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Carole Ann Spencer, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Research Medicine
Address601 Competition Road
Off Campus
Raleigh NC 27603-1982
Phone+1 626 993 2809
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art1967Gold Medal
    American Association for Clinical Chemistry1992Outstanding Speaker
    American Association for Clinical Chemistry1997Outstanding Speaker
    Clinical Ligand Assay Society1998Distinguished Scientist Award
    American Association for Clinical Chemistry1998Outstanding Speaker
    American Association of Clinical Chemistry2003Albert L. Chaney Award
    National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry2004Distinguished Scientist Award
    Endocrine Society2011International Award for Publishing Excellence

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Spencer's major areas of research interest are thyroid physiology and pathology, thyroglobulin and thyroid cancer, immunoassay techniques, thyroid hormone metabolism, and the cost-effective use of thyroid tests. Her current research includes clinical significance of Tg and TgAb in patients with thyroid cancers, parameters for optimizing thyroid hormone suppression of TSH for DTC. Studies on hypothalamic/pituitary mechanisms for regulating TSH, and testing for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

    Dr. Spencer earned her PhD from Glasgow University in Scotland. She then went on to complete two fellowships, one in Clinical Biochemistry at Glasgow, and the other at the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Marginal Iodine Status and High Rate of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Washington DC Women Planning Conception. Thyroid. 2015 Oct; 25(10):1151-4. Stagnaro-Green A, Dogo-Isonaige E, Pearce EN, Spencer C, Gaba ND. PMID: 26160595.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug; 100(8):E1074-83. Netzel BC, Grebe SK, Carranza Leon BG, Castro MR, Clark PM, Hoofnagle AN, Spencer CA, Turcu AF, Algeciras-Schimnich A. PMID: 26079778.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Evaluation of risk-factor-based screening for thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Mar; 84(3):417-22. Aghajanian P, Spencer CA, Wilson ML, Lee RH, Goodwin TM, Mestman JH. PMID: 25823873.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    4. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) monitoring of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using sensitive (second-generation) immunometric assays can be disrupted by false-negative and false-positive serum thyroglobulin autoantibody misclassifications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec; 99(12):4589-99. Spencer C, Petrovic I, Fatemi S, LoPresti J. PMID: 25226290.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. How sensitive (second-generation) thyroglobulin measurement is changing paradigms for monitoring patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, in the absence or presence of thyroglobulin autoantibodies. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Oct; 21(5):394-404. Spencer C, LoPresti J, Fatemi S. PMID: 25122493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. In search of an unstimulated thyroglobulin baseline value in low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine ablation. Thyroid. 2014 Jul; 24(7):1127-33. Angell TE, Spencer CA, Rubino BD, Nicoloff JT, LoPresti JS. PMID: 24697314.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Commentary on: Implications of thyroglobulin antibody positivity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position statement. Thyroid. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1190-2. Spencer C. PMID: 23987661.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) methods - Strengths, pitfalls and clinical utility for monitoring TgAb-positive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct; 27(5):701-12. Spencer C, Fatemi S. PMID: 24094640.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Clinical review: Clinical utility of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) measurements for patients with differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96(12):3615-27. Spencer CA. PMID: 21917876.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Effect of environmental perchlorate on thyroid function in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina, and Los Angeles, California. Endocr Pract. 2011 May-Jun; 17(3):412-7. Pearce EN, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Lee RH, Bergoglio LM, Mereshian P, He X, Leung AM, Braverman LE. PMID: 21324827.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    11. Current thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAb) assays often fail to detect interfering TgAb that can result in the reporting of falsely low/undetectable serum Tg IMA values for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May; 96(5):1283-91. Spencer C, Petrovic I, Fatemi S. PMID: 21325460.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Sep; 6(9):526-9. Glinoer D, Spencer CA. PMID: 20531379.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Serum Basal thyroglobulin measured by a second-generation assay correlates with the recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin response in patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2010 Jun; 20(6):587-95. Spencer C, Fatemi S, Singer P, Nicoloff J, Lopresti J. PMID: 20470203.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Effect of thyroid peroxidase antibodies on thyroid-stimulating hormone reference limits in a primarily Latina population. Obstet Med. 2009 Dec; 2(4):154-6. Lee RH, Spencer CA, Montoro MN, Aghajanian P, Goodwin TM, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Mestman JH. PMID: 27579061.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    15. Mildly elevated TSH and cognition in middle-aged and older adults. Thyroid. 2009 Feb; 19(2):111-7. St John JA, Henderson VW, Gatto NM, McCleary CA, Spencer CA, Hodis HN, Mack WJ. PMID: 19191743.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar; 200(3):260.e1-6. Lee RH, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Goodwin TM. PMID: 19114271.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    17. Measuring thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin autoantibody in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr; 4(4):223-33. Spencer CA, Lopresti JS. PMID: 18268520.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Thyroglobulin reference values in a pediatric infant population. Thyroid. 2007 Nov; 17(11):1049-54. Sobrero G, Muñoz L, Bazzara L, Martin S, Silvano L, Iorkansky S, Bergoglio L, Spencer C, Miras M. PMID: 17949265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-thyroperoxidase antibody relationships demonstrate that TSH upper reference limits may be skewed by occult thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov; 92(11):4236-40. Spencer CA, Hollowell JG, Kazarosyan M, Braverman LE. PMID: 17684054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Lifestyle still predicts mortality in older men with established vascular disease. Prev Med. 2005 Aug; 41(2):583-8. Spencer CA, Jamrozik K, Lawrence-Brown M, Norman PE. PMID: 15917056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Clinical impact of thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg autoantibody method differences on the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Oct; 90(10):5566-75. Spencer CA, Bergoglio LM, Kazarosyan M, Fatemi S, LoPresti JS. PMID: 15985472.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men. Prev Med. 2005 Jun; 40(6):712-7. Spencer CA, Jamrozik K, Norman PE, Lawrence-Brown M. PMID: 15850869.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid. 2005 Jan; 15(1):44-53. Mandel SJ, Spencer CA, Hollowell JG. PMID: 15687823.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Challenges of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the presence of Tg autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):3702-4. Spencer CA. PMID: 15292292.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Laboratory medicine practice guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2003 Jan; 13(1):3-126. Baloch Z, Carayon P, Conte-Devolx B, Demers LM, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Henry JF, LiVosli VA, Niccoli-Sire P, John R, Ruf J, Smyth PP, Spencer CA, Stockigt JR. PMID: 12625976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 207     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):489-99. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE. PMID: 11836274.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 653     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies: prevalence, influence on serum thyroglobulin measurement, and prognostic significance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr; 83(4):1121-7. Spencer CA, Takeuchi M, Kazarosyan M, Wang CC, Guttler RB, Singer PA, Fatemi S, LoPresti JS, Nicoloff JT. PMID: 9543128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Absence of thyroid hormone resistance in vitamin D-;resistant new world primates. Am J Primatol. 1994; 32(3):215-222. Arbelle JE, Gacad MA, Spencer CA, Adams JS. PMID: 31936922.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
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