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    Ricky Bluthenthal, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Preventive Medicine
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentInstitute for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention
    AddressSSB 302R 2001 N. Soto Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 8236
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      Ricky N. Bluthenthal is a Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Institute for Prevention Research at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. He received a BA in History and Sociology from the University of California Santa Cruz and a PhD in sociology from the University of California Berkeley. His research has established the effectiveness of syringe exchange programs, tested novel interventions and strategies to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV testing among injection drug users and men who has sex with men, documented how community conditions contribute to health disparities, and examined health policy implementation. His current studies include an exploratory, mixed-method study on people who initiated drug injection in their thirties, a community-based participatory research project to reduce multiple health risk among Latinos, and a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a single session intervention to reduce injection initiation risk behaviors among established people who inject drugs. Dr. Bluthenthal has authored or co-authored over 110 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Social Science and Medicine, The Lancet, Addiction, and Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research among others.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Leah I. Stein Duker, Benjamin F. Henwood, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Emma Juhlin, José C. Polido, Sharon A. Cermak . Parents’ perceptions of dental care challenges in male children with autism spectrum disorder: An initial qualitative exploration. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2017; 39(July 2017):63-72.
      2. Jennifer Y. Tsai, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Jon-Patrick Allem, Robert Garcia, Jocelyn Garcia, Jennifer B. Unger, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Steve Y. Sussman. Vape Shop Retailers’ Perceptions of Their Products, Customers, and Services: A Qualitative Study. Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. 2017; 2(Supplement):3.
      3. Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Bourgois P, Kral AH. Drug use generations and patterns of injection drug use: Birth cohort differences among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 01; 175:210-218. PMID: 28448905.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Irwin A, Jozagi E, Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. A cost-benefit analysis of a potential supervised injection facility in San Francisco, California, USA. Journal of Drug Issues. 2016.
      5. Jennifer Tsai, Davida Becker, Steve Sussman, Ricky Bluthenthal, Jennifer Unger, Seth Schwartz. Oxford Handbook of Acculturation and Health. Edited by Seth J. Schwartz & Jennifer Unger. Acculturation and risky sexual behavior in adolescents and emerging adults from immigrant families. 2016.
      6. Wenger LD, Lopez AM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal R. Moral ambivalence and the decision to initiate others into injection drug use: A qualitative study in two California cities. Int J Drug Policy. 2016 Nov; 37:42-51. PMID: 27572714.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Li MJ, Thing JP, Galvan FH, Gonzalez KD, Bluthenthal R. Contextualising family microaggressions and strategies of resilience among young gay and bisexual men of Latino heritage. Cult Health Sex. 2017 Jan; 19(1):107-120. PMID: 27426889.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Dangerfield DT, Smith LR, Williams J, Unger J, Bluthenthal R. Sexual Positioning Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Narrative Review. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May; 46(4):869-884. PMID: 27178171.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Li MJ, Frank HG, Harawa NT, Williams JK, Chou CP, Bluthenthal R. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 Apr 26. PMID: 27115618.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Schmitz J, Kral AH, Chu D, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal R. Food insecurity among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Aug; 19(12):2204-12. PMID: 26956477.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Novak SP, Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Kral AH. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort. Am J Public Health. 2016 Feb; 106(2):298-300. PMID: 26691120; PMCID: PMC4815622 [Available on 02/01/17].
      12. Aguirre CG, Bello MS, Andrabi N, Pang RD, Hendricks PS, Bluthenthal R, Leventhal AM. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers. Behav Modif. 2016 Jan; 40(1-2):281-302. PMID: 26438665; PMCID: PMC4861042 [Available on 01/01/17].
      13. Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. Next steps in research on injection initiation incidence and prevention. Addiction. 2015 Aug; 110(8):1258-9. PMID: 26173157.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Kral AH, Wenger L, Novak SP, Chu D, Corsi KF, Coffa D, Shapiro B, Bluthenthal R. Is cannabis use associated with less opioid use among people who inject drugs? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 01; 153:236-41. PMID: 26051162; PMCID: PMC4509857.
      15. Dyal SR, Kral AH, Dominguez Gonzalez K, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal R. Consistency of self-reported drug use events in a mixed methods study of people who inject drugs. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2015; 41(4):332-8. PMID: 25970020; PMCID: PMC4593486.
      16. Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Lorvick J, Quinn B, Thing JP, Kral AH. Factors associated with being asked to initiate someone into injection drug use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Apr 01; 149:252-8. PMID: 25735468.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Davidson PJ, Martinez A, Lutnick A, Kral AH, Bluthenthal R. Drug-related deaths and the sales of needles through pharmacies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 01; 147:229-34. PMID: 25499730; PMCID: PMC4297731.
