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Tracy C. Grikscheit, MD

TitleProfessor of Surgery
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentPediatrics
Phone+1 323 361 5901
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    Dr. Grikscheit is a practicing pediatric surgeon and scientist with a laboratory focused on regenerative medicine and tissue engineering at in The Saban Research Institute at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. In the hospital, she cares for children who are born prematurely, and therefore are at increased risk for multiple medical conditions that may lead to intestinal lack or loss. One of these conditions is necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a potentially life-threatening intestinal problem. For the most severe cases of NEC, the only solution is surgical removal of the small intestine. However, this option leaves the baby dependent on intravenous feeding and the child is also at risk for liver damage from subsequent intravenous nutrition. Another option is small bowel transplantation, but graft and patient survival rates are still too low.

    Dr. Grikscheit, a member of The Saban Research Institute's Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine program, envisions a better solution. The small intestine is an exquisitely regenerative organ. It is an elegant model to better understand organ-specific stem cells and the regenerative cells can be harnessed to make new gastrointestinal tissue for eventual clinical applications. Understanding how to generate tissue-engineered intestines, whether esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon, may also inform us how to expand the list of organs that can be tissue-engineered.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Hou X, Chang DF, Trecartin A, Barthel ER, Schlieve CR, Frey MR, Fowler KL, Grikscheit TC. Short-term and long-term human or mouse organoid units generate tissue-engineered small intestine without added signaling molecules. Exp Physiol. 2018 Sep 19. PMID: 30232817.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Isani M, Lien CL, Alam DA, Grikscheit TC. Corrigendum to "Inhibition of Fgf signaling in short bowel syndrome increases weight loss and epithelial proliferation." [surgery volume 161, number 3 (2017) 694-703]. Surgery. 2018 Feb 13. PMID: 29452701.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Trecartin A, Grikscheit T. Tissue Engineering Functional Gastrointestinal Regions: The Importance of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Oct 03; 7(10). PMID: 28320829.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Schlieve CR, Fowler KL, Thornton M, Huang S, Hajjali I, Hou X, Grubbs B, Spence JR, Grikscheit TC. Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine. Stem Cell Reports. 2017 Sep 12; 9(3):883-896. PMID: 28803915.
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    5. Fowler KL, Wieck MM, Hilton AE, Hou X, Schlieve CR, Grikscheit TC. Marked stem/progenitor cell expansion occurs early after murine ileostomy: a new model. J Surg Res. 2017 Dec; 220:182-196. PMID: 29180181.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Danopoulos S, Schlieve CR, Grikscheit TC, Al Alam D. Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Twists and Turns. Dev Dyn. 2017 04; 246(4):344-352. PMID: 28198118.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Schall KA, Thornton ME, Isani M, Holoyda KA, Hou X, Lien CL, Grubbs BH, Grikscheit TC. Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017 01 25; 18(1):23. PMID: 28118819.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wieck MM, Schlieve CR, Thornton ME, Fowler KL, Isani M, Grant CN, Hilton AE, Hou X, Grubbs BH, Frey MR, Grikscheit TC. Prolonged Absence of Mechanoluminal Stimulation in Human Intestine Alters the Transcriptome and Intestinal Stem Cell Niche. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 May; 3(3):367-388.e1. PMID: 28462379.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Schlieve CR, Grikscheit TC. Created of Warm Blood and Nerves: Restoring an Enteric Nervous System in Organoids. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 01 05; 20(1):5-7. PMID: 28061353.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Isani M, Schlieve C, Salisbury T, Khuu T, Debelius JW, Moats RA, Pollack HA, Lien CL, Fowler K, Hou X, Knight R, Grikscheit TC. Intestinal adaptation in proximal and distal segments: Two epithelial responses diverge after intestinal separation. Surgery. 2017 04; 161(4):1016-1027. PMID: 28011012.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Trecartin A, Danopoulos S, Spurrier R, Knaneh-Monem H, Hiatt M, Driscoll B, Hochstim C, Al-Alam D, Grikscheit TC. Establishing Proximal and Distal Regional Identities in Murine and Human Tissue-Engineered Lung and Trachea. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2016 11; 22(11):1049-1057. PMID: 27796199.
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    12. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Isani M, Lien CL, Al Alam D, Grikscheit TC. Inhibition of Fgf signaling in short bowel syndrome increases weight loss and epithelial proliferation. Surgery. 2017 03; 161(3):694-703. PMID: 27771159.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Mavila N, Trecartin A, Spurrier R, Xiao Y, Hou X, James D, Fu X, Truong B, Wang C, Lipshutz GS, Wang KS, Grikscheit TC. Functional Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Liver Is Generated from Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Jan; 6(1):238-248. PMID: 28170183.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Wieck MM, Debelius JW, Spurrier RG, Trecartin A, Knight R, Grikscheit TC. The pediatric intestinal mucosal microbiome remains altered after clinical resolution of inflammatory and ischemic disease. Surgery. 2016 08; 160(2):350-8. PMID: 27302104.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Schlieve CR, Mojica SG, Holoyda KA, Hou X, Fowler KL, Grikscheit TC. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151396. PMID: 26978773; PMCID: PMC4792464.
    16. Fattahi F, Steinbeck JA, Kriks S, Tchieu J, Zimmer B, Kishinevsky S, Zeltner N, Mica Y, El-Nachef W, Zhao H, de Stanchina E, Gershon MD, Grikscheit TC, Chen S, Studer L. Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease. Nature. 2016 Mar 03; 531(7592):105-9. PMID: 26863197; PMCID: PMC4846424.
    17. Wieck MM, Spurrier RG, Levin DE, Mojica SG, Hiatt MJ, Reddy R, Hou X, Navarro S, Lee J, Lundin A, Driscoll B, Grikscheit TC. Sequestration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induces Late Restrictive Lung Disease. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148323. PMID: 26863115; PMCID: PMC4749176.
    18. Wieck MM, El-Nachef WN, Hou X, Spurrier RG, Holoyda KA, Schall KA, Mojica SG, Collins MK, Trecartin A, Cheng Z, Frykman PK, Grikscheit TC. Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Colon Exhibit Diverse Neuronal Subtypes and Can Be Populated by Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells When Donor Colon Is Aganglionic. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016 Jan; 22(1-2):53-64. PMID: 26414777; PMCID: PMC4948202 [Available on 01/01/17].
    19. Finkbeiner SR, Freeman JJ, Wieck MM, El-Nachef W, Altheim CH, Tsai YH, Huang S, Dyal R, White ES, Grikscheit TC, Teitelbaum DH, Spence JR. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids. Biol Open. 2015 Oct 12; 4(11):1462-72. PMID: 26459240.
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    20. Al Alam D, Danopoulos S, Schall K, Sala FG, Almohazey D, Fernandez GE, Georgia S, Frey MR, Ford HR, Grikscheit T, Bellusci S. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G678-90. PMID: 25721301; PMCID: PMC4398841.
    21. Worthley DL, Churchill M, Compton JT, Tailor Y, Rao M, Si Y, Levin D, Schwartz MG, Uygur A, Hayakawa Y, Gross S, Renz BW, Setlik W, Martinez AN, Chen X, Nizami S, Lee HG, Kang HP, Caldwell JM, Asfaha S, Westphalen CB, Graham T, Jin G, Nagar K, Wang H, Kheirbek MA, Kolhe A, Carpenter J, Glaire M, Nair A, Renders S, Manieri N, Muthupalani S, Fox JG, Reichert M, Giraud AS, Schwabe RF, Pradere JP, Walton K, Prakash A, Gumucio D, Rustgi AK, Stappenbeck TS, Friedman RA, Gershon MD, Sims P, Grikscheit T, Lee FY, Karsenty G, Mukherjee S, Wang TC. Gremlin 1 identifies a skeletal stem cell with bone, cartilage, and reticular stromal potential. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):269-84. PMID: 25594183; PMCID: PMC4436082.
