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Leslie Ann Saxon, MD

Title(s)Professor of Medicine (Clinical Scholar)
Phone+1 323 442 6130
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Executive Director, Center for Body Computing (CBC)


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    American College of CardiologyFellow
    Heart Rhythm SocietyFellow

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    Dr. Leslie Saxon is a professor of clinical medicine (clinical scholar) at the Keck School of Medicine of USC and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and preventing sudden cardiac death. In addition to her work in cardiovascular medicine, Dr. Saxon serves as the executive director of the internationally acclaimed USC Center for Body Computing (CBC) and newly formed USC Virtual Care Clinic (VCC). The CBC is currently a place for all USC schools, including medicine, engineering, business and the cinematic arts, to form interdisciplinary relationships and accelerate the future of fully integrated, “connected” medicine alongside public and private sector partners. She is a well-known authority on the pre-clinical and clinical development and testing of wearable and implanted technology, including networked devices used in medical, wellness and fitness disciplines. With her clinical expertise, she is a valuable strategist in developing device models and software solutions that offer engaging user-feedback based on real-time physiologic data. Her cultivation of critical innovative partnerships to jointly commercialize products within the CBC is essential for furthering and improving the dissemination of medical information, enhancing communication and improving health outcomes. Dr. Saxon has completed over 150 publications in various medical journals, has spoken at various forums, including TEDMED, South by Southwest (SXSW), WIRED Health and CES, and was recently named “Most Tech Friendly Doc” by Rock Health. Known as a digital health guru, Dr. Saxon is frequently interviewed by national media.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Slotwiner DJ, Tarakji KG, Al-Khatib SM, Passman RS, Saxon LA, Peters NS, McCall D, Turakhia MP, Schaeffer J, Mendenhall GS, Hindricks G, Narayan SM, Davenport EE, Marrouche NF. Transparent sharing of digital health data: A call to action. Heart Rhythm. 2019 Sep; 16(9):e95-e106. PMID: 31077802.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Bose R, Saxon LA. The Democratization of Diagnosis: Bringing the Power of Medical Diagnosis to the Masses. EClinicalMedicine. 2019 Feb; 8:6-7. PMID: 31193676.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Shamoun F, De Marco T, DeMets D, Mei C, Lindenfeld J, Saxon LA, Boehmer JP, Leigh J, Yong P, Feldman AM, Bristow MR. Impact of Degree of Left Ventricular Remodeling on Clinical Outcomes From Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. JACC Heart Fail. 2019 Apr; 7(4):281-290. PMID: 30738980.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Raj LM, Saxon LA. Haemodynamic Monitoring Devices in Heart Failure: Maximising Benefit with Digitally Enabled Patient Centric Care. Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2018 Dec; 7(4):294-298. PMID: 30588319.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Olshansky B, Atteya G, Cannom D, Heidbuchel H, Saarel EV, Anfinsen OG, Cheng A, Gold MR, Müssigbrodt A, Patton KK, Saxon LA, Wilkoff BL, Willems R, Dziura J, Li F, Brandt C, Simone L, Wilhelm M, Lampert R. Competitive athletes with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators-How to program? Data from the Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Sports Registry. Heart Rhythm. 2019 Apr; 16(4):581-587. PMID: 30389442.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Saxon LA, Varma N, Epstein LM, Ganz LI, Epstein AE. Factors Influencing the Decision to Proceed to Firmware Upgrades to Implanted Pacemakers for Cybersecurity Risk Mitigation. Circulation. 2018 09 18; 138(12):1274-1276. PMID: 29748188.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Saxon LA, Schwartz J. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Does Not Prevent Atrial Fibrillation But Atrial Fibrillation Prevents Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and Adversely Impacts Outcomes. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2018 09; 4(9):1235-1237. PMID: 30236399.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Saxon LA, Doshi A. Editorial commentary: Re-inventing chronic disease management as a service - Medication adherence solutions are ground zero. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2019 02; 29(2):118-119. PMID: 30100522.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Talmor G, Nguyen B, Keibel A, Temelkovska T, Saxon L. Use of software applications to improve medication adherence and achieve more integrated disease management in heart failure. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2018 10; 28(7):483-488. PMID: 29699854.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Wolfson AM, Grazette L, Saxon L, Nazeer H, Shavelle DM, Jermyn R. Baseline diastolic pressure gradient and pressure reduction in chronic heart failure patients implanted with the CardioMEMS™ HF sensor. ESC Heart Fail. 2018 06; 5(3):316-321. PMID: 29498245.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Shinbane JS, Saxon LA. Virtual medicine: Utilization of the advanced cardiac imaging patient avatar for procedural planning and facilitation. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2018 Jan - Feb; 12(1):16-27. PMID: 29198733.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Harris JR, Carlson SK, Wolfson AM, Saxon LA, Doshi RN. Pulmonary arterial pressure sensing in a patient with left ventricular assist device during ventricular arrhythmia. HeartRhythm Case Rep. 2017 Jul; 3(7):348-351. PMID: 28748142.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Wolfson AM, Yousefian O, Short L, O'Brien D, Talmor G, Qiu J, Yoon A, Fong M, Saxon L, Doshi R, Grazette L, Shavelle DM. Effects of pressure variation and atrial fibrillation on CardioMEMS™ HF measured pulmonary artery diastolic pressure: comparison of device-averaged and visually inspected waveforms. Physiol Meas. 2017 Jun; 38(6):1094-1103. PMID: 28493849.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Steinberg JS, Varma N, Cygankiewicz I, Aziz P, Balsam P, Baranchuk A, Cantillon DJ, Dilaveris P, Dubner SJ, El-Sherif N, Krol J, Kurpesa M, La Rovere MT, Lobodzinski SS, Locati ET, Mittal S, Olshansky B, Piotrowicz E, Saxon L, Stone PH, Tereshchenko L, Turitto G, Wimmer NJ, Verrier RL, Zareba W, Piotrowicz R. 2017 ISHNE-HRS expert consensus statement on ambulatory ECG and external cardiac monitoring/telemetry. Heart Rhythm. 2017 07; 14(7):e55-e96. PMID: 28495301.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Steinberg JS, Varma N, Cygankiewicz I, Aziz P, Balsam P, Baranchuk A, Cantillon DJ, Dilaveris P, Dubner SJ, El-Sherif N, Krol J, Kurpesa M, La Rovere MT, Lobodzinski SS, Locati ET, Mittal S, Olshansky B, Piotrowicz E, Saxon L, Stone PH, Tereshchenko L, Turakhia MP, Turitto G, Wimmer NJ, Verrier RL, Zareba W, Piotrowicz R. 2017 ISHNE-HRS expert consensus statement on ambulatory ECG and external cardiac monitoring/telemetry. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2017 05; 22(3). PMID: 28480632.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Kalscheur MM, Saxon LA, Lee BK, Steinberg JS, Mei C, Buhr KA, DeMets DL, Bristow MR, Singh SN. Outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in the COMPANION trial. Heart Rhythm. 2017 06; 14(6):858-865. PMID: 28323173.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Saxon LA. Athletic Performance Monitoring, Pseudo Science and Metaphysics Meet Ethics. Am J Bioeth. 2017 01; 17(1):61-62. PMID: 27996906.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Chang PM, Powell BD, Jones PW, Carter N, Hayes DL, Saxon LA. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming Characteristics, Shocked Rhythms, and Survival Among Patients Under Thirty Years of Age. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016 10; 27(10):1183-1190. PMID: 27334356.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Feldman AM, Mei C, Anderson SA, DeMets DL. Lessons Learned and Insights Gained in the Design, Analysis, and Outcomes of the COMPANION Trial. JACC Heart Fail. 2016 07; 4(7):521-535. PMID: 27289408.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Shinbane JS, Saxon LA. Digital monitoring and care: Virtual medicine. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2016 11; 26(8):722-730. PMID: 27373351.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Saxon LA. Mobile Health Application Solutions. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2016 Feb; 9(2):e002477. PMID: 26810595.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Saxon L, Makhashvili N, Chikovani I, Seguin M, McKee M, Patel V, Bisson J, Roberts B. Coping strategies and mental health outcomes of conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2017 06; 26(3):276-286. PMID: 26804972.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Konecny T, Saxon LA. Integration of Smartphone Based Monitoring: No Modality is an Island, Entire of Itself. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016 Jan; 27(1):58-9. PMID: 26412013.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Akar JG, Bao H, Jones PW, Wang Y, Varosy PD, Masoudi FA, Stein KM, Saxon LA, Normand SL, Curtis JP. Use of Remote Monitoring Is Associated With Lower Risk of Adverse Outcomes Among Patients With Implanted Cardiac Defibrillators. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Oct; 8(5):1173-80. PMID: 26092577.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Freeman JV, Saxon L. Remote Monitoring and Outcomes in Pacemaker and Defibrillator Patients: Big Data Saving Lives? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jun 23; 65(24):2611-2613. PMID: 25983010.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Maurer MS, Adamson PB, Costanzo MR, Eigler N, Gilbert J, Gold MR, Klapholz M, Saxon LA, Singh JP, Troughton R, Abraham WT. Rationale and Design of the Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring to Optimize Heart Failure Therapy Study (LAPTOP-HF). J Card Fail. 2015 Jun; 21(6):479-88. PMID: 25921522.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Hsu JC, Saxon LA, Jones PW, Wehrenberg S, Marcus GM. Utilization trends and clinical outcomes in patients implanted with a single- vs a dual-coil implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead: Insights from the ALTITUDE Study. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Aug; 12(8):1770-5. PMID: 25916569.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Haberman ZC, Jahn RT, Bose R, Tun H, Shinbane JS, Doshi RN, Chang PM, Saxon LA. Wireless Smartphone ECG Enables Large-Scale Screening in Diverse Populations. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015 May; 26(5):520-6. PMID: 25651872.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Merchant FM, Jones P, Wehrenberg S, Lloyd MS, Saxon LA. Incidence of defibrillator shocks after elective generator exchange following uneventful first battery life. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Nov 10; 3(6):e001289. PMID: 25385346.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Chang PM, Doshi R, Saxon LA. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Circulation. 2014 Jun 10; 129(23):e644-6. PMID: 24914020.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Mahajan D, Dong Y, Saxon LA, Cha YM, Gilliam FR, Asirvatham SJ, Cesario DA, Jones PW, Seth M, Powell BD. Performance of an automatic arrhythmia classification algorithm: comparison to the ALTITUDE electrophysiologist panel adjudications. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Jul; 37(7):889-99. PMID: 24527748.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Akar JG, Bao H, Jones P, Wang Y, Chaudhry SI, Varosy P, Masoudi FA, Stein K, Saxon LA, Curtis JP. Use of remote monitoring of newly implanted cardioverter-defibrillators: insights from the patient related determinants of ICD remote monitoring (PREDICT RM) study. Circulation. 2013 Nov 26; 128(22):2372-83. PMID: 24043302.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Saxon LA. The subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: a new technology that raises an existential question for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Circulation. 2013 Aug 27; 128(9):938-40. PMID: 23979625.
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    34. Powell BD, Saxon LA, Boehmer JP, Day JD, Gilliam FR, Heidenreich PA, Jones PW, Rousseau MJ, Hayes DL. Survival after shock therapy in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator recipients according to rhythm shocked. The ALTITUDE survival by rhythm study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Oct 29; 62(18):1674-1679. PMID: 23810882.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Saxon LA. Ubiquitous wireless ECG recording: a powerful tool physicians should embrace. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 Apr; 24(4):480-3. PMID: 23421574.
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    36. Cha YM, Hayes DL, Asirvatham SJ, Powell BD, Cesario DA, Cao M, Gilliam FR, Jones PW, Jiang S, Saxon LA. Impact of shock energy and ventricular rhythm on the success of first shock therapy: the ALTITUDE first shock study. Heart Rhythm. 2013 May; 10(5):702-8. PMID: 23337541.
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    37. Saxon LA, Wilkoff BL. CRT or CRT-D devices? The case for 'high energy' devices. Heart Fail Rev. 2012 Nov; 17(6):777-9. PMID: 21814858.
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    38. Somma KA, Bhatt DL, Fonarow GC, Cannon CP, Cox M, Laskey W, Peacock WF, Hernandez AF, Peterson ED, Schwamm L, Saxon LA. Guideline adherence after ST-segment elevation versus non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012 Sep 01; 5(5):654-61. PMID: 22949493.
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    39. Daubert JC, Saxon L, Adamson PB, Auricchio A, Berger RD, Beshai JF, Breithard O, Brignole M, Cleland J, DeLurgio DB, Dickstein K, Exner DV, Gold M, Grimm RA, Hayes DL, Israel C, Leclercq C, Linde C, Lindenfeld J, Merkely B, Mont L, Murgatroyd F, Prinzen F, Saba SF, Shinbane JS, Singh J, Tang AS, Vardas PE, Wilkoff BL, Zamorano JL, Anand I, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Boehmer JP, Calkins H, Cazeau S, Delgado V, Estes NA, Haines D, Kusumoto F, Leyva P, Ruschitzka F, Stevenson LW, Torp-Pedersen CT. 2012 EHRA/HRS expert consensus statement on cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure: implant and follow-up recommendations and management. Europace. 2012 Sep; 14(9):1236-86. PMID: 22930717.
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    40. Daubert JC, Saxon L, Adamson PB, Auricchio A, Berger RD, Beshai JF, Breithard O, Brignole M, Cleland J, Delurgio DB, Dickstein K, Exner DV, Gold M, Grimm RA, Hayes DL, Israel C, Leclercq C, Linde C, Lindenfeld J, Merkely B, Mont L, Murgatroyd F, Prinzen F, Saba SF, Shinbane JS, Singh J, Tang AS, Vardas PE, Wilkoff BL, Zamorano JL. 2012 EHRA/HRS expert consensus statement on cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure: implant and follow-up recommendations and management. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Sep; 9(9):1524-76. PMID: 22939223.
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    41. Powell BD, Asirvatham SJ, Perschbacher DL, Jones PW, Cha YM, Cesario DA, Cao M, Gilliam FR, Saxon LA. Noise, artifact, and oversensing related inappropriate ICD shock evaluation: ALTITUDE noise study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Jul; 35(7):863-9. PMID: 22519674.
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    42. Shinbane JS, Shriki J, Hindoyan A, Ghosh B, Chang P, Farvid A, Saxon LA, Cao M, Cesario D, Takahashi M, Colletti PM, Wilcox A, Baker C, Starnes V. Unoperated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis in middle adulthood: do multiple wrongs make a right? World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2012 Jan 01; 3(1):123-9. PMID: 23804696.
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    43. Saxon LA. Left ventricular versus biventricular for cardiac resynchronization therapy: comparable but not equal. Circulation. 2011 Dec 20; 124(25):2803-4. PMID: 22184041.
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    44. Cao M, Saxon LA. Spinal cord stimulation: a triple threat therapy? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 May; 23(5):541-2. PMID: 22172031.
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    45. Fong MW, Grazette L, Cesario D, Cao M, Saxon L. Treatment of ventricular tachycardia in patients with heart failure. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011 Jun; 13(3):203-9. PMID: 21445560.
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    46. Gilliam FR, Hayes DL, Boehmer JP, Day J, Heidenreich PA, Seth M, Jones PW, Stein KM, Saxon LA. Real world evaluation of dual-zone ICD and CRT-D programming compared to single-zone programming: the ALTITUDE REDUCES study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Sep; 22(9):1023-9. PMID: 21627705.
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    47. Hindoyan A, Cao M, Cesario DA, Shinbane JS, Saxon LA. Impact of relaxation training on patient-perceived measures of anxiety, pain, and outcomes after interventional electrophysiology procedures. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011 Jul; 34(7):821-6. PMID: 21535040.
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    48. Hayes DL, Boehmer JP, Day JD, Gilliam FR, Heidenreich PA, Seth M, Jones PW, Saxon LA. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and the relationship of percent biventricular pacing to symptoms and survival. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Sep; 8(9):1469-75. PMID: 21699828.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Powell BD, Cha YM, Asirvatham SJ, Cesario DA, Cao M, Jones PW, Seth M, Saxon LA, Gilliam FR. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator electrogram adjudication for device registries: methodology and observations from ALTITUDE. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 34(8):1003-12. PMID: 21453341.
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    50. Saxon LA. Cardiovascular care and research in the networked era. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011 Feb; 4(1):1-2. PMID: 21061104.
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    51. Huang G, Pashmforoush M, Chung B, Saxon LA. The role of cardiac electrophysiology in myocardial regenerative stem cell therapy. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011 Feb; 4(1):61-5. PMID: 21128127.
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    52. Saxon LA, Hayes DL, Gilliam FR, Heidenreich PA, Day J, Seth M, Meyer TE, Jones PW, Boehmer JP. Long-term outcome after ICD and CRT implantation and influence of remote device follow-up: the ALTITUDE survival study. Circulation. 2010 Dec 07; 122(23):2359-67. PMID: 21098452.
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    53. Cesario DA, Saxon LA, Cao MK, Bowdish M, Cunningham M. Ventricular tachycardia in the era of ventricular assist devices. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Mar; 22(3):359-63. PMID: 20958827.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Troughton RW, Ritzema J, Eigler NL, Melton IC, Krum H, Adamson PB, Kar S, Shah PK, Whiting JS, Heywood JT, Rosero S, Singh JP, Saxon L, Matthews R, Crozier IG, Abraham WT. Direct left atrial pressure monitoring in severe heart failure: long-term sensor performance. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011 Feb; 4(1):3-13. PMID: 20945124.
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    55. Saxon L. Implant wizard. Interview by Gary Baldwin. Health Data Manag. 2010 Jan; 18(1):40. PMID: 20108819.
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    56. Sumner AD, Boehmer JP, Saxon LA, Carson P, Feldman AM, Galle E, Bristow MR. Statin use is associated with improved survival in patients with advanced heart failure receiving resynchronization therapy. Congest Heart Fail. 2009 Jul-Aug; 15(4):159-64. PMID: 19627288.
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    57. Bar-Cohen Y, Takao CM, Wells WJ, Saxon LA, Cesario DA, Silka MJ. Novel use of a vascular plug to anchor an azygous vein ICD lead. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Jan; 21(1):99-102. PMID: 19549034.
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    58. Cao MK, Saxon LA. Complete heart block and preserved LV function: does right ventricular pacing site matter? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Aug; 20(8):906-7. PMID: 19549031.
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    59. Saxon LA, Olshansky B, Volosin K, Steinberg JS, Lee BK, Tomassoni G, Guarnieri T, Rao A, Yong P, Galle E, Leigh J, Ecklund F, Bristow MR. Influence of left ventricular lead location on outcomes in the COMPANION study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Jul; 20(7):764-8. PMID: 19298563.
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    60. Saxon LA, Rao AK, Klarich KW. Shortage of female cardiologists: exploring the issues. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Sep; 83(9):1022-5. PMID: 18775202.
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    61. De Marco T, Wolfel E, Feldman AM, Lowes B, Higginbotham MB, Ghali JK, Wagoner L, Kirlin PC, Kennett JD, Goel S, Saxon LA, Boehmer JP, Mann D, Galle E, Ecklund F, Yong P, Bristow MR. Impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy on exercise performance, functional capacity, and quality of life in systolic heart failure with QRS prolongation: COMPANION trial sub-study. J Card Fail. 2008 Feb; 14(1):9-18. PMID: 18226768.
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    62. Saxon LA. Survival after tachyarrhythmic arrest--what are we waiting for? N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 03; 358(1):77-9. PMID: 18172179.
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    63. Ghali JK, Boehmer J, Feldman AM, Saxon LA, Demarco T, Carson P, Yong P, Galle EG, Leigh J, Ecklund FL, Bristow MR. Influence of diabetes on cardiac resynchronization therapy with or without defibrillator in patients with advanced heart failure. J Card Fail. 2007 Nov; 13(9):769-73. PMID: 17996827.
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    64. Saxon LA, Rao AK. Body computing: how networked medical devices can solve problems facing health care today. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Dec; 18(12):1345-7. PMID: 17971147.
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    65. Saxon LA. Defining response and defining how we measure response to CRT. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Sep; 18(10):1020-1. PMID: 17877465.
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    66. Friedewald VE, Boehmer JP, Kowal RC, Saxon L, Yancy CW, Roberts WC. The editor's roundtable: Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 01; 100(7):1145-52. PMID: 17884379.
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    67. Cao M, Shinbane JS, Gillberg JM, Saxon LA, Swerdlow CD. Taser-induced rapid ventricular myocardial capture demonstrated by pacemaker intracardiac electrograms. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Aug; 18(8):876-9. PMID: 17573837.
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    68. Saxon LA, Boehmer JP, Neuman S, Mullin CM. Remote Active Monitoring in Patients with Heart Failure (RAPID-RF): design and rationale. J Card Fail. 2007 May; 13(4):241-6. PMID: 17517341.
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    69. Lindenfeld J, Feldman AM, Saxon L, Boehmer J, Carson P, Ghali JK, Anand I, Singh S, Steinberg JS, Jaski B, DeMarco T, Mann D, Yong P, Galle E, Ecklund F, Bristow M. Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy with or without a defibrillator on survival and hospitalizations in patients with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure. Circulation. 2007 Jan 16; 115(2):204-12. PMID: 17190867.
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    70. Saxon LA. Does cardiac resynchronization therapy reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation, and does atrial fibrillation compromise the cardiac resynchronization therapy effect? Heart Rhythm. 2007 Mar; 4(3 Suppl):S31-3. PMID: 17336881.
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    71. Saxon LA, Bristow MR, Boehmer J, Krueger S, Kass DA, De Marco T, Carson P, DiCarlo L, Feldman AM, Galle E, Ecklund F. Predictors of sudden cardiac death and appropriate shock in the Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure (COMPANION) Trial. Circulation. 2006 Dec 19; 114(25):2766-72. PMID: 17159063.
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    72. Cao M, Saxon LA. Selection of patients for CRT--prevention or reversal of remodeling as a therapeutic endpoint for CRT. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Dec; 17(12):1293-4. PMID: 17096655.
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    73. Carlson MD, Wilkoff BL, Maisel WH, Carlson MD, Ellenbogen KA, Saxon LA, Prystowsky EN, Alpert JS, Cain ME, Ching EA, Curtis AB, Davies DW, Hammill SC, Hauser RG, Lampert R, Zipes DP. Recommendations from the Heart Rhythm Society Task Force on Device Performance Policies and Guidelines Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) and the International Coalition of Pacing and Electrophysiology Organizations (COPE). Heart Rhythm. 2006 Oct; 3(10):1250-73. PMID: 17018366.
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    74. Saxon LA. Patient selection for primary prevention ICDs--are eps shocking patients into consent? J Card Fail. 2006 Aug; 12(6):413-5. PMID: 16911906.
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    75. Saxon LA. More is better with cardiac resynchronization therapy--but is it enough? Eur Heart J. 2006 Aug; 27(16):1891-2. PMID: 16829539.
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    76. Saxon LA, Greenfield RA, Crandall BG, Nydegger CC, Orlov M, VAN Genderen R. Results of the multicenter RENEWAL 3 AVT clinical study of cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May; 17(5):520-5. PMID: 16684026.
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    77. Marcus GM, Rose E, Viloria EM, Schafer J, De Marco T, Saxon LA, Foster E. Septal to posterior wall motion delay fails to predict reverse remodeling or clinical improvement in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Dec 20; 46(12):2208-14. PMID: 16360048.
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    78. Feldman AM, de Lissovoy G, Bristow MR, Saxon LA, De Marco T, Kass DA, Boehmer J, Singh S, Whellan DJ, Carson P, Boscoe A, Baker TM, Gunderman MR. Cost effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy in the Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure (COMPANION) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Dec 20; 46(12):2311-21. PMID: 16360064.
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    79. Saxon L. Delayed defibrillation testing after CRT-D implant-weighing competing risks. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1284-5. PMID: 16403057.
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    80. De Lurgio DB, Foster E, Higginbotham MB, Larntz K, Saxon LA. A comparison of cardiac resynchronization by sequential biventricular pacing and left ventricular pacing to simultaneous biventricular pacing: rationale and design of the DECREASE-HF clinical trial. J Card Fail. 2005 Apr; 11(3):233-9. PMID: 15812753.
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    81. Saxon LA. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and temporal trends. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2005; 6 Suppl 2:S12-20. PMID: 15891700.
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    82. Horwich T, Foster E, De Marco T, Tseng Z, Saxon L. Effects of resynchronization therapy on cardiac function in pacemaker patients "upgraded" to biventricular devices. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Nov; 15(11):1284-9. PMID: 15574179.
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    83. Saxon LA. Improvement in heart rate turbulence as a measure of response to beta-blocker therapy for heart failure. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Jul; 15(7):757-8. PMID: 15250857.
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    84. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Boehmer J, Krueger S, Kass DA, De Marco T, Carson P, DiCarlo L, DeMets D, White BG, DeVries DW, Feldman AM. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 20; 350(21):2140-50. PMID: 15152059.
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    87. Horwich T, Lee SJ, Saxon L. Usefulness of QRS prolongation in predicting risk of inducible monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in patients referred for electrophysiologic studies. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Oct 01; 92(7):804-9. PMID: 14516880.
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    88. Saxon LA, Ellenbogen KA. Resynchronization therapy for the treatment of heart failure. Circulation. 2003 Sep 02; 108(9):1044-8. PMID: 12952826.
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    89. Hayes DL, Naccarelli GV, Furman S, Parsonnet V, Reynolds D, Goldschlager N, Gillette P, Maloney JD, Saxon L, Leon A, Daoud E. NASPE training requirements for cardiac implantable electronic devices: selection, implantation, and follow-up. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Jul; 26(7 Pt 1):1556-62. PMID: 12914640.
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    91. Kumar UN, Saxon LA. Ventricular resynchronization: a promising therapy for heart failure. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2003 Jan-Feb; 12(1):41-8. PMID: 12502915.
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    92. Saxon LA. The MIRACLE trial: an electrophysiologist's perspective. J Card Fail. 2002 Aug; 8(4):202-3. PMID: 12397566.
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    93. Saxon LA. Heart failure and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) therapy: Update and perspective on current primary prevention trials. J Card Fail. 2002 Jun; 8(3):161-6. PMID: 12140809.
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    95. Saxon LA, De Marco T. Arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2002 Feb; 6(1-2):18-25. PMID: 11984010.
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    97. Yang Y, Cheng J, Bochoeyer A, Hamdan MH, Kowal RC, Page R, Lee RJ, Steiner PR, Saxon LA, Lesh MD, Modin GW, Scheinman MM. Atypical right atrial flutter patterns. Circulation. 2001 Jun 26; 103(25):3092-8. PMID: 11425774.
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    98. Bristow MR, Feldman AM, Saxon LA. Heart failure management using implantable devices for ventricular resynchronization: Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Chronic Heart Failure (COMPANION) trial. COMPANION Steering Committee and COMPANION Clinical Investigators. J Card Fail. 2000 Sep; 6(3):276-85. PMID: 10997756.
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    99. SippensGroenewegen A, Lesh MD, Roithinger FX, Ellis WS, Steiner PR, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Scheinman MM. Body surface mapping of counterclockwise and clockwise typical atrial flutter: a comparative analysis with endocardial activation sequence mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr; 35(5):1276-87. PMID: 10758970.
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    100. Kerwin WF, Botvinick EH, O'Connell JW, Merrick SH, DeMarco T, Chatterjee K, Scheibly K, Saxon LA. Ventricular contraction abnormalities in dilated cardiomyopathy: effect of biventricular pacing to correct interventricular dyssynchrony. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr; 35(5):1221-7. PMID: 10758964.
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    101. Scheinman MM, Saxon LA. Long-term His-bundle pacing and cardiac function. Circulation. 2000 Feb 29; 101(8):836-7. PMID: 10694517.
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    102. Roithinger FX, Cheng J, SippensGroenewegen A, Lee RJ, Saxon LA, Scheinman MM, Lesh MD. Use of electroanatomic mapping to delineate transseptal atrial conduction in humans. Circulation. 1999 Oct 26; 100(17):1791-7. PMID: 10534466.
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    103. Saxon LA, Boehmer JP, Hummel J, Kacet S, De Marco T, Naccarelli G, Daoud E. Biventricular pacing in patients with congestive heart failure: two prospective randomized trials. The VIGOR CHF and VENTAK CHF Investigators. Am J Cardiol. 1999 Mar 11; 83(5B):120D-123D. PMID: 10089853.
