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    Elizabeth R. Sowell-Crowell, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Pediatrics
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentPediatrics
    AddressCHL MailStop 130
    Off Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089
    Phone+1 323 361 7347
    Emailesowell@chla.usc.edu
    vCardDownload vCard

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      Elizabeth Sowell, PhD and her team have been dedicated to understanding how the brain changes in structure and function both in typically developing children and adolescent populations, and in populations with neurodevelopmental disorders such as fetal alcohol syndrome and autism spectrum disorders. The ultimate goal of this research is to determine how changes in the brain relate to changes in behavior and cognitive function, and to identify opportunities for educational, behavioral and pharmacologic intervention to alter abnormal patterns of brain development.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Houston SM, Lebel C, Katzir T, Manis FR, Kan E, Rodriguez GG, Sowell ER. Reading skill and structural brain development. Neuroreport. 2014 Mar 26; 25(5):347-52. PMID: 24407200; PMCID: PMC4128180.
      2. Ware AL, Glass L, Crocker N, Deweese BN, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 May; 38(5):1439-47. PMID: 24655090; PMCID: PMC3999227.
      3. Houston SM, Herting MM, Sowell ER. The neurobiology of childhood structural brain development: conception through adulthood. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2014; 16:3-17. PMID: 24357437; PMCID: PMC4114219.
      4. Herting MM, Colby JB, Sowell ER, Nagel BJ. White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2014 Jan; 7:65-75. PMID: 24333926; PMCID: PMC4020709.
      5. Akshoomoff N, Newman E, Thompson WK, McCabe C, Bloss CS, Chang L, Amaral DG, Casey BJ, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Libiger O, Mostofsky S, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Schork N, Dale AM, Jernigan TL. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: results from a large normative developmental sample (PING). Neuropsychology. 2014 Jan; 28(1):1-10. PMID: 24219608; PMCID: PMC3925365.
      6. Eicher JD, Powers NR, Miller LL, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiger O, Schork NJ, Darst BF, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst T, Frazier J, Kaufmann WE, Keating B, Kenet T, Kennedy D, Mostofsky S, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Bartsch H, Kuperman JM, Brown TT, Hagler DJ, Dale AM, Jernigan TL, St Pourcain B, Davey Smith G, Ring SM, Gruen JR. Genome-wide association study of shared components of reading disability and language impairment. Genes Brain Behav. 2013 Nov; 12(8):792-801. PMID: 24024963; PMCID: PMC3904347.
      7. Glass L, Ware AL, Crocker N, Deweese BN, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. Neuropsychological deficits associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure are not exacerbated by ADHD. Neuropsychology. 2013 Nov; 27(6):713-24. PMID: 24040921; PMCID: PMC3898510.
      8. Lebel C, Warner T, Colby J, Soderberg L, Roussotte F, Behnke M, Davis Eyler F, Sowell ER. White matter microstructure abnormalities and executive function in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Aug 30; 213(2):161-8. PMID: 23769420; PMCID: PMC3812806.
      9. Roussotte FF, Jahanshad N, Hibar DP, Sowell ER, Kohannim O, Barysheva M, Hansell NK, McMahon KL, de Zubicaray GI, Montgomery GW, Martin NG, Wright MJ, Toga AW, Jack CR, Weiner MW, Thompson PM. A commonly carried genetic variant in the delta opioid receptor gene, OPRD1, is associated with smaller regional brain volumes: replication in elderly and young populations. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Apr; 35(4):1226-36. PMID: 23427138; PMCID: PMC4046708.
      10. Fjell AM, Walhovd KB, Brown TT, Kuperman JM, Chung Y, Hagler DJ, Venkatraman V, Roddey JC, Erhart M, McCabe C, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiger O, Darst BF, Schork NJ, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Frazier J, Murray SS, Sowell ER, van Zijl P, Mostofsky S, Jernigan TL, Dale AM. Multimodal imaging of the self-regulating developing brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 27; 109(48):19620-5. PMID: 23150548; PMCID: PMC3511748.
      11. Colby JB, Smith L, O'Connor MJ, Bookheimer SY, Van Horn JD, Sowell ER. White matter microstructural alterations in children with prenatal methamphetamine/polydrug exposure. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Nov 30; 204(2-3):140-8. PMID: 23149028; PMCID: PMC3634917.
