 35015056; PMCID: PMC8918198.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Erratum. Spike in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Rates in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Diabetes Care 2021;44:1451-1453. Diabetes Care. 2021 Dec; 44(12):2812. Chao LC, Vidmar AP, Georgia S. PMID: 34518378; PMCID: PMC8669538.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    12. SARS-CoV2 infects pancreatic beta cells in vivo and induces cellular and subcellular disruptions that reflect beta cell dysfunction. Res Sq. 2021 Jul 20. Millette K, Cuala J, Wang P, Marks C, Woo V, Hayun M, Kang H, Martin M, Dhawan S, Chao L, Fraser S, Junge J, Lewis M, Georgia S. PMID: 34312617; PMCID: PMC8312902.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    13. Impact of COVID-19 on Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: Lessons Learned From a Pediatric Endocrinologist and a Psychologist. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021; 12:650492. Muñoz CE, Chao LC. PMID: 34122332; PMCID: PMC8191734.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    14. Spike in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Rates in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Diabetes Care. 2021 06; 44(6):1451-1453. Chao LC, Vidmar AP, Georgia S. PMID: 33905347; PMCID: PMC8247527.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    15. Glycemic control in youth-onset type 2 diabetes correlates with weight loss. Pediatr Diabetes. 2020 11; 21(7):1116-1125. Chang N, Yeh MY, Raymond JK, Geffner ME, Ryoo JH, Chao LC. PMID: 33103329; PMCID: PMC8629030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Meeting Report: 2018 Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Chicago IL (March 17-20, 2018), Selected Highlights. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2018 Sep; 16(1):209-215. Vidmar A, Ali SA, Chao L. PMID: 30371040.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    17. Nur77 deletion impairs muscle growth during developmental myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mice. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171268. Cortez-Toledo O, Schnair C, Sangngern P, Metzger D, Chao LC. PMID: 28170423; PMCID: PMC5295706.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a determinant of myofiber size and muscle mass in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Apr; 35(7):1125-38. Tontonoz P, Cortez-Toledo O, Wroblewski K, Hong C, Lim L, Carranza R, Conneely O, Metzger D, Chao LC. PMID: 25605333; PMCID: PMC4355536.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. The macrophage LBP gene is an LXR target that promotes macrophage survival and atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 2014 06; 55(6):1120-30. Sallam T, Ito A, Rong X, Kim J, van Stijn C, Chamberlain BT, Jung ME, Chao LC, Jones M, Gilliland T, Wu X, Su GL, Tangirala RK, Tontonoz P, Hong C. PMID: 24671012; PMCID: PMC4031943.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Nkx6.1 regulates islet β-cell proliferation via Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 08; 111(14):5242-7. Tessem JS, Moss LG, Chao LC, Arlotto M, Lu D, Jensen MV, Stephens SB, Tontonoz P, Hohmeier HE, Newgard CB. PMID: 24706823; PMCID: PMC3986138.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Progesterone receptor in the vascular endothelium triggers physiological uterine permeability preimplantation. Cell. 2014 Jan 30; 156(3):549-62. Goddard LM, Murphy TJ, Org T, Enciso JM, Hashimoto-Partyka MK, Warren CM, Domigan CK, McDonald AI, He H, Sanchez LA, Allen NC, Orsenigo F, Chao LC, Dejana E, Tontonoz P, Mikkola HK, Iruela-Arispe ML. PMID: 24485460; PMCID: PMC3985399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Reciprocal regulation of hepatic and adipose lipogenesis by liver X receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2013 Jul 02; 18(1):106-17. Beaven SW, Matveyenko A, Wroblewski K, Chao L, Wilpitz D, Hsu TW, Lentz J, Drew B, Hevener AL, Tontonoz P. PMID: 23823481; PMCID: PMC4089509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 79     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Bone marrow NR4A expression is not a dominant factor in the development of atherosclerosis or macrophage polarization in mice. J Lipid Res. 2013 Mar; 54(3):806-815. Chao LC, Soto E, Hong C, Ito A, Pei L, Chawla A, Conneely OM, Tangirala RK, Evans RM, Tontonoz P. PMID: 23288947; PMCID: PMC3617954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Skeletal muscle Nur77 expression enhances oxidative metabolism and substrate utilization. J Lipid Res. 2012 Dec; 53(12):2610-9. Chao LC, Wroblewski K, Ilkayeva OR, Stevens RD, Bain J, Meyer GA, Schenk S, Martinez L, Vergnes L, Narkar VA, Drew BG, Hong C, Boyadjian R, Hevener AL, Evans RM, Reue K, Spencer MJ, Newgard CB, Tontonoz P. PMID: 23028113; PMCID: PMC3494265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. SIRT1 regulation-it ain't all NAD. Mol Cell. 2012 Jan 13; 45(1):9-11. Chao LC, Tontonoz P. PMID: 22244328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    
