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    David G. Armstrong

    TitleProfessor of Clinical Surgery
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentSurgery
    Address1520 SAN PABLO
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Armstrong is Professor of Surgery at the University of Southern California. Dr. Armstrong holds a Masters of Science in Tissue Repair and Wound Healing from the University of Wales College of Medicine and a PhD from the University of Manchester College of Medicine, where he was appointed Visiting Professor of Medicine. He is founder and co-Director of the Southwestern Academic Limb Salvage Alliance (SALSA).

      Dr. Armstrong has produced more than 460 peer-reviewed research papers in dozens of scholarly medical journals as well as over 80 book chapters. He is co-Editor of the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) Clinical Care of the Diabetic Foot, now in its third edition.

      Armstrong was appointed Deputy Director of Arizona’s Center for Accelerated Biomedical Innovation (ACABI) and co-founder of its “augmented human” initiative, which places him at the nexus of the merger of consumer electronics, wearables and medical devices.

      Dr. Armstrong was selected as one of the first six International Wound Care Ambassadors and is the recipient of numerous awards and degrees by universities and international medical organizations including the inaugural Georgetown Distinguished Award for Diabetic Limb Salvage. In 2008, he was the 25th and youngest-ever member elected into the Podiatric Medicine Hall of Fame. He was the first surgeon to be named University Distinguished Outreach Professor at the University of Arizona. He was the first podiatric surgeon to become a member of the Society of Vascular Surgery and the first US podiatric surgeon named fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Glasgow. He is the 2010 and youngest ever recipient of the ADA’s Roger Pecoraro Award, the highest award given in the field.

      Dr. Armstrong is past Chair of Scientific Sessions for the ADA’s Foot Care Council, and a past member of the National Board of Directors of the American Diabetes Association as well as a former commissioner with the Illinois State Diabetes Commission. He sits on the Infectious Disease Society of America’s (IDSA) Diabetic Foot Infection Advisory Committee and is the US appointed delegate to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF). Dr. Armstrong is the founder and co-chair of the International Diabetic Foot Conference (DF-Con), the largest annual international symposium on the diabetic foot in the world.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Victoria University of Manchester, Manchester, UKPhD, MD2004Mitigation of Pressure in the High Risk Diabetic Foot
      University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UKMS2003Tissue Repair and Wound Healing
      University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX1996Diabetic Foot Fellowship
      Monsignor Clement Kern Hospital for Special Surgery, Warren, MI1995Residency, Foot and Ankle Surgery
      California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, CADPM1993Podiatric Medicine
      Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA1989
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      General Surgery2017Top Author Commendation
      PM Magazine2017Most Influential Podiatric Surgeons
      University of Arizona2017University Distinguished Outreach Professor
      California School of Podiatric Medicine2017Heather Barton Alumnus Award
      National Academics of Practice2015Distinguished Fellow
      National Health Information Awards2013Gold Award
      University of Arizona/Tech Launch Arizona2013Leading Edge Researcher
      Brigham and Women's Hospital2013 Visiting Professor of Surgery
      University of Western Australia2013The Raine Visiting Professorship
      Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow2012Fellow
      Podiatry Management VIP List2011Most Influential Podiatric Surgeons
      American Diabetes Association 2010Roger Pecoraro Award
      Universidad Complutense, Madrid2008 Honorary Professor of Medicine
      Georgetown University2007Georgetown Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award in Diabetic Limb Salvage
      University of Manchester2006Visiting Professor of Medicine
      American Podiatric Medical Association2002Meritorious Service Award

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Roser MC, Canavan PK, Najafi B, Cooper Watchman M, Vaishnav K, Armstrong D. Novel In-Shoe Exoskeleton for Offloading of Forefoot Pressure for Individuals With Diabetic Foot Pathology. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Sep; 11(5):874-882. PMID: 28859516.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Muchna A, Najafi B, Wendel CS, Schwenk M, Armstrong D, Mohler J. Foot Problems in Older Adults: Associations with Incident Falls, Frailty Syndrome and Sensor-Derived Gait, Balance, and Physical Activity Measures. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 28853612.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Boghossian JA, Joseph B, Slepian MJ, Armstrong D. Remote Ischemic ConditioningPromising Potential in Wound Repair in Diabetes? J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2017 Jul; 107(4):313-317. PMID: 28880591.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Armstrong D, Boulton AJM, Bus SA. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Their Recurrence. N Engl J Med. 2017 06 15; 376(24):2367-2375. PMID: 28614678.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Keenan JB, Rajab TK, Armstrong D, Khalpey Z. Real-Time Autofluorescence Imaging to Diagnose LVAD Driveline Infections. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Jun; 103(6):e493-e495. PMID: 28528048.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Najafi B, Mohseni H, Grewal GS, Talal TK, Menzies RA, Armstrong D. An Optical-Fiber-Based Smart Textile (Smart Socks) to Manage Biomechanical Risk Factors Associated With Diabetic Foot Amputation. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):668-677. PMID: 28513212.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Skrepnek GH, Mills JL, Lavery LA, Armstrong D. Health Care Service and Outcomes Among an Estimated 6.7 Million Ambulatory Care Diabetic Foot Cases in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2017 Jul; 40(7):936-942. PMID: 28495903.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Ellul C, Formosa C, Gatt A, Hamadani AA, Armstrong D. The Effectiveness of Calf Muscle Electrostimulation on Vascular Perfusion and Walking Capacity in Patients Living With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Artery Disease. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2017 Jun; 16(2):122-128. PMID: 28682726.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Razjouyan J, Grewal GS, Talal TK, Armstrong D, Mills JL, Najafi B. Does Physiological Stress Slow Down Wound Healing in Patients With Diabetes? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):685-692. PMID: 28436270.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Rahemi H, Armstrong D, Enriquez A, Owl J, Talal TK, Najafi B. Lace Up for Healthy Feet: The Impact of Shoe Closure on Plantar Stress Response. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):678-684. PMID: 28420258.
        View in: PubMed
      11. MacLeod S, Musich S, Hawkins K, Armstrong D. The growing need for resources to help older adults manage their financial and healthcare choices. BMC Geriatr. 2017 Apr 11; 17(1):84. PMID: 28399818.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Ma B, Wl H, Je L, Dg A, B S, Kc J, Ls S. The Role of Computed Tomography in the Classification of Pediatric Pelvic Fractures-Revisited. J Orthop Trauma. 2017 Apr 10. PMID: 28406853.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Ong E, Farran S, Salloum M, Gardner S, Giovinco N, Armstrong D, Matthias KR, Nix DE, Al Mohajer M. Does Everything That's Counted Count? Value of Inflammatory Markers for Following Therapy and Predicting Outcome in Diabetic Foot Infection. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2017 Jun; 16(2):104-107. PMID: 28682724.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Patel N, Hatch D, Wells CM, Ahn D, Harris M, Jennings JA, Haggard W, Armstrong D. Characteristics and clinical assessment of antibiotic delivery by chitosan sponge in the high-risk diabetic foot: a case series. J Wound Care. 2017 Apr 01; 26(sup4):S32-S38. PMID: 28379101.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Tkatch R, Musich S, MacLeod S, Kraemer S, Hawkins K, Wicker ER, Armstrong D. A qualitative study to examine older adults' perceptions of health: Keys to aging successfully. Geriatr Nurs. 2017 Mar 22. PMID: 28341064.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Niederauer MQ, Michalek JE, Armstrong D. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Multicenter Study Comparing Continuous Diffusion of Oxygen Therapy to Sham Therapy in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Sep; 11(5):883-891. PMID: 28654304.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Najafi B, Talal TK, Grewal GS, Menzies R, Armstrong D, Lavery LA. Using Plantar Electrical Stimulation to Improve Postural Balance and Plantar Sensation Among Patients With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Double Blinded Study. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):693-701. PMID: 28627217.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Sessions JW, Armstrong D, Hope S, Jensen BD. A review of genetic engineering biotechnologies for enhanced chronic wound healing. Exp Dermatol. 2017 Feb; 26(2):179-185. PMID: 27574909.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Najafi B, Ron E, Enriquez A, Marin I, Razjouyan J, Armstrong D. Smarter Sole Survival: Will Neuropathic Patients at High Risk for Ulceration Use a Smart Insole-Based Foot Protection System? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):702-713. PMID: 28627227.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Barshes NR, Saedi S, Wrobel J, Kougias P, Kundakcioglu OE, Armstrong D. A model to estimate cost-savings in diabetic foot ulcer prevention efforts. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Apr; 31(4):700-707. PMID: 28153676.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Godoy-Santos AL, Amodio DT, Pires A, Lima AL, Wei TH, de Cesar-Netto C, Armstrong D. Diabetic limb salvage procedure with bone allograft and free flap transfer: a case report. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2017; 8(1):1270076. PMID: 28326158.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Armstrong D, Najafi B, Shahinpoor M. Potential Applications of Smart Multifunctional Wearable Materials to Gerontology. Gerontology. 2017; 63(3):287-298. PMID: 28076861.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Brigham EM, Armstrong D. Motivations for Compliance With Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2017 Jan; 5(1):46-51. PMID: 28038693.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Garay M, Hennrikus WL, Hess J, Lehman EB, Armstrong D. Lawnmowers Versus Children: The Devastation Continues. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017 Apr; 475(4):950-956. PMID: 27785676.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Joseph B, Armstrong D. Potential perils of peri-Pokémon perambulation: the dark reality of augmented reality? Oxf Med Case Reports. 2016 Oct; 2016(10):omw080. PMID: 27713831.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Zhao J, Deng W, Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Zhou L, Boey J, Armstrong D, Yang G, Liang Z, Chen B. Association between Serum Cystatin C and Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 2016:8029340. PMID: 27668262.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Sowa MG, Kuo WC, Ko AC, Armstrong D. Review of near-infrared methods for wound assessment. J Biomed Opt. 2016 Sep; 21(9):091304. PMID: 27087164.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Barshes NR, Flores E, Belkin M, Kougias P, Armstrong D, Mills JL. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of strategies used to identify peripheral artery disease among patients with diabetic foot ulcers. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Dec; 64(6):1682-1690.e3. PMID: 27575813.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Najafi B, Grewal GS, Bharara M, Menzies R, Talal TK, Armstrong D. Can't Stand the Pressure: The Association Between Unprotected Standing, Walking, and Wound Healing in People With Diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 11(4):657-667. PMID: 27510440.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Fanelli MG, Hennrikus WL, Slough Hill JM, Armstrong D, King SH. The Mini C-arm Adds Quality and Efficiency to the Pediatric Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic. Orthopedics. 2016 Nov 01; 39(6):e1097-e1099. PMID: 27504650.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Moffarah AS, Al Mohajer M, Hurwitz BL, Armstrong D. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug; 4(4). PMID: 27726817.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Luu CA, Larson E, Rankin TM, Pappalardo JL, Slepian MJ, Armstrong D. Plantar Fat Grafting and Tendon Balancing for the Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Remission. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2016 Jul; 4(7):e810. PMID: 27536489; PMCID: PMC4977138.
      33. Deng W, Boey J, Chen B, Byun S, Lew E, Liang Z, Armstrong D. Platelet-rich plasma, bilayered acellular matrix grafting and negative pressure wound therapy in diabetic foot infection. J Wound Care. 2016 Jul 02; 25(7):393-7. PMID: 27410393.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Armstrong D. CORR Insights(®): Is Assessment of Femoral Head Perfusion During Modified Dunn for Unstable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis an Accurate Indicator of Osteonecrosis? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 08; 474(8):1845-6. PMID: 27146656; PMCID: PMC4925418 [Available on 08/01/17].
      35. Lazo-Porras M, Bernabe-Ortiz A, Sacksteder KA, Gilman RH, Malaga G, Armstrong D, Miranda JJ. Implementation of foot thermometry plus mHealth to prevent diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2016 Apr 19; 17(1):206. PMID: 27094007; PMCID: PMC4837616.
      36. Ojalvo AG, Acosta JB, Marí YM, Mayola MF, Pérez CV, Gutiérrez WS, Marichal II, Seijas EÁ, Kautzman AM, Pacheco AE, Armstrong D. Healing enhancement of diabetic wounds by locally infiltrated epidermal growth factor is associated with systemic oxidative stress reduction. Int Wound J. 2017 Feb; 14(1):214-225. PMID: 27002919.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Bus SA, Armstrong D, van Deursen RW, Lewis JE, Caravaggi CF, Cavanagh PR. IWGDF guidance on footwear and offloading interventions to prevent and heal foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Jan; 32 Suppl 1:25-36. PMID: 26813614.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Bus SA, van Deursen RW, Armstrong D, Lewis JE, Caravaggi CF, Cavanagh PR. Footwear and offloading interventions to prevent and heal foot ulcers and reduce plantar pressure in patients with diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Jan; 32 Suppl 1:99-118. PMID: 26342178.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Armstrong D, Kleidermacher DN, Klonoff DC, Slepian MJ. Cybersecurity Regulation of Wireless Devices for Performance and Assurance in the Age of "Medjacking". J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015 Aug 27; 10(2):435-8. PMID: 26319227; PMCID: PMC4773954.
      40. Toosizadeh N, Mohler J, Armstrong D, Talal TK, Najafi B. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135255. PMID: 26258497; PMCID: PMC4530933.
      41. Skrepnek GH, Mills JL, Armstrong D. A Diabetic Emergency One Million Feet Long: Disparities and Burdens of Illness among Diabetic Foot Ulcer Cases within Emergency Departments in the United States, 2006-2010. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134914. PMID: 26248037; PMCID: PMC4527828.
      42. Armstrong D, Hurwitz BL, Lipsky BA. Set Phages to Stun: Reducing the Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Diabetes. 2015 Aug; 64(8):2701-3. PMID: 26207033.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Miller JD, Carter E, Shih J, Giovinco NA, Boulton AJ, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Erratum. J Fam Pract. 2015 Aug; 64(8):452. PMID: 26485265.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Landorf KB, Menz HB, Armstrong D, Herbert RD. Methodological quality of randomized trials published in the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 1999-2013. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2015 Jul; 105(4):320-9. PMID: 26218154.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Lew EJ, Mills JL, Armstrong D. The deteriorating DFU: prioritising risk factors to avoid amputation. J Wound Care. 2015 May; 24(5 Suppl 2):31-7. PMID: 26079165.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Armstrong D, Bohn G, Glat P, Kavros SJ, Kirsner R, Snyder R, Tettelbach W. Expert Recommendations for the Use of Hypochlorous Solution: Science and Clinical Application. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2015 May; 61(5):S2-S19. PMID: 28692424.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Grek CL, Prasad GM, Viswanathan V, Armstrong D, Gourdie RG, Ghatnekar GS. Topical administration of a connexin43-based peptide augments healing of chronic neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: A multicenter, randomized trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2015 Mar-Apr; 23(2):203-12. PMID: 25703647; PMCID: PMC4472499.
      48. Quinton TR, Lazzarini PA, Boyle FM, Russell AW, Armstrong D. How do Australian podiatrists manage patients with diabetes? The Australian diabetic foot management survey. J Foot Ankle Res. 2015; 8:16. PMID: 25908944; PMCID: PMC4407475.
      49. Grewal GS, Schwenk M, Lee-Eng J, Parvaneh S, Bharara M, Menzies RA, Talal TK, Armstrong D, Najafi B. Sensor-Based Interactive Balance Training with Visual Joint Movement Feedback for Improving Postural Stability in Diabetics with Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gerontology. 2015; 61(6):567-74. PMID: 25721132.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Zhan LX, Branco BC, Armstrong D, Mills JL. The Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system based on Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) correlates with risk of major amputation and time to wound healing. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Apr; 61(4):939-44. PMID: 25656592.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Marston WA, Armstrong D, Reyzelman AM, Kirsner RS. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers Using Mechanically Versus Electrically Powered Negative Pressure Wound Therapy. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2015 Feb 01; 4(2):75-82. PMID: 25713749.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Miller JD, Carter E, Hatch DC, Zhubrak M, Giovinco NA, Armstrong D. Use of collagenase ointment in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy in the care of diabetic wounds: a case series of six patients. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2015; 6:24999. PMID: 25630362; PMCID: PMC4309834.
      53. Miller JD, Rankin TM, Hua NT, Ontiveros T, Giovinco NA, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2015; 6:24972. PMID: 25623477; PMCID: PMC4306752.
      54. Spichler A, Hurwitz BL, Armstrong D, Lipsky BA. Microbiology of diabetic foot infections: from Louis Pasteur to 'crime scene investigation'. BMC Med. 2015 Jan 07; 13:2. PMID: 25564342; PMCID: PMC4286146.
      55. Sibbald RG, Mufti A, Armstrong D. Infrared skin thermometry: an underutilized cost-effective tool for routine wound care practice and patient high-risk diabetic foot self-monitoring. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2015 Jan; 28(1):37-44; quiz 45-6. PMID: 25502975.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Miller JD, Carter E, Shih J, Giovinco NA, Boulton AJ, Mills JL, Armstrong D. How to do a 3-minute diabetic foot exam. J Fam Pract. 2014 Nov; 63(11):646-56. PMID: 25362495.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Miller J, Armstrong D. Offloading the diabetic and ischemic foot: solutions for the vascular specialist. Semin Vasc Surg. 2014 Mar; 27(1):68-74. PMID: 25812760.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Giovinco NA, Sutton SM, Miller JD, Rankin TM, Gonzalez GW, Najafi B, Armstrong D. A passing glance? Differences in eye tracking and gaze patterns between trainees and experts reading plain film bunion radiographs. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015 May-Jun; 54(3):382-91. PMID: 25441848.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Skrepnek GH, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Foot-in-wallet disease: tripped up by "cost-saving" reductions? Diabetes Care. 2014 Sep; 37(9):e196-7. PMID: 25147261.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Miller JD, Salloum M, Button A, Giovinco NA, Armstrong D. How can I maintain my patient with diabetes and history of foot ulcer in remission? Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2014 Dec; 13(4):371-7. PMID: 25143315.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Ghatnekar GS, Grek CL, Armstrong D, Desai SC, Gourdie RG. The effect of a connexin43-based Peptide on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers: a multicenter, randomized trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jan; 135(1):289-298. PMID: 25072595; PMCID: PMC4269806.
      62. Skrepnek GH, Armstrong D, Mills JL. Open bypass and endovascular procedures among diabetic foot ulcer cases in the United States from 2001 to 2010. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Nov; 60(5):1255-64. PMID: 25017514.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Armstrong D, Hanft JR, Driver VR, Smith AP, Lazaro-Martinez JL, Reyzelman AM, Furst GJ, Vayser DJ, Cervantes HL, Snyder RJ, Moore MF, May PE, Nelson JL, Baggs GE, Voss AC. Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2014 Sep; 31(9):1069-77. PMID: 24867069; PMCID: PMC4232867.
      64. Armstrong D, Rankin TM, Giovinco NA, Mills JL, Matsuoka Y. A heads-up display for diabetic limb salvage surgery: a view through the google looking glass. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2014 Sep; 8(5):951-6. PMID: 24876445; PMCID: PMC4455368.
      65. Berlanga-Acosta J, Armstrong D, Schultz GS, Herrera-Martinez L. Chronic wounds with emphasis in diabetic foot ulcers. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:890352. PMID: 24757682; PMCID: PMC3976826.
      66. Isaac AL, Rose J, Armstrong D. Mechanically powered negative pressure wound therapy as a bolster for skin grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2014 Feb; 2(2):e103. PMID: 25289297; PMCID: PMC4173823.
      67. Rankin TM, Giovinco NA, Cucher DJ, Watts G, Hurwitz B, Armstrong D. Three-dimensional printing surgical instruments: are we there yet? J Surg Res. 2014 Jun 15; 189(2):193-7. PMID: 24721602; PMCID: PMC4460996.
      68. Rose JF, Giovinco N, Mills JL, Najafi B, Pappalardo J, Armstrong D. Split-thickness skin grafting the high-risk diabetic foot. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jun; 59(6):1657-63. PMID: 24518607.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Alavi A, Sibbald RG, Mayer D, Goodman L, Botros M, Armstrong D, Woo K, Boeni T, Ayello EA, Kirsner RS. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part I. Pathophysiology and prevention. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Jan; 70(1):1.e1-18; quiz 19-20. PMID: 24355275.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Alavi A, Sibbald RG, Mayer D, Goodman L, Botros M, Armstrong D, Woo K, Boeni T, Ayello EA, Kirsner RS. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Jan; 70(1):21.e1-24; quiz 45-6. PMID: 24355276.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Grewal GS, Sayeed R, Schwenk M, Bharara M, Menzies R, Talal TK, Armstrong D, Najafi B. Balance rehabilitation: promoting the role of virtual reality in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Nov-Dec; 103(6):498-507. PMID: 24297986.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Schwenk M, Jordan ED, Honarvararaghi B, Mohler J, Armstrong D, Najafi B. Effectiveness of foot and ankle exercise programs on reducing the risk of falling in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Nov-Dec; 103(6):534-47. PMID: 24297989.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Fujii M, Armstrong D, Armsrong DG, Terashi H. Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing diabetic foot osteomyelitis in the presence of ischemia. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013 Nov-Dec; 52(6):717-23. PMID: 24160720.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Najafi B, de Bruin ED, Reeves ND, Armstrong D, Menz HB. The role of podiatry in the prevention of falls in older people: a JAPMA special issue. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Nov-Dec; 103(6):452-6. PMID: 24297980.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Mills JL, Conte MS, Armstrong D, Pomposelli FB, Schanzer A, Sidawy AN, Andros G. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan; 59(1):220-34.e1-2. PMID: 24126108.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Barshes NR, Sigireddi M, Wrobel JS, Mahankali A, Robbins JM, Kougias P, Armstrong D. The system of care for the diabetic foot: objectives, outcomes, and opportunities. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2013 Oct 10; 4. PMID: 24130936; PMCID: PMC3796020.
      77. Liu RW, Armstrong D, Levine AD, Gilmore A, Thompson GH, Cooperman DR. An anatomic study of the distal femoral epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Oct-Nov; 33(7):743-9. PMID: 23812155.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Wukich DK, Armstrong D, Attinger CE, Boulton AJ, Burns PR, Frykberg RG, Hellman R, Kim PJ, Lipsky BA, Pile JC, Pinzur MS, Siminerio L. Inpatient management of diabetic foot disorders: a clinical guide. Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep; 36(9):2862-71. PMID: 23970716; PMCID: PMC3747877.
      79. Najafi B, Armstrong D, Mohler J. Novel wearable technology for assessing spontaneous daily physical activity and risk of falling in older adults with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013 Sep 01; 7(5):1147-60. PMID: 24124940; PMCID: PMC3876357.
      80. Zhubrak MS, Fisher TK, Armstrong D. Pedal pathology potentiated by personal pedicure procedures in the presence of painless peripheral neuropathy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Sep-Oct; 103(5):448-50. PMID: 24072378.
        View in: PubMed
      81. Armstrong D, Kanda VA, Lavery LA, Marston W, Mills JL, Boulton AJ. Mind the gap: disparity between research funding and costs of care for diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jul; 36(7):1815-7. PMID: 23801792; PMCID: PMC3687278.
      82. Armstrong D, Mills JL. Author’s response. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Jul-Aug; 103(4):344. PMID: 24040678.
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      83. Isaac AL, Armstrong D. Negative pressure wound therapy and other new therapies for diabetic foot ulceration: the current state of play. Med Clin North Am. 2013 Sep; 97(5):899-909. PMID: 23992900.
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      84. Morbach S, Icks A, Rümenapf G, Armstrong D. Comment on: Bernstein. Reducing foot wounds in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:e48. Diabetes Care. 2013 Apr; 36(4):e62. PMID: 23520386; PMCID: PMC3609533.
      85. Liu RW, Armstrong D, Levine AD, Gilmore A, Thompson GH, Cooperman DR. An anatomic study of the epiphyseal tubercle and its importance in the pathogenesis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Mar 20; 95(6):e341-8. PMID: 23515995.
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      86. Armstrong D, Mills JL. Toward a change in syntax in diabetic foot care: prevention equals remission. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Mar-Apr; 103(2):161-2. PMID: 23536510.
        View in: PubMed
      87. Braun JD, Trinidad-Hernandez M, Perry D, Armstrong D, Mills JL. Early quantitative evaluation of indocyanine green angiography in patients with critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2013 May; 57(5):1213-8. PMID: 23352361.
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      88. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, Pile JC, Peters EJ, Armstrong D, Deery HG, Embil JM, Joseph WS, Karchmer AW, Pinzur MS, Senneville E. 2012 infectious diseases society of america clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013 Jan-Feb; 103(1):2-7. PMID: 23328846.
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      89. Berlanga-Acosta J, Mendoza-Mari Y, Martínez MD, Valdés-Perez C, Ojalvo AG, Armstrong D. Expression of cell proliferation cycle negative regulators in fibroblasts of an ischemic diabetic foot ulcer. A clinical case report. Int Wound J. 2013 Apr; 10(2):232-6. PMID: 23194110.
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      90. Fiorito J, Trinidad-Hernadez M, Leykum B, Smith D, Mills JL, Armstrong D. A tale of two soles: sociomechanical and biomechanical considerations in diabetic limb salvage and amputation decision-making in the worst of times. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2012; 3. PMID: 23050063; PMCID: PMC3464045.
      91. Armstrong D, Bharara M, White M, Lepow B, Bhatnagar S, Fisher T, Kimbriel HR, Walters J, Goshima KR, Hughes J, Mills JL. The impact and outcomes of establishing an integrated interdisciplinary surgical team to care for the diabetic foot. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012 Sep; 28(6):514-8. PMID: 22431496.
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      92. Armstrong D, Andros G. Use of negative pressure wound therapy to help facilitate limb preservation. Int Wound J. 2012 Aug; 9 Suppl 1:1-7. PMID: 22727134.
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      93. Zhan LX, Bharara M, White M, Bhatnagar S, Lepow B, Armstrong D, Mills JL. Comparison of initial hemodynamic response after endovascular therapy and open surgical bypass in patients with diabetes mellitus and critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Aug; 56(2):380-6; discussion 386. PMID: 22840897.
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      94. Najafi B, Wrobel JS, Grewal G, Menzies RA, Talal TK, Zirie M, Armstrong D. Plantar Temperature Response to Walking in Diabetes with and without Acute Charcot: The Charcot Activity Response Test. J Aging Res. 2012; 2012:140968. PMID: 22900177; PMCID: PMC3413979.
      95. Morbach S, Furchert H, Gröblinghoff U, Hoffmeier H, Kersten K, Klauke GT, Klemp U, Roden T, Icks A, Haastert B, Rümenapf G, Abbas ZG, Bharara M, Armstrong D. Long-term prognosis of diabetic foot patients and their limbs: amputation and death over the course of a decade. Diabetes Care. 2012 Oct; 35(10):2021-7. PMID: 22815299; PMCID: PMC3447849.
      96. Armstrong D, Fiorito JL, Leykum BJ, Mills JL. Clinical efficacy of the pan metatarsal head resection as a curative procedure in patients with diabetes mellitus and neuropathic forefoot wounds. Foot Ankle Spec. 2012 Aug; 5(4):235-40. PMID: 22715496.
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      97. Balingit PP, Armstrong D, Reyzelman AM, Bolton L, Verco SJ, Rodgers KE, Nigh KA, diZerega GS. NorLeu3-A(1-7) stimulation of diabetic foot ulcer healing: results of a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2012 Jul-Aug; 20(4):482-90. PMID: 22672145.
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      98. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, Pile JC, Peters EJ, Armstrong D, Deery HG, Embil JM, Joseph WS, Karchmer AW, Pinzur MS, Senneville E. 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun; 54(12):e132-73. PMID: 22619242.
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      99. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, Pile JC, Peters EJ, Armstrong D, Deery HG, Embil JM, Joseph WS, Karchmer AW, Pinzur MS, Senneville E. Executive summary: 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun; 54(12):1679-84. PMID: 22619239.
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      100. Grewal G, Sayeed R, Yeschek S, Menzies RA, Talal TK, Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Najafi B. Virtualizing the assessment: a novel pragmatic paradigm to evaluate lower extremity joint perception in diabetes. Gerontology. 2012; 58(5):463-71. PMID: 22572476; PMCID: PMC3955209.
      101. Armstrong D, Marston WA, Reyzelman AM, Kirsner RS. Comparative effectiveness of mechanically and electrically powered negative pressure wound therapy devices: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2012 May-Jun; 20(3):332-41. PMID: 22564228.
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      102. Giovinco NA, Dunn SP, Dowling L, Smith C, Trowell L, Ruch JA, Armstrong D. A novel combination of printed 3-dimensional anatomic templates and computer-assisted surgical simulation for virtual preoperative planning in Charcot foot reconstruction. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2012 May-Jun; 51(3):387-93. PMID: 22366474.
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      103. Jensen B, Leykum B, Fiorito J, Woodruff D, Bharara M, Armstrong D. Adventitious bursae underlying chronic wounds: another possible deterrent to healing. Eplasty. 2012; 12:e14. PMID: 22389747; PMCID: PMC3286309.
      104. Lowery NJ, Woods JB, Armstrong D, Wukich DK. Surgical management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int. 2012 Feb; 33(2):113-21. PMID: 22381342.
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      105. Bharara M, Schoess J, Armstrong D. Coming events cast their shadows before: detecting inflammation in the acute diabetic foot and the foot in remission. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012 Feb; 28 Suppl 1:15-20. PMID: 22271717.
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      106. Fisher TK, Armstrong D. Your annual comprehensive foot exam. Diabetes Self Manag. 2012 Jan-Feb; 29(1):42-4. PMID: 22479811.
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      107. Perry D, Bharara M, Armstrong D, Mills J. Intraoperative fluorescence vascular angiography: during tibial bypass. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012 Jan 01; 6(1):204-8. PMID: 22401340; PMCID: PMC3320839.
      108. Bharara M, Najafi B, Armstrong D. Methodology for use of a neuroprosthetic to reduce plantar pressure: applications in patients with diabetic foot disease. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012 Jan 01; 6(1):222-4. PMID: 22401344; PMCID: PMC3320844.
      109. Armstrong D, Cohen K, Courric S, Bharara M, Marston W. Diabetic foot ulcers and vascular insufficiency: our population has changed, but our methods have not. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011 Nov 01; 5(6):1591-5. PMID: 22226282; PMCID: PMC3262731.
      110. Rogers LC, Frykberg RG, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ, Edmonds M, Van GH, Hartemann A, Game F, Jeffcoate W, Jirkovska A, Jude E, Morbach S, Morrison WB, Pinzur M, Pitocco D, Sanders L, Wukich DK, Uccioli L. The Charcot foot in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011 Sep-Oct; 101(5):437-46. PMID: 21957276.
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      111. Rogers LC, Frykberg RG, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ, Edmonds M, Van GH, Hartemann A, Game F, Jeffcoate W, Jirkovska A, Jude E, Morbach S, Morrison WB, Pinzur M, Pitocco D, Sanders L, Wukich DK, Uccioli L. The Charcot foot in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep; 34(9):2123-9. PMID: 21868781; PMCID: PMC3161273.
      112. Neiderer K, Walters J, Armstrong D, Inhat D, Kimbriel H. Feasibility, safety, and primary efficacy of DermaStream: a novel continuously streaming device for chronic wounds. Foot Ankle Spec. 2011 Aug; 4(4):222-5. PMID: 21868795.
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      113. Armstrong D. An overview of foot infections in diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Sep; 13(9):951-7. PMID: 21631279.
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      114. Fleischer AE, Wrobel JS, Leonards A, Berg S, Evans DP, Baron RL, Armstrong D. Post-treatment leukocytosis predicts an unfavorable clinical response in patients with moderate to severe diabetic foot infections. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011 Sep-Oct; 50(5):541-6. PMID: 21621432.
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      115. Armstrong D, Giovinco N, Mills JL, Rogers LC. FaceTime for Physicians: Using Real Time Mobile Phone-Based Videoconferencing to Augment Diagnosis and Care in Telemedicine. Eplasty. 2011 May 03; 11:e23. PMID: 21559249; PMCID: PMC3087505.
      116. Bowling FL, Crews RT, Salgami E, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. The use of superoxidized aqueous solution versus saline as a replacement solution in the versajet lavage system in chronic diabetic foot ulcers: a pilot study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011 Mar-Apr; 101(2):124-6. PMID: 21406695.
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      117. Frykberg RG, Driver VR, Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Isenberg RA. ????????????????The use of pulsed radio frequency energy therapy in treating lower extremity wounds: results of a retrospective study of a wound registry. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2011 Mar; 57(3):22-9. PMID: 21422480.
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      118. Armstrong D, Marston WA, Reyzelman AM, Kirsner RS. Comparison of negative pressure wound therapy with an ultraportable mechanically powered device vs. traditional electrically powered device for the treatment of chronic lower extremity ulcers: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2011 Mar-Apr; 19(2):173-80. PMID: 21362084.
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      119. Armstrong D, Giovinco NA. Diagnostics, theragnostics, and the personal health server: fundamental milestones in technology with revolutionary changes in diabetic foot and wound care to come. Foot Ankle Spec. 2011 Feb; 4(1):54-60. PMID: 21364176.
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      120. Armstrong D. Discussion. Update on negative-pressure wound therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Jan; 127 Suppl 1:116S. PMID: 21200281.
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      121. Gabbay RA, Kaul S, Ulbrecht J, Scheffler NM, Armstrong D. Motivational interviewing by podiatric physicians: a method for improving patient self-care of the diabetic foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011 Jan-Feb; 101(1):78-84. PMID: 21242475.
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      122. Mills JL, Armstrong D, Andros G. Rescuing sisyphus: the team approach to amputation prevention. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010 Sep-Oct; 100(5):315-6. PMID: 20847344.
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      123. Rogers LC, Andros G, Caporusso J, Harkless LB, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Toe and flow: essential components and structure of the amputation prevention team. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010 Sep-Oct; 100(5):342-8. PMID: 20847347.
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      124. Rogers LC, Andros G, Caporusso J, Harkless LB, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Toe and flow: essential components and structure of the amputation prevention team. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep; 52(3 Suppl):23S-27S. PMID: 20804929.
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      125. Mills JL, Armstrong D, Andros G. Rescuing Sisyphus: the team approach to amputation prevention. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep; 52(3 Suppl):1S-2S. PMID: 20804926.
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      126. Wu SC, Marston W, Armstrong D. Wound care: the role of advanced wound healing technologies. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep; 52(3 Suppl):59S-66S. PMID: 20804934.
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      127. Fisher TK, Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Mills JL, Armstrong D. A step-wise approach for surgical management of diabetic foot infections. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep; 52(3 Suppl):72S-75S. PMID: 20804936.
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      128. Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Fisher TK, Kimbriel H, Armstrong D. Novel use of platelet-rich plasma to augment curative diabetic foot surgery. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Sep 01; 4(5):1121-6. PMID: 20920431; PMCID: PMC2956802.
      129. Wu SC, Marston W, Armstrong D. Wound care: the role of advanced wound-healing technologies. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010 Sep-Oct; 100(5):385-94. PMID: 20847352.
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      130. Fisher TK, Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Mills JL, Armstrong D. A stepwise approach for surgical management of diabetic foot infections. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010 Sep-Oct; 100(5):401-5. PMID: 20847354.
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      131. Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Fisher TK, Kimbriel H, Mills JL, Armstrong D. An update on pharmacological interventions for diabetic foot ulcers. Foot Ankle Spec. 2010 Oct; 3(5):285-302. PMID: 20685955.
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      132. Bharara M, Schoess J, Nouvong A, Armstrong D. Wound inflammatory index: a "proof of concept" study to assess wound healing trajectory. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Jul 01; 4(4):773-9. PMID: 20663437; PMCID: PMC2909505.
      133. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Armstrong D, Andros G. Digital planimetry results in more accurate wound measurements: a comparison to standard ruler measurements. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Jul 01; 4(4):799-802. PMID: 20663440; PMCID: PMC2909508.
      134. Biswas A, Bharara M, Hurst C, Armstrong D, Rilo H. The micrograft concept for wound healing: strategies and applications. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Jul 01; 4(4):808-19. PMID: 20663442; PMCID: PMC2909510.
      135. Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Fisher TK, Kimbriel H, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Novel use of insulin in continuous-instillation negative pressure wound therapy as "wound chemotherapy". J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Jul 01; 4(4):820-4. PMID: 20663443; PMCID: PMC2909511.
      136. Sumpio BE, Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Andros G. The role of interdisciplinary team approach in the management of the diabetic foot: a joint statement from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Podiatric Medical Association. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010 Jul-Aug; 100(4):309-11. PMID: 20660885.
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      137. Bowling FL, Metcalfe SA, Wu S, Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. Liquid silicone to mitigate plantar pedal pressure: a literature review. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Jul 01; 4(4):846-52. PMID: 20663447; PMCID: PMC2909515.
      138. Scimeca CL, Bharara M, Fisher TK, Giovinco N, Armstrong D. Novel use of doxycycline in continuous-instillation negative pressure wound therapy as "wound chemotherapy". Foot Ankle Spec. 2010 Aug; 3(4):190-3. PMID: 20530632.
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      139. Sumpio BE, Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Andros G. The role of interdisciplinary team approach in the management of the diabetic foot: a joint statement from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Podiatric Medical Association. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Jun; 51(6):1504-6. PMID: 20488327.
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      140. Scimeca CL, Fisher TK, Bharara M, Armstrong D. Chronic, painful lower extremity wounds: postoperative pain management through the use of continuous infusion of regional anaesthesia supplied by a portable pump device. Int Wound J. 2010 Jun; 7(3):195-8. PMID: 20602650.
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      141. Fisher TK, Wolcott R, Wolk DM, Bharara M, Kimbriel HR, Armstrong D. Diabetic foot infections: A need for innovative assessments. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2010 Mar; 9(1):31-6. PMID: 20207621.
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      142. Giovinco NA, Bui TD, Fisher T, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Wound chemotherapy by the use of negative pressure wound therapy and infusion. Eplasty. 2010 Jan 08; 10:e9. PMID: 20090841; PMCID: PMC2806786.
      143. Wrobel JS, Chagares W, Stuck RM, Weaver F, Crews RT, Rapacki L, Paulson R, Armstrong D. Creating a diabetes foot reminder-based registry using the electronic medical record. Inform Prim Care. 2010; 18(4):283-7. PMID: 22040855.
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      144. Najafi B, Crews RT, Armstrong D, Rogers LC, Aminian K, Wrobel J. Can we predict outcome of surgical reconstruction of Charcot neuroarthropathy by dynamic plantar pressure assessment?--A proof of concept study. Gait Posture. 2010 Jan; 31(1):87-92. PMID: 19836956.
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      145. Armstrong D. Manuka honey improved wound healing in patients with sloughy venous leg ulcers. Evid Based Med. 2009 Oct; 14(5):148. PMID: 19794023.
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      146. Armstrong D. Common foot problems and their solutions. Diabetes Self Manag. 2009 Sep-Oct; 26(5):64-7. PMID: 19873817.
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      147. Clark J, Bharara M, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Letter: use of cotton cast padding instead of gauze wrap as a secondary dressing for high-risk wounds. Int Wound J. 2009 Aug; 6(4):303-5. PMID: 19719527.
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      148. Clark J, Mills JL, Armstrong D. A method of external fixation to offload and protect the foot following reconstruction in high-risk patients: the SALSAstand. Eplasty. 2009 Jun 04; 9:e21. PMID: 19578534; PMCID: PMC2697004.
      149. Griffis CD, Metcalfe S, Bowling FL, Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. The use of gentamycin-impregnated foam in the management of diabetic foot infections: a promising delivery system? Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009 Jun; 6(6):639-42. PMID: 19519289.
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      150. Armstrong D, Boulton AJ, Andros G, Attinger C, Eisenbud D, Lavery LA, Lipsky BA, Mills JL, Sibbald G, Smith AP, Wukich D, Margolis DJ. Defining success in clinical trials of diabetic foot wounds: the Los Angeles DFCon consensus. Int Wound J. 2009 Jun; 6(3):211-3. PMID: 19538193.
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      151. Bowling FL, Stickings DS, Edwards-Jones V, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination. J Foot Ankle Res. 2009 May 08; 2:13. PMID: 19426486; PMCID: PMC2694772.
      152. Fitzgerald RH, Mills JL, Joseph W, Armstrong D. The diabetic rapid response acute foot team: 7 essential skills for targeted limb salvage. Eplasty. 2009; 9:e15. PMID: 19436764; PMCID: PMC2680239.
      153. Cardinal M, Eisenbud DE, Armstrong D, Zelen C, Driver V, Attinger C, Phillips T, Harding K. Serial surgical debridement: a retrospective study on clinical outcomes in chronic lower extremity wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2009 May-Jun; 17(3):306-11. PMID: 19660037.
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      154. Reyzelman A, Crews RT, Moore JC, Moore L, Mukker JS, Offutt S, Tallis A, Turner WB, Vayser D, Winters C, Armstrong D. Clinical effectiveness of an acellular dermal regenerative tissue matrix compared to standard wound management in healing diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Int Wound J. 2009 Jun; 6(3):196-208. PMID: 19368581.
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      155. Fitzgerald RH, Bharara M, Mills JL, Armstrong D. Use of a Nanoflex powder dressing for wound management following debridement for necrotising fasciitis in the diabetic foot. Int Wound J. 2009 Apr; 6(2):133-9. PMID: 19432662.
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      156. Cardinal M, Phillips T, Eisenbud DE, Harding K, Mansbridge J, Armstrong D. Nonlinear modeling of venous leg ulcer healing rates. BMC Dermatol. 2009 Mar 31; 9:2. PMID: 19335882; PMCID: PMC2672927.
      157. Crews RT, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. A method for assessing off-loading compliance. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009 Mar-Apr; 99(2):100-3. PMID: 19299344.
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      158. Cardinal M, Eisenbud DE, Armstrong D. Wound shape geometry measurements correlate to eventual wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2009 Mar-Apr; 17(2):173-8. PMID: 19320884.
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      159. Lavery LA, Peters EJ, Armstrong D, Wendel CS, Murdoch DP, Lipsky BA. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Mar; 83(3):347-52. PMID: 19117631.
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      160. Rogers LC, Armstrong D. Pregabalin for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan; 5(1):14-5. PMID: 19015648.
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      161. Fleischer AE, Didyk AA, Woods JB, Burns SE, Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. Combined clinical and laboratory testing improves diagnostic accuracy for osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009 Jan-Feb; 48(1):39-46. PMID: 19110158.
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      162. Boulton AJ, Armstrong D, Albert SF, Frykberg RG, Hellman R, Kirkman MS, Lavery LA, LeMaster JW, Mills JL, Mueller MJ, Sheehan P, Wukich DK. Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment. A report of the Task Force of the Foot Care Interest Group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Phys Ther. 2008 Nov; 88(11):1436-43. PMID: 19137633.
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      163. Armstrong D, Ayello EA, Capitulo KL, Fowler E, Krasner DL, Levine JM, Sibbald RG, Smith AP. New opportunities to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: implications of the CMS inpatient hospital care present on admission indicators/hospital-acquired conditions policy: a consensus paper from the International Expert Wound Care Advisory Panel. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008 Oct; 21(10):469-78. PMID: 18836326.
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      164. Armstrong D, Ayello EA, Capitulo KL, Fowler E, Krasner DL, Levine JM, Sibbald RG, Smith AP. New opportunities to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: implications of the CMS inpatient hospital care Present on Admission (POA) indicators/hospital-acquired conditions (HAC) policy. A consensus paper from the International Expert Wound Care Advisory Panel. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008 Sep-Oct; 35(5):485-92. PMID: 18794700.
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      165. Wu SC, Jensen JL, Weber AK, Robinson DE, Armstrong D. Use of pressure offloading devices in diabetic foot ulcers: do we practice what we preach? Diabetes Care. 2008 Nov; 31(11):2118-9. PMID: 18694976; PMCID: PMC2571059.
      166. Boulton AJ, Armstrong D, Albert SF, Frykberg RG, Hellman R, Kirkman MS, Lavery LA, Lemaster JW, Mills JL, Mueller MJ, Sheehan P, Wukich DK. Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the task force of the foot care interest group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug; 31(8):1679-85. PMID: 18663232; PMCID: PMC2494620.
      167. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Malik RA, Armstrong D. Neuropathy in diabetes: not a knee-jerk diagnosis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 Jul-Aug; 98(4):322-5. PMID: 18685055.
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      168. Boulton AJ, Armstrong D, Albert SF, Frykberg RG, Hellman R, Kirkman MS, Lavery LA, LeMaster JW, Mills JL, Mueller MJ, Sheehan P, Wukich DK. Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment. Endocr Pract. 2008 Jul-Aug; 14(5):576-83. PMID: 18753100.
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      169. Klein EE, Crews RT, Wu SC, Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. CLEAR Cleat: a proof-of-concept trial of an aerobic activity facilitator to reduce plantar forefoot pressures and their potential in those with foot ulcers. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 Jul-Aug; 98(4):261-7. PMID: 18685045.
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      170. Wu SC, Armstrong D. Clinical outcome of diabetic foot ulcers treated with negative pressure wound therapy and the transition from acute care to home care. Int Wound J. 2008 Jun; 5 Suppl 2:10-6. PMID: 18577133.
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      171. Lavery LA, Peters EJ, Armstrong D. What are the most effective interventions in preventing diabetic foot ulcers? Int Wound J. 2008 Jun; 5(3):425-33. PMID: 18593392.
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      172. Wu SC, Crews RT, Zelen C, Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. Use of chlorhexidine-impregnated patch at pin site to reduce local morbidity: the ChIPPS Pilot Trial. Int Wound J. 2008 Jun; 5(3):416-22. PMID: 18205786.
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      173. Armstrong D, Bluman EM, Gould L, Zgonis T. Wound care. Foot Ankle Spec. 2008 Jun; 1(3):177-9. PMID: 19825713.
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      174. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Wrobel JS, Vileikyte L. Quality of life in healing diabetic wounds: does the end justify the means? J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008 Jul-Aug; 47(4):278-82. PMID: 18590888.
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      175. Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. Reliability and validity of current physical examination techniques of the foot and ankle. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 May-Jun; 98(3):197-206. PMID: 18487593.
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      176. Bevilacqua NJ, Rogers LC, Armstrong D. Diabetic foot surgery: classifying patients to predict complications. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 May-Jun; 24 Suppl 1:S81-3. PMID: 18357584.
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      177. Apelqvist J, Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Boulton AJ. Resource utilization and economic costs of care based on a randomized trial of vacuum-assisted closure therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot wounds. Am J Surg. 2008 Jun; 195(6):782-8. PMID: 18355797.
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      178. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Dellacorte MP, Francis K, Armstrong D. Charcot's arthropathy in a patient with HIV-associated neuropathy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr; 98(2):153-5. PMID: 18347127.
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      179. Rogers LC, Lavery LA, Armstrong D. The right to bear legs--an amendment to healthcare: how preventing amputations can save billions for the US Health-care System. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr; 98(2):166-8. PMID: 18348977.
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      180. Bevilacqua NJ, Dankert JP, Rogers LC, Armstrong D. A technique to protect external fixation devices. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008 Mar-Apr; 47(2):172-4. PMID: 18312927.
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      181. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Armstrong D. The use of marrow-derived stem cells to accelerate healing in chronic wounds. Int Wound J. 2008 Mar; 5(1):20-5. PMID: 18179555.
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      182. Bevilacqua NJ, Rogers LC, DellaCorte MP, Armstrong D. The narrowed forefoot at 1 year: an advanced approach for wound closure after central ray amputations. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2008 Jan; 25(1):127-33, viii. PMID: 18165117.
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      183. Lavery LA, Armstrong D. Temperature monitoring to assess, predict, and prevent diabetic foot complications. Curr Diab Rep. 2007 Dec; 7(6):416-9. PMID: 18255002.
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      184. Armstrong D, Wrobel J, Robbins JM. Guest Editorial: are diabetes-related wounds and amputations worse than cancer? Int Wound J. 2007 Dec; 4(4):286-7. PMID: 18154621.
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      185. Rogers LC, Andros G, Armstrong D. Update from the Diabetic Foot Global Conference (DFCon) 2007. Int Wound J. 2007 Dec; 4(4):295-7. PMID: 18154623.
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      186. Armstrong D, Holtz-Neiderer K, Wendel C, Mohler MJ, Kimbriel HR, Lavery LA. Skin temperature monitoring reduces the risk for diabetic foot ulceration in high-risk patients. Am J Med. 2007 Dec; 120(12):1042-6. PMID: 18060924.
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      187. Armstrong D. Addition of surgical correction to compression therapy reduced recurrences in chronic venous leg ulceration. ACP J Club. 2007 Nov-Dec; 147(3):73. PMID: 17975875.
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      188. Martínez-De Jesús FR, Ramos-De la Medina A, Remes-Troche JM, Armstrong D, Wu SC, Lázaro Martínez JL, Beneit-Montesinos JV. Efficacy and safety of neutral pH superoxidised solution in severe diabetic foot infections. Int Wound J. 2007 Dec; 4(4):353-62. PMID: 17953678.
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      189. Lavery LA, Barnes SA, Keith MS, Seaman JW, Armstrong D. Prediction of healing for postoperative diabetic foot wounds based on early wound area progression. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jan; 31(1):26-9. PMID: 17934156.
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      190. Wu SC, Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. Assessing the impact of pharmacologic intervention on the quality of life in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Pain Med. 2007 Sep; 8 Suppl 2:S33-42. PMID: 17714114.
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      191. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Frykberg RG, Armstrong D. Predictors of postoperative complications of Ilizarov external ring fixators in the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007 Sep-Oct; 46(5):372-5. PMID: 17761322.
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      192. Armstrong D, Chappell AS, Le TK, Kajdasz DK, Backonja M, D'Souza DN, Russell JM. Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: evaluation of functional outcomes. Pain Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 8(5):410-8. PMID: 17661854.
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      193. Peters EJ, Armstrong D, Lavery LA. Risk factors for recurrent diabetic foot ulcers: site matters. Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug; 30(8):2077-9. PMID: 17507693.
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      194. Lipsky BA, Sheehan P, Armstrong D, Tice AD, Polis AB, Abramson MA. Clinical predictors of treatment failure for diabetic foot infections: data from a prospective trial. Int Wound J. 2007 Mar; 4(1):30-8. PMID: 17425547.
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      195. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Boulton AJ. Negative pressure wound therapy via vacuum-assisted closure following partial foot amputation: what is the role of wound chronicity? Int Wound J. 2007 Mar; 4(1):79-86. PMID: 17425550.
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      196. Scher RK, Tavakkol A, Sigurgeirsson B, Hay RJ, Joseph WS, Tosti A, Fleckman P, Ghannoum M, Armstrong D, Markinson BC, Elewski BE. Onychomycosis: diagnosis and definition of cure. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Jun; 56(6):939-44. PMID: 17307276.
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      197. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Peters EJ, Lipsky BA. Probe-to-bone test for diagnosing diabetic foot osteomyelitis: reliable or relic? Diabetes Care. 2007 Feb; 30(2):270-4. PMID: 17259493.
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      198. Rogers LC, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ, Freemont AJ, Malik RA. Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as a diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetes Care. 2007 Feb; 30(2):444-5. PMID: 17259529.
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      199. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Murdoch DP, Peters EJ, Lipsky BA. Validation of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's diabetic foot infection classification system. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15; 44(4):562-5. PMID: 17243061.
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      200. Wu SC, Driver VR, Wrobel JS, Armstrong D. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007; 3(1):65-76. PMID: 17583176; PMCID: PMC1994045.
      201. Lyons TE, Miller MS, Serena T, Sheehan P, Lavery L, Kirsner RS, Armstrong D, Reese A, Yankee EW, Veves A. Talactoferrin alfa, a recombinant human lactoferrin promotes healing of diabetic neuropathic ulcers: a phase 1/2 clinical study. Am J Surg. 2007 Jan; 193(1):49-54. PMID: 17188087.
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      202. Lavery LA, Higgins KR, Lanctot DR, Constantinides GP, Zamorano RG, Athanasiou KA, Armstrong D, Agrawal CM. Preventing diabetic foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients: use of temperature monitoring as a self-assessment tool. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jan; 30(1):14-20. PMID: 17192326.
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      203. Armstrong D, Lipsky BA, Polis AB, Abramson MA. Does dermal thermometry predict clinical outcome in diabetic foot infection? Analysis of data from the SIDESTEP* trial. Int Wound J. 2006 Dec; 3(4):302-7. PMID: 17199766.
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      204. Rogers LC, Bevilacqua NJ, Armstrong D. Ertapenem for diabetic foot infections. Drugs Today (Barc). 2006 Nov; 42(11):695-701. PMID: 17171188.
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      205. Wrobel JS, Robbins J, Armstrong D. The high-low amputation ratio: a deeper insight into diabetic foot care? J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006 Nov-Dec; 45(6):375-9. PMID: 17145462.
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      206. Frykberg RG, Zgonis T, Armstrong D, Driver VR, Giurini JM, Kravitz SR, Landsman AS, Lavery LA, Moore JC, Schuberth JM, Wukich DK, Andersen C, Vanore JV. Diabetic foot disorders. A clinical practice guideline (2006 revision). J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct; 45(5 Suppl):S1-66. PMID: 17280936.
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      207. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Frykberg RG, Wu SC, Boulton AJ. Validation of a diabetic foot surgery classification. Int Wound J. 2006 Sep; 3(3):240-6. PMID: 16984580.
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      208. Nixon BP, Armstrong D, Wendell C, Vazquez JR, Rabinovich Z, Kimbriel HR, Rosales MA, Boulton AJ. Do US veterans wear appropriately sized shoes?: the Veterans Affairs shoe size selection study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006 Jul-Aug; 96(4):290-2. PMID: 16868320.
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      209. Lavery LA, Armstrong D. ACFAS scoring scale: ready, fire, aim? J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006 Jul-Aug; 45(4):284-5; author reply 285-6. PMID: 16818159.
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      210. Rosales MA, Martin BR, Armstrong D, Nixon BP, Hall HR. Verrucous hyperplasia: a common and problematic finding in the high-risk diabetic foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006 Jul-Aug; 96(4):348-50. PMID: 16868329.
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      211. Wu SC, Armstrong D. The role of activity, adherence, and off-loading on the healing of diabetic foot wounds. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun; 117(7 Suppl):248S-253S. PMID: 16799393.
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      212. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Wunderlich RP, Mohler MJ, Wendel CS, Lipsky BA. Risk factors for foot infections in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun; 29(6):1288-93. PMID: 16732010.
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      213. Andros G, Armstrong D, Attinger CE, Boulton AJ, Frykberg RG, Joseph WS, Lavery LA, Morbach S, Niezgoda JA, Toursarkissian B. Consensus statement on negative pressure wound therapy (V.A.C. Therapy) for the management of diabetic foot wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006 Jun; Suppl:1-32. PMID: 17007488.
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      214. Jeffcoate WJ, Game FL, Armstrong D, Cavanagh PR. Acute neuropathic joint disease: a medical emergency? Diabetes Care. 2006 Apr; 29(4):951-2; author reply 952. PMID: 16602195.
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      215. Armstrong D, Lavery LA. A retrospective study of patients with diabetes mellitus after partial foot amputation and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb; 45(1):58-9; author reply 59-60. PMID: 16399564.
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      216. Wu SC, Crews RT, Armstrong D. The pivotal role of offloading in the management of neuropathic foot ulceration. Curr Diab Rep. 2005 Dec; 5(6):423-9. PMID: 16316592.
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      217. Lipsky BA, Armstrong D, Citron DM, Tice AD, Morgenstern DE, Abramson MA. Ertapenem versus piperacillin/tazobactam for diabetic foot infections (SIDESTEP): prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2005 Nov 12; 366(9498):1695-703. PMID: 16291062.
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      218. Armstrong D, Lavery LA. Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Nov 12; 366(9498):1704-10. PMID: 16291063.
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      219. Armstrong D, Rosales MA, Gashi A. Efficacy of fifth metatarsal head resection for treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulceration. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 Jul-Aug; 95(4):353-6. PMID: 16037550.
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      220. Martin BR, Sangalang M, Wu S, Armstrong D. Outcomes of allogenic acellular matrix therapy in treatment of diabetic foot wounds: an initial experience. Int Wound J. 2005 Jun; 2(2):161-5. PMID: 16722865.
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      221. Armstrong D, Holtz K, Wu S. Can the use of a topical antifungal nail lacquer reduce risk for diabetic foot ulceration? Results from a randomised controlled pilot study. Int Wound J. 2005 Jun; 2(2):166-70. PMID: 16722866.
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      222. Armstrong D, Salas P, Short B, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Maggot therapy in "lower-extremity hospice" wound care: fewer amputations and more antibiotic-free days. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 May-Jun; 95(3):254-7. PMID: 15901812.
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      223. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Wu S, Boulton AJ. Evaluation of removable and irremovable cast walkers in the healing of diabetic foot wounds: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2005 Mar; 28(3):551-4. PMID: 15735186.
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      224. Katz IA, Harlan A, Miranda-Palma B, Prieto-Sanchez L, Armstrong D, Bowker JH, Mizel MS, Boulton AJ. A randomized trial of two irremovable off-loading devices in the management of plantar neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 2005 Mar; 28(3):555-9. PMID: 15735187.
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      225. Armstrong D, Sangalang MB, Jolley D, Maben F, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Cohen IK. Cooling the foot to prevent diabetic foot wounds: a proof-of-concept trial. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 Mar-Apr; 95(2):103-7. PMID: 15778466.
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      226. Wu S, Armstrong D. Risk assessment of the diabetic foot and wound. Int Wound J. 2005 Mar; 2(1):17-24. PMID: 16722851.
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      227. Peters EJ, Lavery LA, Armstrong D. Diabetic lower extremity infection: influence of physical, psychological, and social factors. J Diabetes Complications. 2005 Mar-Apr; 19(2):107-12. PMID: 15745841.
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      228. Singh N, Armstrong D, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2005 Jan 12; 293(2):217-28. PMID: 15644549.
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      229. Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. Whither progress in the diabetic foot--clinical and research? Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2004 Dec; 3(4):182-3. PMID: 15866812.
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      230. Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. Pressure offloading and "advanced" wound healing: isn't it finally time for an arranged marriage? Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2004 Dec; 3(4):184-7. PMID: 15866813.
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      231. DeBrule MB, Mott RC, Funk C, Nixon BP, Armstrong D. Osseous metaplasia in plantar fibromatosis: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004 Nov-Dec; 43(6):430-2. PMID: 15605059.