      12. Lebel C, Mattson SN, Riley EP, Jones KL, Adnams CM, May PA, Bookheimer SY, O'Connor MJ, Narr KL, Kan E, Abaryan Z, Sowell ER. A longitudinal study of the long-term consequences of drinking during pregnancy: heavy in utero alcohol exposure disrupts the normal processes of brain development. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 31; 32(44):15243-51. PMID: 23115162; PMCID: PMC3515671.
      13. Ware AL, O'Brien JW, Crocker N, Deweese BN, Roesch SC, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on psychopathology and behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Mar; 37(3):507-16. PMID: 22974279; PMCID: PMC3524354.
      14. Mattson SN, Roesch SC, Glass L, Deweese BN, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Adnams CM, Jones KL, Riley EP. Further development of a neurobehavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Mar; 37(3):517-28. PMID: 22974253; PMCID: PMC3524344.
      15. Brown TT, Kuperman JM, Chung Y, Erhart M, McCabe C, Hagler DJ, Venkatraman VK, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Jernigan TL, Dale AM. Neuroanatomical assessment of biological maturity. Curr Biol. 2012 Sep 25; 22(18):1693-8. PMID: 22902750; PMCID: PMC3461087.
      16. Roussotte F, Soderberg L, Warner T, Narr K, Lebel C, Behnke M, Davis-Eyler F, Sowell E. Adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure show subtle alterations in striatal surface morphology and frontal cortical volumes. J Neurodev Disord. 2012 Aug 07; 4(1):22. PMID: 22958316; PMCID: PMC3488340.
      17. Graham DM, Crocker N, Deweese BN, Roesch SC, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. Prenatal alcohol exposure, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sluggish cognitive tempo. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jan; 37 Suppl 1:E338-46. PMID: 22817778; PMCID: PMC3480974.
      18. Sowell ER, Bookheimer SY. Promise for finding brain biomarkers among infants at high familial risk for developing autism spectrum disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun; 169(6):551-3. PMID: 22684588.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Ware AL, Crocker N, O'Brien JW, Deweese BN, Roesch SC, Coles CD, Kable JA, May PA, Kalberg WO, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. Executive function predicts adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Aug; 36(8):1431-41. PMID: 22587709; PMCID: PMC3412910.
      20. Bramen JE, Hranilovich JA, Dahl RE, Chen J, Rosso C, Forbes EE, Dinov ID, Worthman CM, Sowell ER. Sex matters during adolescence: testosterone-related cortical thickness maturation differs between boys and girls. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33850. PMID: 22479458; PMCID: PMC3315517.
      21. Roussotte FF, Rudie JD, Smith L, O'Connor MJ, Bookheimer SY, Narr KL, Sowell ER. Frontostriatal connectivity in children during working memory and the effects of prenatal methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure. Dev Neurosci. 2012; 34(1):43-57. PMID: 22472800.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Noble KG, Houston SM, Kan E, Sowell ER. Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain. Dev Sci. 2012 Jul; 15(4):516-27. PMID: 22709401.