    26. TLE3 is a dual-function transcriptional coregulator of adipogenesis. Cell Metab. 2011 Apr 06; 13(4):413-427. Villanueva CJ, Waki H, Godio C, Nielsen R, Chou WL, Vargas L, Wroblewski K, Schmedt C, Chao LC, Boyadjian R, Mandrup S, Hevener A, Saez E, Tontonoz P. PMID: 21459326; PMCID: PMC3089971.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 84     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Insulin resistance and altered systemic glucose metabolism in mice lacking Nur77. Diabetes. 2009 Dec; 58(12):2788-96. Chao LC, Wroblewski K, Zhang Z, Pei L, Vergnes L, Ilkayeva OR, Ding SY, Reue K, Watt MJ, Newgard CB, Pilch PF, Hevener AL, Tontonoz P. PMID: 19741162; PMCID: PMC2780886.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by Nur77, Nurr1, and Nor1. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Dec; 22(12):2596-608. Chao LC, Bensinger SJ, Villanueva CJ, Wroblewski K, Tontonoz P. PMID: 18945812; PMCID: PMC2610364.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Preserved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice transplanted with PPARgamma-/-, PPARdelta-/-, PPARgammadelta-/-, or LXRalphabeta-/- bone marrow. J Lipid Res. 2009 Feb; 50(2):214-24. Marathe C, Bradley MN, Hong C, Chao L, Wilpitz D, Salazar J, Tontonoz P. PMID: 18772483; PMCID: PMC2636915.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Meeting report: the 35th Annual Meeting of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES) Toronto May 4-6, 2007. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Sep; 5(1):516-25. Bloch C, Solórzano CB, Chao L, Franklin S, May J, Pitukcheewanont P. PMID: 17925793.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Sep; 21(9):2152-63. Chao LC, Zhang Z, Pei L, Saito T, Tontonoz P, Pilch PF. PMID: 17550977; PMCID: PMC2602962.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Liver X receptors are regulators of adipocyte gene expression but not differentiation: identification of apoD as a direct target. J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr; 45(4):616-25. Hummasti S, Laffitte BA, Watson MA, Galardi C, Chao LC, Ramamurthy L, Moore JT, Tontonoz P. PMID: 14703507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Differential effects of rosiglitazone on skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance in A-ZIP/F-1 fatless mice. Diabetes. 2003 Jun; 52(6):1311-8. Kim JK, Fillmore JJ, Gavrilova O, Chao L, Higashimori T, Choi H, Kim HJ, Yu C, Chen Y, Qu X, Haluzik M, Reitman ML, Shulman GI. PMID: 12765938.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Activation of liver X receptor improves glucose tolerance through coordinate regulation of glucose metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 29; 100(9):5419-24. Laffitte BA, Chao LC, Li J, Walczak R, Hummasti S, Joseph SB, Castrillo A, Wilpitz DC, Mangelsdorf DJ, Collins JL, Saez E, Tontonoz P. PMID: 12697904; PMCID: PMC154360.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 161     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Adipose tissue is required for the antidiabetic, but not for the hypolipidemic, effect of thiazolidinediones. J Clin Invest. 2000 Nov; 106(10):1221-8. Chao L, Marcus-Samuels B, Mason MM, Moitra J, Vinson C, Arioglu E, Gavrilova O, Reitman ML. PMID: 11086023; PMCID: PMC381440.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 101     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Suppression of food intake and growth by amino acids in Drosophila: the role of pumpless, a fat body expressed gene with homology to vertebrate glycine cleavage system. Development. 1999 Dec; 126(23):5275-84. Zinke I, Kirchner C, Chao LC, Tetzlaff MT, Pankratz MJ. PMID: 10556053.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 67     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Assembly of the cleavage and polyadenylation apparatus requires about 10 seconds in vivo and is faster for strong than for weak poly(A) sites. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Aug; 19(8):5588-600. Chao LC, Jamil A, Kim SJ, Huang L, Martinson HG. PMID: 10409748; PMCID: PMC84411.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Poly(A)-driven and poly(A)-assisted termination: two different modes of poly(A)-dependent transcription termination. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Jan; 18(1):276-89. Yeung G, Choi LM, Chao LC, Park NJ, Liu D, Jamil A, Martinson HG. PMID: 9418875; PMCID: PMC121491.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells