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Kristian J. Carlson

Title(s)Associate Professor of Clinical Integrative Anatomical Sciences
AddressBMT 308,1333 San Pablo Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
Phone+1 323 865 1684
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    Indiana University, Bloomington, INPh.D.09/2002Anthropology
    Indiana University, Bloomington, INM.A.04/1999Anthropology
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIB.S. (High Honors)04/1994Anthropology
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIB.S. (High Honors)04/1994Anthropology-Zoology

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    Kristian Carlson was trained as a biological anthropologist in a four-field doctoral program at Indiana University. He completed postdoctoral research in the Department of Anatomical Sciences at Stony Brook University (US) and in the Anthropological Institute and Museum at Zurich University (Switzerland).

    His multidisciplinary research program combines comparative anatomy, locomotor mechanics, and bone biology to study form and function in the postcranial skeleton of extant primates, including humans, and human ancestors.

    As a functional morphologist, he investigates behavioral correlates in the external and internal structure of limb bones from these groups. From a human health or clinical standpoint, this perspective enables understanding the role non-pharmaceutical factors (e.g., activity) may serve in skeletal maintenance, particularly in reducing or preventing unwanted bone loss. From an anthropological or paleontological standpoint, this perspective enables inferring behaviors in extinct organisms, which is particularly useful for reconstructing their behavioral repertoires. Such reconstructions are crucial pieces of evidence in documenting how extinct organisms engaged with their surrounding habitats, and how this interaction may have changed as environments shifted through geological time.

    At USC, he teaches human gross anatomy to first and second year medical students in the Keck School of Medicine.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. The upper limb skeleton and behavioral lateralization of modern humans from Zhaoguo Cave, southwestern China. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2020 Sep 23. Wei P, Lu H, Carlson KJ, Zhang H, Hui J, Zhu M, He K, Jashashvili T, Zhang X, Yuan H, Xing S. PMID: 32964411.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Morphometric analysis of the hominin talus: Evolutionary and functional implications. J Hum Evol. 2020 May; 142:102747. Sorrentino R, Carlson KJ, Bortolini E, Minghetti C, Feletti F, Fiorenza L, Frost S, Jashashvili T, Parr W, Shaw C, Su A, Turley K, Wroe S, Ryan TM, Belcastro MG, Benazzi S. PMID: 32240884.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. The atlas of StW 573 and the late emergence of human-like head mobility and brain metabolism. Sci Rep. 2020 03 16; 10(1):4285. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, Heaton JL, Pickering TR, Carlson KJ, Crompton RH, Jashashvili T, Bruxelles L, Jakata K, Bam L, Van Hoorebeke L, Kuman K, Stratford D. PMID: 32179760.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. An examination of the cross-sectional geometrical properties of the long bone diaphyses of Holocene foragers from Roonka, South Australia. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2020 Feb 14. Hill EC, Pearson OM, Durband AC, Walshe K, Carlson KJ, Grine FE. PMID: 32057097.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. The influence of mobility strategy on the modern human talus. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2020 03; 171(3):456-469. Sorrentino R, Stephens NB, Carlson KJ, Figus C, Fiorenza L, Frost S, Harcourt-Smith W, Parr W, Saers J, Turley K, Wroe S, Belcastro MG, Ryan TM, Benazzi S. PMID: 31825095.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. The long limb bones of the StW 573 Australopithecus skeleton from Sterkfontein Member 2: Descriptions and proportions. J Hum Evol. 2019 08; 133:167-197. Heaton JL, Pickering TR, Carlson KJ, Crompton RH, Jashashvili T, Beaudet A, Bruxelles L, Kuman K, Heile AJ, Stratford D, Clarke RJ. PMID: 31358179.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    7. A multiscale stratigraphic investigation of the context of StW 573 'Little Foot' and Member 2, Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. J Hum Evol. 2019 08; 133:78-98. Bruxelles L, Stratford DJ, Maire R, Pickering TR, Heaton JL, Beaudet A, Kuman K, Crompton R, Carlson KJ, Jashashvili T, McClymont J, Leader GM, Clarke RJ. PMID: 31358185.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. Complex variation of trabecular bone structure in the proximal humerus and femur of five modern human populations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2019 01; 168(1):104-118. Doershuk LJ, Saers JPP, Shaw CN, Jashashvili T, Carlson KJ, Stock JT, Ryan TM. PMID: 30515772.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. The bony labyrinth of StW 573 ("Little Foot"): Implications for early hominin evolution and paleobiology. J Hum Evol. 2019 02; 127:67-80. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, Bruxelles L, Carlson KJ, Crompton R, de Beer F, Dhaene J, Heaton JL, Jakata K, Jashashvili T, Kuman K, McClymont J, Pickering TR, Stratford D. PMID: 30777359.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. The endocast of StW 573 ("Little Foot") and hominin brain evolution. J Hum Evol. 2019 01; 126:112-123. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, de Jager EJ, Bruxelles L, Carlson KJ, Crompton R, de Beer F, Dhaene J, Heaton JL, Jakata K, Jashashvili T, Kuman K, McClymont J, Pickering TR, Stratford D. PMID: 30583840.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Of mice and men (and women): Comment on Peacock et al., 2018. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2018 09; 167(1):185-189. Ruff CB, Warden SJ, Carlson KJ. PMID: 30175506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Inter-ray variation in metatarsal strength properties in humans and African apes: Implications for inferring bipedal biomechanics in the Olduvai Hominid 8 foot. J Hum Evol. 2018 08; 121:147-165. Patel BA, Jashashvili T, Bui SH, Carlson KJ, Griffin NL, Wallace IJ, Orr CM, Susman RL. PMID: 29764690.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    13. Cranial vault thickness variation and inner structural organization in the StW 578 hominin cranium from Jacovec Cavern, South Africa. J Hum Evol. 2018 08; 121:204-220. Beaudet A, Carlson KJ, Clarke RJ, de Beer F, Dhaene J, Heaton JL, Pickering TR, Stratford D. PMID: 29793791.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. Human-like hip joint loading in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. J Hum Evol. 2018 08; 121:12-24. Ryan TM, Carlson KJ, Gordon AD, Jablonski N, Shaw CN, Stock JT. PMID: 29706230.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Morphology and structure of Homo erectus humeri from Zhoukoudian, Locality 1. PeerJ. 2018; 6:e4279. Xing S, Carlson KJ, Wei P, He J, Liu W. PMID: 29372121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    16. Subchondral Bone Radiodensity Patterns in the Glenoid Fossa of Ape and Human Scapulae. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018 05; 301(5):776-785. Patel BA, Romanu JT, Carlson KJ. PMID: 29281860.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    17. Use of high resolution computed tomography to diagnose ante-mortem dental root fractures in archaeological samples. Int J Paleopathol. 2018 09; 22:143-148. Gibbon VE, Carlson KJ, Grimoud AM, Jashashvili T. PMID: 30126700.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Comparative analysis of trabecular bone structure and orientation in South African hominin tali. J Hum Evol. 2017 05; 106:1-18. Su A, Carlson KJ. PMID: 28434534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Adaptation to suspensory locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. J Hum Evol. 2017 03; 104:1-12. Rein TR, Harrison T, Carlson KJ, Harvati K. PMID: 28317552.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. The Biomechanics of Bony Facial "Buttresses" in South African Australopiths: An Experimental Study Using Finite Element Analysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017 01; 300(1):171-195. Ledogar JA, Benazzi S, Smith AL, Weber GW, Carlson KB, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Carlson KJ, De Ruiter DJ, Pryor Mcintosh LC, Strait DS. PMID: 28000396.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Comparative biomechanics of Australopithecus sediba mandibles. J Hum Evol. 2016 11; 100:73-86. Daegling DJ, Carlson KJ, Tafforeau P, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. PMID: 27765151.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Trabecular architecture in the StW 352 fossil hominin calcaneus. J Hum Evol. 2016 08; 97:145-58. Zeininger A, Patel BA, Zipfel B, Carlson KJ. PMID: 27457551.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    23. Mechanical evidence that Australopithecus sediba was limited in its ability to eat hard foods. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 08; 7:10596. Ledogar JA, Smith AL, Benazzi S, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Carlson KB, McNulty KP, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Carlson KJ, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR, Tamvada K, Pryor LC, Berthaume MA, Strait DS. PMID: 26853550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    24. Cortical structure of hallucal metatarsals and locomotor adaptations in hominoids. PLoS One. 2015; 10(1):e0117905. Jashashvili T, Dowdeswell MR, Lebrun R, Carlson KJ. PMID: 25635768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):366-71. Chirchir H, Kivell TL, Ruff CB, Hublin JJ, Carlson KJ, Zipfel B, Richmond BG. PMID: 25535354.