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Bakken TE, Roddey JC, Djurovic S, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Gruen JR, Jernigan TL, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Kennedy DN, Kuperman JM, Murray SS, Sowell ER, Rimol LM, Mattingsdal M, Melle I, Agartz I, Andreassen OA, Schork NJ, Dale AM, Weiner M, Aisen P, Petersen R, Jack CR, Jagust W, Trojanowki JQ, Toga AW, Beckett L, Green RC, Saykin AJ, Morris J, Liu E, Montine T, Gamst A, Thomas RG, Donohue M, Walter S, Gessert D, Sather T, Harvey D, Kornak J, Dale A, Bernstein M, Felmlee J, Fox N, Thompson P, Schuff N, Alexander G, DeCarli C, Bandy D, Koeppe RA, Foster N, Reiman EM, Chen K, Mathis C, Cairns NJ, Taylor-Reinwald L, Trojanowki JQ, Shaw L, Lee VM, Korecka M, Crawford K, Neu S, Foroud TM, Potkin S, Shen L, Kachaturian Z, Frank R, Snyder PJ, Molchan S, Kaye J, Quinn J, Lind B, Dolen S, Schneider LS, Pawluczyk S, Spann BM, Brewer J, Vanderswag H, Heidebrink JL, Lord JL, Johnson K, Doody RS, Villanueva-Meyer J, Chowdhury M, Stern Y, Honig LS, Bell KL, Morris JC, Ances B, Carroll M, Leon S, Mintun MA, Schneider S, Marson D, Griffith R, Clark D, Grossman H, Mitsis E, Romirowsky A, deToledo-Morrell L, Shah RC, Duara R, Varon D, Roberts P, Albert M, Onyike C, Kielb S, Rusinek H, de Leon MJ, Glodzik L, De Santi S, Doraiswamy PM, Petrella JR, Coleman RE, Arnold SE, Karlawish JH, Wolk D, Smith CD, Jicha G, Hardy P, Lopez OL, Oakley M, Simpson DM, Porsteinsson AP, Goldstein BS, Martin K, Makino KM, Ismail MS, Brand C, Mulnard RA, Thai G, Mc-Adams-Ortiz C, Womack K, Mathews D, Quiceno M, Diaz-Arrastia R, King R, Weiner M, Martin-Cook K, DeVous M, Levey AI, Lah JJ, Cellar JS, Burns JM, Anderson HS, Swerdlow RH, Apostolova L, Lu PH, Bartzokis G, Silverman DH, Graff-Radford NR, Parfitt F, Johnson H, Farlow MR, Hake AM, Matthews BR, Herring S, van Dyck CH, Carson RE, MacAvoy MG, Chertkow H, Bergman H, Hosein C, Black S, Stefanovic B, Caldwell C, Hsiung R, Feldman H, Mudge B, Assaly M, Kertesz A, Rogers J, Trost D, Bernick C, Munic D, Kerwin D, Mesulam MM, Lipowski K, Wu CK, Johnson N, Sadowsky C, Martinez W, Villena T, Turner RS, Johnson K, Reynolds B, Sperling RA, Johnson KA, Marshall G, Frey M, Yesavage J, Taylor JL, Lane B, Rosen A, Tinklenberg J, Sabbagh M, Belden C, Jacobson S, Kowall N, Killiany R, Budson AE, Norbash A, Johnson PL, Obisesan TO, Wolday S, Bwayo SK, Lerner A, Hudson L, Ogrocki P, Fletcher E, Carmichael O, Olichney J, Kittur S, Borrie M, Lee TY, Bartha R, Johnson S, Asthana S, Carlsson CM, Potkin SG, Preda A, Nguyen D, Tariot P, Fleisher A, Reeder S, Bates V, Capote H, Rainka M, Scharre DW, Kataki M, Zimmerman EA, Celmins D, Brown AD, Pearlson GD, Blank K, Anderson K, Santulli RB, Schwartz ES, Sink KM, Williamson JD, Garg P, Watkins F, Ott BR, Querfurth H, Tremont G, Salloway S, Malloy P, Correia S, Rosen HJ, Miller BL, Mintzer J, Longmire CF, Spicer K, Finger E, Rachinsky I, Drost D, Jernigan T, McCabe C, Grant E, Ernst T, Kuperman J, Chung Y, Murray S, Bloss C, Darst B, Pritchett L, Saito A, Amaral D, DiNino M, Eyngorina B, Sowell E, Houston S, Soderberg L, Kaufmann W, van Zijl P, Rizzo-Busack H, Javid M, Mehta N, Ruberry E, Powers A, Rosen B, Gebhard N, Manigan H, Frazier J, Kennedy D, Yakutis L, Hill M, Gruen J, Bosson-Heenan J, Carlson H. Association of common genetic variants in GPCPD1 with scaling of visual cortical surface area in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 06; 109(10):3985-90. PMID: 22343285; PMCID: PMC3309762.
      24. Yang Y, Phillips OR, Kan E, Sulik KK, Mattson SN, Riley EP, Jones KL, Adnams CM, May PA, O'Connor MJ, Narr KL, Sowell ER. Callosal thickness reductions relate to facial dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 May; 36(5):798-806. PMID: 22150665; PMCID: PMC3309126.