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    104. Glatter KA, Cheng J, Dorostkar P, Modin G, Talwar S, Al-Nimri M, Lee RJ, Saxon LA, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM. Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation. 1999 Mar 02; 99(8):1034-40. PMID: 10051297.
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    105. Stevenson WG, Friedman PL, Kocovic D, Sager PT, Saxon LA, Pavri B. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1998 Jul 28; 98(4):308-14. PMID: 9711935.
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    106. Hamdan MH, Kalman JM, Lesh MD, Lee RJ, Saxon LA, Dorostkar P, Scheinman MM. Narrow complex tachycardia with VA block: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998 Jun; 21(6):1196-206. PMID: 9633061.
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    107. Shinbane JS, Lesh MD, Stevenson WG, Klitzner TS, Natterson PD, Wiener I, Ursell PC, Saxon LA. Anatomic and electrophysiologic relation between the coronary sinus and mitral annulus: implications for ablation of left-sided accessory pathways. Am Heart J. 1998 Jan; 135(1):93-8. PMID: 9453527.
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    108. Saxon LA, Kerwin WF, Cahalan MK, Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Foster E, Schiller NB, Shinbane JS, Lesh MD, Merrick SH. Acute effects of intraoperative multisite ventricular pacing on left ventricular function and activation/contraction sequence in patients with depressed ventricular function. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1998 Jan; 9(1):13-21. PMID: 9475573.
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    109. Lesh MD, Kalman JM, Saxon LA, Dorostkar PC. Electrophysiology of "incisional" reentrant atrial tachycardia complicating surgery for congenital heart disease. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997 Aug; 20(8 Pt 2):2107-11. PMID: 9272519.
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    110. Stevenson WG, Friedman PL, Sager PT, Saxon LA, Kocovic D, Harada T, Wiener I, Khan H. Exploring postinfarction reentrant ventricular tachycardia with entrainment mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 May; 29(6):1180-9. PMID: 9137211.
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    111. Wood KA, Eisenberg SJ, Kalman JM, Drew BJ, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM. Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Apr 15; 79(8):1043-7. PMID: 9114761.
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    112. Hadjis TA, Stevenson WG, Harada T, Friedman PL, Sager P, Saxon LA. Preferential locations for critical reentry circuit sites causing ventricular tachycardia after inferior wall myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Apr; 8(4):363-70. PMID: 9106421.
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    113. Saxon LA. Atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy: therapeutic strategies when sinus rhythm cannot be maintained. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997 Mar; 20(3 Pt 1):720-5. PMID: 9080499.
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    114. Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Scheinman MM, Lesh MD. Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characterization of atypical atrial flutter in man: use of activation and entrainment mapping and implications for catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Feb; 8(2):121-44. PMID: 9147698.
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    115. Olgin JE, Kalman JM, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Lesh MD. Mechanism of initiation of atrial flutter in humans: site of unidirectional block and direction of rotation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Feb; 29(2):376-84. PMID: 9014992.
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    116. Hamdan M, Van Hare GF, Fisher W, Gonzalez R, Dorostkar P, Lee R, Lesh M, Saxon L, Kalman J, Scheinman M. Selective catheter ablation of the tachycardia focus in patients with nonreentrant junctional tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1996 Dec 01; 78(11):1292-7. PMID: 8960595.
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    117. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA, Woo MA, Saxon LA, Natterson PD, Steimle A, Walden JA, Tillisch JH. Improving survival for patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Nov 15; 28(6):1458-63. PMID: 8917258.
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    118. Viskin S, Alla SR, Barron HV, Heller K, Saxon L, Kitzis I, Hare GF, Wong MJ, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM. Mode of onset of torsade de pointes in congenital long QT syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Nov 01; 28(5):1262-8. PMID: 8890825.
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    119. Barron HV, Martin J, Saxon L. ICD use as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. Circulation. 1996 Nov 01; 94(9):2308-10. PMID: 8901693.
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    120. Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Saxon LA, Fisher WG, Lee RJ, Lesh MD. Activation and entrainment mapping defines the tricuspid annulus as the anterior barrier in typical atrial flutter. Circulation. 1996 Aug 01; 94(3):398-406. PMID: 8759082.
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    121. Saxon LA, Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Scheinman MM, Lee RJ, Lesh MD. Results of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol. 1996 May 01; 77(11):1014-6. PMID: 8644627.
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    122. Saxon LA, Shannon K, Wetzel GT, Endler LK, Klitzner TS. Familial long QT syndrome: electrical storm and implantable cardioverter device therapy. Am Heart J. 1996 May; 131(5):1037-9. PMID: 8615293.
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    123. Kalman JM, VanHare GF, Olgin JE, Saxon LA, Stark SI, Lesh MD. Ablation of 'incisional' reentrant atrial tachycardia complicating surgery for congenital heart disease. Use of entrainment to define a critical isthmus of conduction. Circulation. 1996 Feb 01; 93(3):502-12. PMID: 8565168.