      18. Roth AM, Armenta RA, Wagner KD, Roesch SC, Bluthenthal R, Cuevas-Mota J, Garfein RS. Patterns of drug use, risky behavior, and health status among persons who inject drugs living in San Diego, California: a latent class analysis. Subst Use Misuse. 2015 Jan; 50(2):205-14. PMID: 25313832; PMCID: PMC4356115.
      19. Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Quinn B, Thing J, Kral AH. Factors associated with initiating someone into illicit drug injection. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Nov 01; 144:186-92. PMID: 25282308; PMCID: PMC4276720.
      20. Quinn B, Chu D, Wenger L, Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles: the role of sterile syringe source. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Sep; 25(5):905-10. PMID: 24930425.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Arreola S, Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Thing J, Kral AH. Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 May 01; 138:244-50. PMID: 24661392; PMCID: PMC4035351.
      22. Wagner KD, Simon-Freeman R, Bluthenthal R. The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behav. 2013 Oct; 17(8):2637-43. PMID: 23620243; PMCID: PMC3788094.
      23. Fink DS, Lindsay SP, Slymen DJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal R. Abscess and self-treatment among injection drug users at four California syringe exchanges and their surrounding communities. Subst Use Misuse. 2013 May; 48(7):523-31. PMID: 23581506; PMCID: PMC4334130.
      24. Lutnick A, Cooper E, Dodson C, Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010. J Urban Health. 2013 Apr; 90(2):276-83. PMID: 22718357; PMCID: PMC3675724.
      25. MacDonald J, Stokes RJ, Grunwald B, Bluthenthal R . The privatization of public safety in urban neighborhoods: Do business improvement districts reduce violent crime among adolescents?. Law and Society Review. 2013; 47(3):621-52.
      26. Anderson JM, MacDonald J, Bluthenthal R, Ashwood JS. . Reducing crime by shaping the built environment with zoning: An empirical study of Los Angeles. University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2013; 161:699-757.
      27. Bluthenthal R, Palar K, Mendel P, Kanouse DE, Corbin DE, Derose KP. Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2012 May; 74(10):1520-7. PMID: 22445157; PMCID: PMC3519280.
      28. Martinez A, D’Amico EJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal R . Non-medical prescription drug use among injection drug users. Journal Drug Issues. 2012; 42(3):216-225.
      29. Bluthenthal R, Fehringer JA. Commentary for Li et al., "Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiates users with concurrent sexual partnerships: An egocentric network study in Yunnan, China." Addiction. 2011 Oct; 106(10). PMID: 24187443.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal R, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A framework for the specificity of addictions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 08; 8(8):3399-415. PMID: 21909314; PMCID: PMC3166750.
      31. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal R, Neilands T, Kral AH. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California. Health Place. 2011 Nov; 17(6):1258-65. PMID: 21908228.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Palar K, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal R, Castaneda LW, Corbin DE, Domínguez BX, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata MA, Oden CW. Religious congregations' involvement in HIV: a case study approach. AIDS Behav. 2011 Aug; 15(6):1220-32. PMID: 20953903; PMCID: PMC3087861.
      33. Kral AH, Lorvick J, Martinez A, Lewis MA, Orr WA, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal R. HIV prevalence and risk among heterosexual methamphetamine injectors in California. Subst Use Misuse. 2011; 46(9):1081-9. PMID: 21391786; PMCID: PMC3813018.
      34. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal R, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Kral AH. HIV risks and seroprevalence among Mexican American injection drug users in California. AIDS Behav. 2011 Jan; 15(1):95-102. PMID: 20020194; PMCID: PMC3023026.
      35. Wagner KD, Unger JB, Bluthenthal R, Andreeva VA, Pentz MA. Cognitive behavioral theories used to explain injection risk behavior among injection drug users: a review and suggestions for the integration of cognitive and environmental models. Health Educ Behav. 2010 Aug; 37(4):504-32. PMID: 20705809; PMCID: PMC3084153.
      36. Riley ED, Kral AH, Stopka TJ, Garfein RS, Reuckhaus P, Bluthenthal R. Access to sterile syringes through San Francisco pharmacies and the association with HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):534-42. PMID: 20526690; PMCID: PMC2900569.
      37. Cooper EN, Dodson C, Stopka TJ, Riley ED, Garfein RS, Bluthenthal R. Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):543-52. PMID: 20549568; PMCID: PMC2900565.