    22. Grant CN, Mojica SG, Sala FG, Hill JR, Levin DE, Speer AL, Barthel ER, Shimada H, Zachos NC, Grikscheit TC. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G664-77. PMID: 25573173; PMCID: PMC4398842.
    23. Spurrier RG, Speer AL, Hou X, El-Nachef WN, Grikscheit TC. Murine and human tissue-engineered esophagus form from sufficient stem/progenitor cells and do not require microdesigned biomaterials. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015 Mar; 21(5-6):906-15. PMID: 25298083; PMCID: PMC4356247.
    24. Belchior GG, Sogayar MC, Grikscheit TC. Stem cells and biopharmaceuticals: vital roles in the growth of tissue-engineered small intestine. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):141-9. PMID: 24994528.
      View in: PubMed
    25. El-Nachef W, Grikscheit T. Enteric nervous system cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung disease: beyond tissue-engineered intestine. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 24(3):214-8. PMID: 24870947.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Spurrier RG, Speer AL, Grant CN, Levin DE, Grikscheit TC. Vitrification preserves murine and human donor cells for generation of tissue-engineered intestine. J Surg Res. 2014 Aug; 190(2):399-406. PMID: 24857678.
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    27. Barthel ER, Pierce JR, Speer AL, Levin DE, Goodhue CJ, Ford HR, Grikscheit TC, Upperman JS. Delayed family reunification of pediatric disaster survivors increases mortality and inpatient hospital costs: a simulation study. J Surg Res. 2013 Sep; 184(1):430-7. PMID: 23827792.
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    28. Grant CN, Grikscheit TC. Tissue engineering: a promising therapeutic approach to necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 May; 22(2):112-6. PMID: 23611615.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Torashima Y, Levin DE, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Sala FG, Hou X, Grikscheit TC. Fgf10 overexpression enhances the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016 Feb; 10(2):132-9. PMID: 23468377.
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    30. Spurrier RG, Grikscheit TC. Tissue engineering the small intestine. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Apr; 11(4):354-8. PMID: 23380001.
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    31. Levin DE, Sala FG, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Hou X, Torashima Y, Grikscheit TC. A "living bioreactor" for the production of tissue-engineered small intestine. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1001:299-309. PMID: 23494439.
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    32. Giuliani S, Marachelian A, Franklin A, Shimada H, Grikscheit T. Forearm skeletal muscle neuroblastoma in a child: a rare primary location. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Jan; 35(1):61-3. PMID: 23249961.
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    33. Levin DE, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Sala FG, Hou X, Torashima Y, Grikscheit TC. Human tissue-engineered small intestine forms from postnatal progenitor cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Jan; 48(1):129-37. PMID: 23331805.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Barthel ER, Speer AL, Levin DE, Sala FG, Hou X, Torashima Y, Wigfall CM, Grikscheit TC. Tissue engineering of the intestine in a murine model. J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 01; (70):e4279. PMID: 23222891; PMCID: PMC3565850.
    35. Pierce JR, Sharma SS, Hunter CJ, Bhombal S, Fagan B, Corchado Y, Grikscheit TC, Bushman GA. Intraoperative hypercyanosis in a patient with pulmonary artery band: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2012 Dec; 24(8):652-5. PMID: 23164642.
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    36. Barthel ER, Levin DE, Speer AL, Sala FG, Torashima Y, Hou X, Grikscheit TC. Human tissue-engineered colon forms from postnatal progenitor cells: an in vivo murine model. Regen Med. 2012 Nov; 7(6):807-18. PMID: 23164081.
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    37. Speer AL, Al Alam D, Sala FG, Ford HR, Bellusci S, Grikscheit TC. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49127. PMID: 23133671; PMCID: PMC3486796.
    38. Barthel ER, Speer AL, Levin DE, Naik-Mathuria BJ, Grikscheit TC. Giant cystic meconium peritonitis presenting in a neonate with classic radiographic eggshell calcifications and treated with an elective surgical approach: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012 Aug 02; 6:229. PMID: 22857611; PMCID: PMC3443658.