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      232. Lavery LA, Higgins KR, Lanctot DR, Constantinides GP, Zamorano RG, Armstrong D, Athanasiou KA, Agrawal CM. Home monitoring of foot skin temperatures to prevent ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov; 27(11):2642-7. PMID: 15504999.
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      233. Shih AT, Quint RE, Armstrong D, Nixon BP. Treatment of Freiberg's infraction with the titanium hemi-implant. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004 Nov-Dec; 94(6):590-3. PMID: 15547129.
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      234. Armstrong D, Kunze K, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Plantar pressure changes using a novel negative pressure wound therapy technique. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004 Sep-Oct; 94(5):456-60. PMID: 15377721.
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      235. Rosales MA, Bruntz M, Armstrong D. Gamma-irradiated human skin allograft: a potential treatment modality for lower extremity ulcers. Int Wound J. 2004 Sep; 1(3):201-6. PMID: 16722878.
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      236. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Holtz-Neiderer K, Mohler MJ, Wendel CS, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Variability in activity may precede diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2004 Aug; 27(8):1980-4. PMID: 15277427.
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      237. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. It's not what you put on, but what you take off: techniques for debriding and off-loading the diabetic foot wound. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 01; 39 Suppl 2:S92-9. PMID: 15306986.
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      238. Rosales A, Vazquez JR, Short B, Kimbriel HR, Claxton MJ, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. Use of a maggot motility index to evaluate survival of therapeutic larvae. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004 Jul-Aug; 94(4):353-5. PMID: 15265993.
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      239. Armstrong D, Lipsky BA. Diabetic foot infections: stepwise medical and surgical management. Int Wound J. 2004 Jun; 1(2):123-32. PMID: 16722884.
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      240. Armstrong D, Attinger CE, Boulton AJ, Frykberg RG, Kirsner RS, Lavery LA, Mills JL. Guidelines regarding negative wound therapy (NPWT) in the diabetic foot. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004 Apr; 50(4B Suppl):3S-27S. PMID: 15311482.
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      241. Armstrong D, Lipsky BA. Advances in the treatment of diabetic foot infections. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2004 Apr; 6(2):167-77. PMID: 15117583.
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      242. Armstrong D, Boulton AJ, Banwell P. Negative pressure wound therapy in treatment of diabetic foot wounds: a marriage of modalities. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004 Apr; 50(4A Suppl):9-12. PMID: 15317237.
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      243. Armstrong D, Lavery LA. Decreasing foot pressures while implementing topical negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2004 Mar; 3(1):12-5. PMID: 15866783.
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      244. Armstrong D, Gildenhuys A, Holtz-Neiderer K. Computerized activity monitoring preoperatively and postoperatively. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr; 43(2):131-3. PMID: 15057862.
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      245. Abouaesha F, van Schie CH, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. Plantar soft-tissue thickness predicts high peak plantar pressure in the diabetic foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004 Jan-Feb; 94(1):39-42. PMID: 14729989.
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      246. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Vazquez JR, Short B, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Clinical efficacy of the first metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty as a curative procedure for hallux interphalangeal joint wounds in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec; 26(12):3284-7. PMID: 14633815.
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      247. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Wunderlich RP, Boulton AJ. 2003 William J. Stickel Silver Award. Skin temperatures as a one-time screening tool do not predict future diabetic foot complications. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2003 Nov-Dec; 93(6):443-7. PMID: 14623988.
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      248. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Activity patterns of patients with diabetic foot ulceration: patients with active ulceration may not adhere to a standard pressure off-loading regimen. Diabetes Care. 2003 Sep; 26(9):2595-7. PMID: 12941724.
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      249. Armstrong D, Stephan KT, Espensen EH, Lipsky BA, Boulton AJ. What is the shelf life of physician-mixed antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate pellets? J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003 Sep-Oct; 42(5):302-4. PMID: 14566723.
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      250. Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. Trials in neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: time for a paradigm shift? Diabetes Care. 2003 Sep; 26(9):2689-90. PMID: 12941739.
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      251. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Wunderlich RP, Tredwell J, Boulton AJ. Diabetic foot syndrome: evaluating the prevalence and incidence of foot pathology in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites from a diabetes disease management cohort. Diabetes Care. 2003 May; 26(5):1435-8. PMID: 12716801.
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      252. Sibbald RG, Armstrong D, Orsted HL. Pain in diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2003 Apr; 49(4 Suppl):24-9. PMID: 12856290.
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      253. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Wunderlich RP, Tredwell J, Boulton AJ. Predictive value of foot pressure assessment as part of a population-based diabetes disease management program. Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr; 26(4):1069-73. PMID: 12663575.
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      254. Claxton MJ, Armstrong D, Short B, Vazquez JR, Boulton AJ. 5 questions--and answers--about maggot debridement therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2003 Mar-Apr; 16(2):99-102. PMID: 12690234.
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      255. Vazquez JR, Short B, Findlow AH, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ, Armstrong D. Outcomes of hyaluronan therapy in diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Feb; 59(2):123-7. PMID: 12560161.
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      256. Claxton MJ, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. Healing the diabetic wound and keeping it healed: modalities for the early 21st century. Curr Diab Rep. 2002 Dec; 2(6):510-8. PMID: 12643158.
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      257. Lavery LA, Armstrong D, Boulton AJ. Ankle equinus deformity and its relationship to high plantar pressure in a large population with diabetes mellitus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Oct; 92(9):479-82. PMID: 12381796.
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      258. Cavanagh PR, Boulton AJ, Sheehan P, Ulbrecht JS, Caputo GM, Armstrong D. Therapeutic footwear in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2002 Sep 11; 288(10):1231; author reply 1232-3. PMID: 12215125.
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      259. Knowles EA, Armstrong D, Hayat SA, Khawaja KI, Malik RA, Boulton AJ. Offloading diabetic foot wounds using the scotchcast boot: a retrospective study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2002 Sep; 48(9):50-3. PMID: 12271734.
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      260. Espensen EH, Nixon BP, Lavery LA, Armstrong D. Use of subatmospheric (VAC) therapy to improve bioengineered tissue grafting in diabetic foot wounds. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug; 92(7):395-7. PMID: 12122126.
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      261. van Schie CH, Whalley A, Armstrong D, Vileikyte L, Boulton AJ. The effect of silicone injections in the diabetic foot on peak plantar pressure and plantar tissue thickness: a 2-year follow-up. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Jul; 83(7):919-23. PMID: 12098150.
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      262. Armstrong D, Peters EJ. Charcot's arthropathy of the foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug; 92(7):390-4. PMID: 12122125.
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      263. Armstrong D, Mossel J, Short B, Nixon BP, Knowles EA, Boulton AJ. Maggot debridement therapy: a primer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug; 92(7):398-401. PMID: 12122127.
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      264. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Vazquez JR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. How and why to surgically debride neuropathic diabetic foot wounds. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug; 92(7):402-4. PMID: 12122128.
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      265. Armstrong D, Short B, Espensen EH, Abu-Rumman PL, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Technique for fabrication of an "instant total-contact cast" for treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug; 92(7):405-8. PMID: 12122129.
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      266. Caselli A, Pham H, Giurini JM, Armstrong D, Veves A. The forefoot-to-rearfoot plantar pressure ratio is increased in severe diabetic neuropathy and can predict foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2002 Jun; 25(6):1066-71. PMID: 12032116.
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      267. Espensen EH, Nixon BP, Armstrong D. Chemical matrixectomy for ingrown toenails: Is there an evidence basis to guide therapy? J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 May; 92(5):287-95. PMID: 12015409.
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      268. Armstrong D, Lavery LA, Abu-Rumman P, Espensen EH, Vazquez JR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Outcomes of subatmospheric pressure dressing therapy on wounds of the diabetic foot. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2002 Apr; 48(4):64-8. PMID: 11993062.
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      269. Frykberg RG, Armstrong D. The Diabetic Foot 2001. A summary of the proceedings of the American Diabetes Association's 61st Scientific Symposium. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jan; 92(1):2-6. PMID: 11796792.
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      270. Abu-Rumman PL, Armstrong D, Nixon BP. Use of clinical laboratory parameters to evaluate wound healing potential in diabetes mellitus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jan; 92(1):38-47. PMID: 11796798.
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      271. Abu-Rumman PL, Nixon BP, Armstrong D. Cerebral vascular accident in the infected diabetic ulcer patient. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jan; 92(1):59-60. PMID: 11796801.
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      272. Armstrong D, Jude EB. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in wound healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jan; 92(1):12-8. PMID: 11796794.
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