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    26. New high-resolution computed tomography data of the Taung partial cranium and endocast and their bearing on metopism and hominin brain evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 09; 111(36):13022-7. Holloway RL, Broadfield DC, Carlson KJ. PMID: 25157138.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. Physical activity engendering loads from diverse directions augments the growing skeleton. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2013 Sep; 13(3):283-8. Wallace IJ, Kwaczala AT, Judex S, Demes B, Carlson KJ. PMID: 23989249.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    28. Synchrotron Reveals Early Triassic Odd Couple: Injured Amphibian and Aestivating Therapsid Share Burrow. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e64978. Fernandez V, Abdala F, Carlson KJ, Cook DC, Rubidge BS, Yates A, Tafforeau P. PMID: 23805181.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. The lower limb and mechanics of walking in Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2013 Apr 12; 340(6129):1232999. DeSilva JM, Holt KG, Churchill SE, Carlson KJ, Walker CS, Zipfel B, Berger LR. PMID: 23580534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2013 Apr 12; 340(6129):1233477. Churchill SE, Holliday TW, Carlson KJ, Jashashvili T, Macias ME, Mathews S, Sparling TL, Schmid P, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. PMID: 23580536.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    31. Mosaic morphology in the thorax of Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2013 Apr 12; 340(6129):1234598. Schmid P, Churchill SE, Nalla S, Weissen E, Carlson KJ, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. PMID: 23580537.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. Joint loads in marsupial ankles reflect habitual bipedalism versus quadrupedalism. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58811. Carlson KJ, Jashashvili T, Houghton K, Westaway MC, Patel BA. PMID: 23554931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. The endocast of MH1, Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2011 Sep 09; 333(6048):1402-7. Carlson KJ, Stout D, Jashashvili T, de Ruiter DJ, Tafforeau P, Carlson K, Berger LR. PMID: 21903804.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    34. A partial pelvis of Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2011 Sep 09; 333(6048):1407-11. Kibii JM, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ, Reed ND, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. PMID: 21903805.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    35. The foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba. Science. 2011 Sep 09; 333(6048):1417-20. Zipfel B, DeSilva JM, Kidd RS, Carlson KJ, Churchill SE, Berger LR. PMID: 21903807.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    36. Apparent density of the primate calcaneo-cuboid joint and its association with locomotor mode, foot posture, and the "midtarsal break". Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Jun; 142(2):180-93. Nowak MG, Carlson KJ, Patel BA. PMID: 19918985.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. Gait dynamics of Cebus apella during quadrupedalism on different substrates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Jun; 142(2):273-86. Carlson KJ, Demes B. PMID: 20091854.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    38. Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science. 2010 Apr 09; 328(5975):195-204. Berger LR, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ, Dirks PH, Kibii JM. PMID: 20378811.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    39. Is bone's response to mechanical signals dominated by gravitational loading? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Nov; 41(11):2037-43. Judex S, Carlson KJ. PMID: 19812513.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Locomotor variation and bending regimes of capuchin limb bones. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Aug; 139(4):558-71. Demes B, Carlson KJ. PMID: 19208417.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb. Biol Lett. 2008 Oct 23; 4(5):486-9. Patel BA, Carlson KJ. PMID: 18628113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Role of Nonbehavioral Factors in Adjusting Long Bone Diaphyseal Structure in Free-ranging Pan troglodytes. Int J Primatol. 2008 Dec; 29(6):1401-1420. Carlson KJ, Sumner DR, Morbeck ME, Nishida T, Yamanaka A, Boesch C. PMID: 19816545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    43. Building a better organismal model: The role of the mouse--Introduction to the symposium. . 2008 Sep; 48(3):321-3. Carlson KJ, Byron CD. PMID: 21669794.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    44. Do different locomotor modes during growth modulate trabecular architecture in the murine hind limb? . 2008 Sep; 48(3):385-93. Carlson KJ, Lublinsky S, Judex S. PMID: 21669800.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    45. Increased non-linear locomotion alters diaphyseal bone shape. J Exp Biol. 2007 Sep; 210(Pt 17):3117-25. Carlson KJ, Judex S. PMID: 17704086.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Robusticity and sexual dimorphism in the postcranium of modern hunter-gatherers from Australia. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Sep; 134(1):9-23. Carlson KJ, Grine FE, Pearson OM. PMID: 17503447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Bone density spatial patterns in the distal radius reflect habitual hand postures adopted by quadrupedal primates. J Hum Evol. 2007 Feb; 52(2):130-41. Patel BA, Carlson KJ. PMID: 17055031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Habitual use of the primate forelimb is reflected in the material properties of subchondral bone in the distal radius. J Anat. 2006 Jun; 208(6):659-70. Carlson KJ, Patel BA. PMID: 16761969.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    49. Cutting corners: the dynamics of turning behaviors in two primate species. J Exp Biol. 2006 Mar; 209(Pt 5):927-37. Demes B, Carlson KJ, Franz TM. PMID: 16481581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    50. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior. Primates. 2006 Jul; 47(3):218-29. Carlson KJ. PMID: 16807683.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    51. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees. J Hum Evol. 2006 Apr; 50(4):394-404. Carlson KJ, Doran-Sheehy DM, Hunt KD, Nishida T, Yamanaka A, Boesch C. PMID: 16376413.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. External forces on the limbs of jumping lemurs at takeoff and landing. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005 Oct; 128(2):348-58. Demes B, Franz TM, Carlson KJ. PMID: 15810009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Investigating the form-function interface in African apes: Relationships between principal moments of area and positional behaviors in femoral and humeral diaphyses. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005 Jul; 127(3):312-34. Carlson KJ. PMID: 15584067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Gait mechanics of lemurid primates on terrestrial and arboreal substrates. J Hum Evol. 2005 Feb; 48(2):199-217. Franz TM, Demes B, Carlson KJ. PMID: 15701531.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Baboon taphonomy and its relevance to the investigation of large felid involvement in human forensic cases. Forensic Sci Int. 2004 Aug 11; 144(1):37-44. Pickering TR, Carlson KJ. PMID: 15240019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    56. Intrinsic qualities of primate bones as predictors of skeletal element representation in modern and fossil carnivore feeding assemblages. J Hum Evol. 2003 Apr; 44(4):431-50. Carlson KJ, Pickering TR. PMID: 12727462.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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