      38. Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal R, Castaneda LW, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata M, Oden CW. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):617-30. PMID: 20361357; PMCID: PMC2900568.
      39. Garfein RS, Stopka TJ, Pavlinac PB, Ross A, Haye BK, Riley ED, Bluthenthal R. Three years after legalization of nonprescription pharmacy syringe sales in California: where are we now? J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):576-85. PMID: 20535641; PMCID: PMC2900579.
      40. MacDonald J, Golinelli D, Stokes RJ, Bluthenthal R. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes. Inj Prev. 2010 Oct; 16(5):327-32. PMID: 20587814; PMCID: PMC2976613.
      41. Green TC, Bluthenthal R, Singer M, Beletsky L, Grau LE, Marshall P, Heimer R. Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 01; 111(1-2):74-81. PMID: 20537814; PMCID: PMC3087197.
      42. Bluthenthal R, Kral A. Commentary on Palmateer et al. (2010): next steps in the global research agenda on syringe access for injection drug users. Addiction. 2010 May; 105(5):860-1. PMID: 20402974.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Cohen DA, Sturm R, Scott M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks? Public Health Rep. 2010 Jan-Feb; 125(1):88-95. PMID: 20402200; PMCID: PMC2789820.
      44. MacDonald JM, Stokes R, Bluthenthal R . The role of community context in business district revitalization strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles. Public Performance and Management Review. 2010; 33(3):436-58.
      45. Grau LE, Green TC, Singer M, Bluthenthal R, Marshall PA, Heimer R. Getting the message straight: effects of a brief hepatitis prevention intervention among injection drug users. Harm Reduct J. 2009 Dec 15; 6:36. PMID: 20003518; PMCID: PMC2804675.
      46. Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal R, Schonlau M, Lynch S, Farley TA. The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidity. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 44(5):491-9. PMID: 19671569; PMCID: PMC2800249.
      47. Farley TA, Rice J, Bodor JN, Cohen DA, Bluthenthal R, Rose D. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores. J Urban Health. 2009 Sep; 86(5):672-82. PMID: 19603271; PMCID: PMC2729874.
      48. Robinson PL, Boscardin WJ, George SM, Teklehaimanot S, Heslin KC, Bluthenthal R. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002. J Urban Health. 2009 Jul; 86(4):511-23. PMID: 19247837; PMCID: PMC2704266.
      49. Vilamovska AM, Brown Taylor D, Bluthenthal R. Adverse drinking-related consequences among lower income, racial, and ethnic minority drinkers: cross-sectional results. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Apr; 33(4):645-53. PMID: 19183136.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Schonlau M, Scribner R, Farley TA, Theall K, Bluthenthal R, Scott M, Cohen DA. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana. Geospat Health. 2008 Nov; 3(1):91-101. PMID: 19021112; PMCID: PMC3741099.
      51. Scott MM, Cohen DA, Schonlau M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R. Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Sep; 35(3):203-9. PMID: 18692735; PMCID: PMC2920147.
      52. Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal R, Schonlau M, Farley TA. Social capital and the neighborhood alcohol environment. Health Place. 2009 Mar; 15(1):323-32. PMID: 18672392; PMCID: PMC2613262.
      53. Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal R. Improving coverage and scale-up of HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users: moving the agenda forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr; 19 Suppl 1:S1-4. PMID: 18262403.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Bluthenthal R, Cohen DA, Farley TA, Scribner R, Beighley C, Schonlau M, Robinson PL. Alcohol availability and neighborhood characteristics in Los Angeles, California and southern Louisiana. J Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):191-205. PMID: 18228148; PMCID: PMC2430119.
      55. Bluthenthal R . Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. Needle exchange programs. 2008; 629-32.
      56. Bluthenthal R, Jacobson JO, Robinson PL. Are racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion associated with racial differences in treatment modality entry? Comparison of outpatient treatment and residential treatment in Los Angeles County, 1998 to 2000. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov; 31(11):1920-6. PMID: 17908265.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Cohen DA, Schoeff D, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R, Scribner R, Overton A. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods. J Urban Health. 2007 Nov; 84(6):807-13. PMID: 17763963; PMCID: PMC2232033.
      58. Bluthenthal R, Do DP, Finch B, Martinez A, Edlin BR, Kral AH. Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis. J Urban Health. 2007 Sep; 84(5):653-66. PMID: 17657607; PMCID: PMC1988782.
      59. Bluthenthal R, Heinzerling KG, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Approval of syringe exchange programs in California: results from a local approach to HIV prevention. Am J Public Health. 2008 Feb; 98(2):278-83. PMID: 17538068; PMCID: PMC2376876.