      25. Colby JB, Soderberg L, Lebel C, Dinov ID, Thompson PM, Sowell ER. Along-tract statistics allow for enhanced tractography analysis. Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 15; 59(4):3227-42. PMID: 22094644; PMCID: PMC3288584.
      26. Yang Y, Roussotte F, Kan E, Sulik KK, Mattson SN, Riley EP, Jones KL, Adnams CM, May PA, O'Connor MJ, Narr KL, Sowell ER. Abnormal cortical thickness alterations in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and their relationships with facial dysmorphology. Cereb Cortex. 2012 May; 22(5):1170-9. PMID: 21799209; PMCID: PMC3328347.
      27. Nuñez SC, Dapretto M, Katzir T, Starr A, Bramen J, Kan E, Bookheimer S, Sowell ER. fMRI of syntactic processing in typically developing children: structural correlates in the inferior frontal gyrus. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Jul; 1(3):313-23. PMID: 21743820; PMCID: PMC3129989.
      28. Welcome SE, Chiarello C, Thompson PM, Sowell ER. Reading skill is related to individual differences in brain structure in college students. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Aug; 32(8):1194-205. PMID: 21523856.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Roussotte FF, Sulik KK, Mattson SN, Riley EP, Jones KL, Adnams CM, May PA, O'Connor MJ, Narr KL, Sowell ER. Regional brain volume reductions relate to facial dysmorphology and neurocognitive function in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012 Apr; 33(4):920-37. PMID: 21416562; PMCID: PMC3812802.
      30. Lebel C, Roussotte F, Sowell ER. Imaging the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on the structure of the developing human brain. Neuropsychol Rev. 2011 Jun; 21(2):102-18. PMID: 21369875; PMCID: PMC3098972.
      31. Nunez CC, Roussotte F, Sowell ER. Focus on: structural and functional brain abnormalities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Res Health. 2011; 34(1):121-31. PMID: 23580049; PMCID: PMC3860550.
      32. Roussotte FF, Bramen JE, Nunez SC, Quandt LC, Smith L, O'Connor MJ, Bookheimer SY, Sowell ER. Abnormal brain activation during working memory in children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: the effects of methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure. Neuroimage. 2011 Feb 14; 54(4):3067-75. PMID: 21040792; PMCID: PMC4405109.
      33. Bramen JE, Hranilovich JA, Dahl RE, Forbes EE, Chen J, Toga AW, Dinov ID, Worthman CM, Sowell ER. Puberty influences medial temporal lobe and cortical gray matter maturation differently in boys than girls matched for sexual maturity. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Mar; 21(3):636-46. PMID: 20713504; PMCID: PMC3041011.
      34. Colby JB, Van Horn JD, Sowell ER. Quantitative in vivo evidence for broad regional gradients in the timing of white matter maturation during adolescence. Neuroimage. 2011 Jan 01; 54(1):25-31. PMID: 20708693; PMCID: PMC2962725.
      35. Sowell ER, Leow AD, Bookheimer SY, Smith LM, O'Connor MJ, Kan E, Rosso C, Houston S, Dinov ID, Thompson PM. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor-based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 17; 30(11):3876-85. PMID: 20237258; PMCID: PMC2847574.
      36. Mattson SN, Foroud T, Sowell ER, Jones KL, Coles CD, Fagerlund A, Autti-Rämö I, May PA, Adnams CM, Konovalova V, Wetherill L, Arenson AD, Barnett WK, Riley EP. Collaborative initiative on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: methodology of clinical projects. Alcohol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 44(7-8):635-41. PMID: 20036488; PMCID: PMC2888656.
      37. O'Hare ED, Lu LH, Houston SM, Bookheimer SY, Mattson SN, O'Connor MJ, Sowell ER. Altered frontal-parietal functioning during verbal working memory in children and adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009 Oct; 30(10):3200-8. PMID: 19263420; PMCID: PMC2748151.
      38. Losin EA, Rivera SM, O'Hare ED, Sowell ER, Pinter JD. Abnormal fMRI activation pattern during story listening in individuals with Down syndrome. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2009 Sep; 114(5):369-80. PMID: 19928018.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Lu LH, Johnson A, O'Hare ED, Bookheimer SY, Smith LM, O'Connor MJ, Sowell ER. Effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on verbal memory revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2009 Jun; 30(3):185-92. PMID: 19525715; PMCID: PMC2745202.
      40. Lu LH, Dapretto M, O'Hare ED, Kan E, McCourt ST, Thompson PM, Toga AW, Bookheimer SY, Sowell ER. Relationships between brain activation and brain structure in normally developing children. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Nov; 19(11):2595-604. PMID: 19240138; PMCID: PMC2758677.
      41. Shattuck DW, Joshi AA, Pantazis D, Kan E, Dutton RA, Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Toga AW, Leahy RM. Semi-automated method for delineation of landmarks on models of the cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Apr 15; 178(2):385-92. PMID: 19162074; PMCID: PMC2773140.
      42. O'Hare ED, Lu LH, Houston SM, Bookheimer SY, Sowell ER. Neurodevelopmental changes in verbal working memory load-dependency: an fMRI investigation. Neuroimage. 2008 Oct 01; 42(4):1678-85. PMID: 18586110; PMCID: PMC2570587.
      43. Sowell ER, Kan E, Yoshii J, Thompson PM, Bansal R, Xu D, Toga AW, Peterson BS. Thinning of sensorimotor cortices in children with Tourette syndrome. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Jun; 11(6):637-9. PMID: 18488025; PMCID: PMC2605107.
      44. Sowell ER, Johnson A, Kan E, Lu LH, Van Horn JD, Toga AW, O'Connor MJ, Bookheimer SY. Mapping white matter integrity and neurobehavioral correlates in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. J Neurosci. 2008 Feb 06; 28(6):1313-9. PMID: 18256251; PMCID: PMC3567846.
      45. Sowell ER, Lu LH, O'Hare ED, McCourt ST, Mattson SN, O'Connor MJ, Bookheimer SY. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of verbal learning in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuroreport. 2007 May 07; 18(7):635-9. PMID: 17426589.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Sowell ER, Mattson SN, Kan E, Thompson PM, Riley EP, Toga AW. Abnormal cortical thickness and brain-behavior correlation patterns in individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Jan; 18(1):136-44. PMID: 17443018; PMCID: PMC2770438.
      47. Thompson PM, Hayashi KM, Dutton RA, Chiang MC, Leow AD, Sowell ER, De Zubicaray G, Becker JT, Lopez OL, Aizenstein HJ, Toga AW. Tracking Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Feb; 1097:183-214. PMID: 17413023; PMCID: PMC3197831.
      48. Sowell ER, Peterson BS, Kan E, Woods RP, Yoshii J, Bansal R, Xu D, Zhu H, Thompson PM, Toga AW. Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Jul; 17(7):1550-60. PMID: 16945978; PMCID: PMC2329809.
      49. Toga AW, Thompson PM, Sowell ER. Mapping brain maturation. Trends Neurosci. 2006 Mar; 29(3):148-59. PMID: 16472876; PMCID: PMC3113697.
      50. Bookheimer SY, Sowell ER. Brain imaging in FAS: commentary on the article by Malisza et al. Pediatr Res. 2005 Dec; 58(6):1148-9. PMID: 16306184.