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    124. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA, Woo MA, Saxon LA, Natterson PD, Steimle A, Walden JA. Improving survival for patients with advanced heart failure: a study of 737 consecutive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Nov 15; 26(6):1417-23. PMID: 7594064.
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    125. Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, Saxon LA, Stevenson LW. Amiodarone and torsades de pointes in patients with advanced heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Sep 01; 76(7):499-502. PMID: 7653452.
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    126. Saxon LA, Wiener I, DeLurgio DB, Natterson PD, Laks H, Drinkwater DC, Stevenson WG. Implantable defibrillators for high-risk patients with heart failure who are awaiting cardiac transplantation. Am Heart J. 1995 Sep; 130(3 Pt 1):501-6. PMID: 7661067.
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    127. Stevenson WG, Sager PT, Natterson PD, Saxon LA, Middlekauff HR, Wiener I. Relation of pace mapping QRS configuration and conduction delay to ventricular tachycardia reentry circuits in human infarct scars. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Aug; 26(2):481-8. PMID: 7608454.
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    128. Natterson PD, Stevenson WG, Saxon LA, Middlekauff HR, Stevenson LW. Risk of arterial embolization in 224 patients awaiting cardiac transplantation. Am Heart J. 1995 Mar; 129(3):564-70. PMID: 7872188.
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    129. Saxon LA, Wiener I, Natterson PD, Laks H, Drinkwater D, Stevenson WG. Monomorphic versus polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Feb 15; 75(5):403-5. PMID: 7856540.
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    130. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, Saxon LA. Sudden death prevention in patients with advanced ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1993 Dec; 88(6):2953-61. PMID: 8252708.
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    131. Stevenson WG, Khan H, Sager P, Saxon LA, Middlekauff HR, Natterson PD, Wiener I. Identification of reentry circuit sites during catheter mapping and radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia late after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1993 Oct; 88(4 Pt 1):1647-70. PMID: 8403311.
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    132. Saxon LA, Stevenson WG, Fonarow GC, Middlekauff HR, Yeatman LA, Sherman CT, Child JS. Transesophageal echocardiography during radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Sep 15; 72(9):658-61. PMID: 8249840.
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    133. Saxon LA, Stevenson WG, Middlekauff HR, Fonarow G, Woo M, Moser D, Stevenson LW. Predicting death from progressive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Jul 01; 72(1):62-5. PMID: 8517430.
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    134. Saxon LA, Stevenson WG, Middlekauff HR, Stevenson LW. Increased risk of progressive hemodynamic deterioration in advanced heart failure patients requiring permanent pacemakers. Am Heart J. 1993 May; 125(5 Pt 1):1306-10. PMID: 8480582.
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    135. Lai WW, al-Khatib Y, Klitzner TS, Child JS, Wetzel GT, Saxon LA, Stevenson WG, Williams RG. Biplanar transesophageal echocardiographic direction of radiofrequency catheter ablation in children and adolescents with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Apr 01; 71(10):872-4. PMID: 8456773.
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    136. Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Saxon LA. Syncope in advanced heart failure: high risk of sudden death regardless of origin of syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Jan; 21(1):110-6. PMID: 8417050.
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    137. Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, Saxon LA. Prognosis after syncope: impact of left ventricular function. Am Heart J. 1993 Jan; 125(1):121-7. PMID: 8417507.
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    138. Chelimsky-Fallick C, Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, Kobashigawa J, Saxon LA, Moriguchi J, Brownfield ED, Hamilton MA, Drinkwater D, Laks H. Amiodarone therapy does not compromise subsequent heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992 Dec; 20(7):1556-61. PMID: 1452930.
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    139. Stevenson WG, Middlekauff HR, Stevenson LW, Saxon LA, Woo MA, Moser D. Significance of aborted cardiac arrest and sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients referred for treatment therapy of advanced heart failure. Am Heart J. 1992 Jul; 124(1):123-30. PMID: 1615794.
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    140. Stevenson WG, Sager P, Nademanee K, Hassan H, Middlekauff HR, Saxon LA, Wiener I. Identifying sites for catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Herz. 1992 Jun; 17(3):158-70. PMID: 1639335.
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    141. Saxon LA, Albert BH, Uretz EF, Denes P. Permanent pacemaker placement in chronic atrial fibrillation associated with intermittent AV block and cerebral symptoms. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1990 Jun; 13(6):724-9. PMID: 1695352.
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    142. Saxon LA, Uretz EF, Denes P. Significance of the clinical presentation in ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. Am Heart J. 1989 Oct; 118(4):695-701. PMID: 2801476.
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    143. PAPPER S, SAXON L. Abdominal pain occurring during the rapid administration of fructose solutions. N Engl J Med. 1957 Jan 17; 256(3):132-3. PMID: 13388045.
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