      60. Martinez AN, Bluthenthal R, Lorvick J, Anderson R, Flynn N, Kral AH. The impact of legalizing syringe exchange programs on arrests among injection drug users in California. J Urban Health. 2007 May; 84(3):423-35. PMID: 17265133; PMCID: PMC2231826.
      61. Jacobson JO, Robinson PL, Bluthenthal R. Racial disparities in completion rates from publicly funded alcohol treatment: economic resources explain more than demographics and addiction severity. Health Serv Res. 2007 Apr; 42(2):773-94. PMID: 17362217; PMCID: PMC1955365.
      62. Bluthenthal R, Ridgeway G, Schell T, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Examination of the association between syringe exchange program (SEP) dispensation policy and SEP client-level syringe coverage among injection drug users. Addiction. 2007 Apr; 102(4):638-46. PMID: 17286637.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Bluthenthal R, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Higher syringe coverage is associated with lower odds of HIV risk and does not increase unsafe syringe disposal among syringe exchange program clients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Jul 10; 89(2-3):214-22. PMID: 17280802; PMCID: PMC2562866.
      64. Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal R. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus testing services at syringe exchange programs: availability and outcomes. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007 Jun; 32(4):423-9. PMID: 17481466.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal R. Coverage of HIV prevention programmes for injection drug users: confusions, aspirations, definitions and ways forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Mar; 18(2):92-8. PMID: 17689351; PMCID: PMC1945164.
      66. Stopka TJ, Marshall C, Bluthenthal R, Webb DS, Truax SR. HCV and HIV counseling and testing integration in California: an innovative approach to increase HIV counseling and testing rates. Public Health Rep. 2007; 122 Suppl 2:68-73. PMID: 17542457; PMCID: PMC1831799.
      67. Bluthenthal R, Riehman K, Jaycox LH, Morral A. Perspectives on therapeutic treatment from adolescent probationers. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2006 Dec; 38(4):461-71. PMID: 17373562.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Jacobson JO, Robinson P, Bluthenthal R. A multilevel decomposition approach to estimate the role of program location and neighborhood disadvantage in racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Jan; 64(2):462-76. PMID: 17055634.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Galvan FH, Bluthenthal R, Ani C, Bing EG. Increasing HIV testing among latinos by bundling HIV testing with other tests. J Urban Health. 2006 Sep; 83(5):849-59. PMID: 16755390; PMCID: PMC2438590.
      70. Heinzerling KG, Etzioni DA, Hurley B, Holtom P, Bluthenthal R, Asch SM. Hospital utilization for injection drug use-related soft tissue infections in urban versus rural counties in California. J Urban Health. 2006 Mar; 83(2):176-81. PMID: 16736367; PMCID: PMC2527156.
      71. Cohen DA, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R, Brown-Taylor D. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun; 62(12):3062-71. PMID: 16423436; PMCID: PMC2040035.
      72. Wells KB, Staunton A, Norris KC, Bluthenthal R, Chung B, Gelberg L, Jones L, Kataoka S, Koegel P, Miranda J, Mangione CM, Patel K, Rodriguez M, Shapiro M, Wong M. Building an academic-community partnered network for clinical services research: the Community Health Improvement Collaborative (CHIC). Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S3-17. PMID: 16681125.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Lorvick J, Bluthenthal R, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Riehman KS, Anderson RL, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Secondary syringe exchange among users of 23 California syringe exchange programs. Subst Use Misuse. 2006; 41(6-7):865-82. PMID: 16809176.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Punzalan C, Paxton KC, Guentzel H, Bluthenthal R, Staunton AD, Mejia G, Morales L, Miranda J. Seeking community input to improve implementation of a lifestyle modification program. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S79-88. PMID: 16681131.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Bluthenthal R, Jones L, Fackler-Lowrie N, Ellison M, Booker T, Jones F, McDaniel S, Moini M, Williams KR, Klap R, Koegel P, Wells KB. Witness for Wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research mental health initiative. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S18-34. PMID: 16681126.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal R. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):423-32. PMID: 16249946.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Grau LE, Bluthenthal R, Marshall P, Singer M, Heimer R. Psychosocial and behavioral differences among drug injectors who use and do not use syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):495-504. PMID: 16237501.
        View in: PubMed
      78. French MT, Browntaylor D, Bluthenthal R. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study. Soc Sci Med. 2006 May; 62(9):2101-11. PMID: 16297518.