        View in: PubMed
      51. O'Hare ED, Kan E, Yoshii J, Mattson SN, Riley EP, Thompson PM, Toga AW, Sowell ER. Mapping cerebellar vermal morphology and cognitive correlates in prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 22; 16(12):1285-90. PMID: 16056126.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Thompson PM, Sowell ER, Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Vidal CN, Hayashi KM, Leow A, Nicolson R, Rapoport JL, Toga AW. Structural MRI and brain development. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2005; 67:285-323. PMID: 16291026.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Leonard CM, Welcome SE, Kan E, Toga AW. Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. J Neurosci. 2004 Sep 22; 24(38):8223-31. PMID: 15385605.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Toga AW. Mapping changes in the human cortex throughout the span of life. Neuroscientist. 2004 Aug; 10(4):372-92. PMID: 15271264.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Riley EP, McGee CL, Sowell ER. Teratogenic effects of alcohol: a decade of brain imaging. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2004 May 15; 127C(1):35-41. PMID: 15095470.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Ballmaier M, Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Kumar A, Narr KL, Lavretsky H, Welcome SE, DeLuca H, Toga AW. Mapping brain size and cortical gray matter changes in elderly depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 15; 55(4):382-9. PMID: 14960291.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Ballmaier M, Toga AW, Blanton RE, Sowell ER, Lavretsky H, Peterson J, Pham D, Kumar A. Anterior cingulate, gyrus rectus, and orbitofrontal abnormalities in elderly depressed patients: an MRI-based parcellation of the prefrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan; 161(1):99-108. PMID: 14702257.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Thompson PM, Hayashi KM, Sowell ER, Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, de Zubicaray GI, Janke AL, Rose SE, Semple J, Doddrell DM, Wang Y, van Erp TG, Cannon TD, Toga AW. Mapping cortical change in Alzheimer's disease, brain development, and schizophrenia. Neuroimage. 2004; 23 Suppl 1:S2-18. PMID: 15501091.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Narr KL, Sharma T, Woods RP, Thompson PM, Sowell ER, Rex D, Kim S, Asuncion D, Jang S, Mazziotta J, Toga AW. Increases in regional subarachnoid CSF without apparent cortical gray matter deficits in schizophrenia: modulating effects of sex and age. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Dec; 160(12):2169-80. PMID: 14638587.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Toga AW, Peterson BS. Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet. 2003 Nov 22; 362(9397):1699-707. PMID: 14643117.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Sowell ER, Peterson BS, Thompson PM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Toga AW. Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Mar; 6(3):309-15. PMID: 12548289.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Peterson BS, Mattson SN, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Riley EP, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. Mapping cortical gray matter asymmetry patterns in adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuroimage. 2002 Dec; 17(4):1807-19. PMID: 12498754.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Mattson SN, Tessner KD, Jernigan TL, Riley EP, Toga AW. Regional brain shape abnormalities persist into adolescence after heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Cereb Cortex. 2002 Aug; 12(8):856-65. PMID: 12122034.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Sowell ER, Trauner DA, Gamst A, Jernigan TL. Development of cortical and subcortical brain structures in childhood and adolescence: a structural MRI study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002 Jan; 44(1):4-16. PMID: 11811649.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Rex D, Kornsand D, Tessner KD, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. Mapping sulcal pattern asymmetry and local cortical surface gray matter distribution in vivo: maturation in perisylvian cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2002 Jan; 12(1):17-26. PMID: 11734529.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Tessner KD, Toga AW. Mapping continued brain growth and gray matter density reduction in dorsal frontal cortex: Inverse relationships during postadolescent brain maturation. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 15; 21(22):8819-29. PMID: 11698594.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Sowell ER, Mattson SN, Thompson PM, Jernigan TL, Riley EP, Toga AW. Mapping callosal morphology and cognitive correlates: effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neurology. 2001 Jul 24; 57(2):235-44. PMID: 11468307.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Mattson SN, Tessner KD, Jernigan TL, Riley EP, Toga AW. Voxel-based morphometric analyses of the brain in children and adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol. Neuroreport. 2001 Mar 05; 12(3):515-23. PMID: 11234756.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Sowell ER, Delis D, Stiles J, Jernigan TL. Improved memory functioning and frontal lobe maturation between childhood and adolescence: a structural MRI study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2001 Mar; 7(3):312-22. PMID: 11311032.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Sowell ER, Levitt J, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Blanton RE, Kornsand DS, Caplan R, McCracken J, Asarnow R, Toga AW. Brain abnormalities in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder observed with statistical parametric mapping of structural magnetic resonance images. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Sep; 157(9):1475-84. PMID: 10964865.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Sowell ER, Toga AW, Asarnow R. Brain abnormalities observed in childhood-onset schizophrenia: a review of the structural magnetic resonance imaging literature. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2000; 6(3):180-5. PMID: 10982495.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nat Neurosci. 1999 Oct; 2(10):859-61. PMID: 10491602.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Batth R, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. Localizing age-related changes in brain structure between childhood and adolescence using statistical parametric mapping. Neuroimage. 1999 Jun; 9(6 Pt 1):587-97. PMID: 10334902.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Mattson SN, Riley EP, Sowell ER, Jernigan TL, Sobel DF, Jones KL. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Sep; 20(6):1088-93. PMID: 8892532.
        View in: PubMed
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