        View in: PubMed
      79. Cohen DA, Kanouse DE, Iguchi MY, Bluthenthal R, Galvan FH, Bing EG. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in non-traditional settings: a personal view. Int J STD AIDS. 2005 Aug; 16(8):521-7. PMID: 16105185.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal R. Unmet need for recommended preventive health services among clients of California syringe exchange programs: implications for quality improvement. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Feb 01; 81(2):167-78. PMID: 16043308.
        View in: PubMed
      81. Bluthenthal R, Browntaylor D, Guzmán-Becerra N, Robinson PL. Characteristics of malt liquor beer drinkers in a low-income, racial minority community sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar; 29(3):402-9. PMID: 15770116.
        View in: PubMed
      82. Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal R, Bogart L, Iguchi MY, Perry S, Sand K, Shoptaw S. Recruiting drug-using men who have sex with men into behavioral interventions: a two-stage approach. J Urban Health. 2005 Mar; 82(1 Suppl 1):i109-19. PMID: 15738314; PMCID: PMC3456171.
      83. Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal R. Sexual risk among injection drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs in California. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Jan; 32(1):27-34. PMID: 15614118.
        View in: PubMed
      84. Bluthenthal R, Heinzerling K, Martinez A, Kral, AH. International Journal of Drug Policy. Police crackdowns, societal cost, and the need for alternative approaches. 2005; 16:137-8.
      85. Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Bluthenthal R. Injection risk behaviors among clients of syringe exchange programs with different syringe dispensation policies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 01; 37(2):1307-12. PMID: 15385739.
        View in: PubMed
      86. Bluthenthal R, Malik MR, Grau LE, Singer M, Marshall P, Heimer R. Sterile syringe access conditions and variations in HIV risk among drug injectors in three cities. Addiction. 2004 Sep; 99(9):1136-46. PMID: 15317634.
        View in: PubMed
      87. Riehman KS, Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal R. Sexual relationships, secondary syringe exchange, and gender differences in HIV risk among drug injectors. J Urban Health. 2004 Jun; 81(2):249-59. PMID: 15136658; PMCID: PMC3456452.
      88. Kral AH, Bluthenthal R . International Journal of Drug Policy. What is it about needle and syringe exchange programs that make them effective for preventing HIV transmission?. 2003; 14(5/6):361-3.
      89. Anderson RL, Clancey L, Flynn NM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal R . Delivering syringe exchange services through “Satellite Exchangers”: Sacramento Area Needle Exchange. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2003; 14(5/6):461-3.
      90. Heimer R, Clair S, Grau LE, Bluthenthal R, Marshall PA, Singer M. Hepatitis-associated knowledge is low and risks are high among HIV-aware injection drug users in three US cities. Addiction. 2002 Oct; 97(10):1277-87. PMID: 12359032.
        View in: PubMed
      91. Bluthenthal R, Kral AH, Gee L, Lorvick J, Moore L, Seal K, Edlin BR. Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Nov 01; 28(3):264-9. PMID: 11694834.
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      92. Seal KH, Kral AH, Gee L, Moore LD, Bluthenthal R, Lorvick J, Edlin BR. Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999. Am J Public Health. 2001 Nov; 91(11):1842-6. PMID: 11684613; PMCID: PMC1446888.
      93. Kral AH, Bluthenthal R, Lorvick J, Gee L, Bacchetti P, Edlin BR. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis. Lancet. 2001 May 05; 357(9266):1397-401. PMID: 11356437.
        View in: PubMed
      94. Bluthenthal R, Gogineni A, Longshore D, Stein M. Factors associated with readiness to change drug use among needle-exchange users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 May 01; 62(3):225-30. PMID: 11295327.
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      95. Longshore D, Bluthenthal R, Stein MD. Needle exchange program attendance and injection risk in Providence, Rhode Island. AIDS Educ Prev. 2001 Feb; 13(1):78-90. PMID: 11252456.
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      96. Galvan FH, Bing EG, Bluthenthal R. Accessing HIV testing and care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 15; 25 Suppl 2:S151-6. PMID: 11256736.
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      97. Moss NE, Lemp G, Bluthenthal R, Goldsmith MA, Haubrich R, Kahn JO. From the cell to the community: AIDS research in California. The University of California Universitywide AIDS Research Program annual meeting, February 2000. West J Med. 2000 Aug; 173(2):119-24. PMID: 10924438; PMCID: PMC1071020.
      98. Bluthenthal R, Kral AH, Gee L, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. The effect of syringe exchange use on high-risk injection drug users: a cohort study. AIDS. 2000 Mar 31; 14(5):605-11. PMID: 10780722.
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