    39. Al Alam D, Sala FG, Baptista S, Galzote R, Danopoulos S, Tiozzo C, Gage P, Grikscheit T, Warburton D, Frey MR, Bellusci S. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2012 Sep 15; 369(2):340-8. PMID: 22819677; PMCID: PMC3725282.
    40. Levin DE, Grikscheit TC. Tissue-engineering of the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 24(3):365-70. PMID: 22450251.
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    41. Speer AL, Barthel ER, Patel MM, Grikscheit TC. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a single-institution 20-year series of pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1217-22. PMID: 22703796.
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    42. Lee FL, Said N, Grikscheit TC, Shin CE, Llanes A, Chmait RH. Treatment of congenital pulmonary airway malformation induced hydrops fetalis via percutaneous sclerotherapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2012; 31(4):264-8. PMID: 22354268.
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    43. Levin DE, Dreyfuss JM, Grikscheit TC. Tissue-engineered small intestine. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011 Nov; 8(6):673-5. PMID: 22029464.
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    44. Barthel ER, Pierce JR, Goodhue CJ, Ford HR, Grikscheit TC, Upperman JS. Availability of a pediatric trauma center in a disaster surge decreases triage time of the pediatric surge population: a population kinetics model. Theor Biol Med Model. 2011 Oct 12; 8:38. PMID: 21992575; PMCID: PMC3224559.
    45. Matthews JA, Sala FG, Speer AL, Warburton D, Grikscheit TC. VEGF optimizes the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. Regen Med. 2011 Sep; 6(5):559-67. PMID: 21916592.
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    46. Matthews JA, Sala FG, Speer AL, Li Y, Warburton D, Grikscheit TC. Mesenchymal-specific inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) attenuates growth in neonatal mice. J Surg Res. 2012 Jan; 172(1):40-7. PMID: 21696760.
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    47. Sala FG, Matthews JA, Speer AL, Torashima Y, Barthel ER, Grikscheit TC. A multicellular approach forms a significant amount of tissue-engineered small intestine in the mouse. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Jul; 17(13-14):1841-50. PMID: 21395443; PMCID: PMC3118603.
    48. Speer AL, Sala FG, Matthews JA, Grikscheit TC. Murine tissue-engineered stomach demonstrates epithelial differentiation. J Surg Res. 2011 Nov; 171(1):6-14. PMID: 21571313.
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    49. Sala FG, Del Moral PM, Tiozzo C, Alam DA, Warburton D, Grikscheit T, Veltmaat JM, Bellusci S. FGF10 controls the patterning of the tracheal cartilage rings via Shh. Development. 2011 Jan; 138(2):273-82. PMID: 21148187; PMCID: PMC3005603.
    50. Giuliani S, Franklin A, Pierce J, Ford H, Grikscheit TC. Massive subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Mar; 45(3):647-9. PMID: 20223337.
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    51. Tai CC, Sala FG, Ford HR, Wang KS, Li C, Minoo P, Grikscheit TC, Bellusci S. Wnt5a knock-out mouse as a new model of anorectal malformation. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):278-82. PMID: 19577771; PMCID: PMC3412158.
    52. Sala FG, Kunisaki SM, Ochoa ER, Vacanti J, Grikscheit TC. Tissue-engineered small intestine and stomach form from autologous tissue in a preclinical large animal model. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):205-12. PMID: 19665143.
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    53. Guner YS, Chokshi N, Aranda A, Ochoa C, Qureshi FG, Nguyen NX, Grikscheit T, Ford HR, Stein JE, Shin CE. Thoracoscopic repair of neonatal diaphragmatic hernia. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2008 Dec; 18(6):875-80. PMID: 19105674.
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    54. Estrada JJ, Petrosyan M, Hunter CJ, Lee SL, Anselmo DM, Grikscheit TC, Stein JE, Wang KS, Ford HR, Shaul DB. Preservation of extracorporeal tissue in closing gastroschisis augments intestinal length. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Dec; 43(12):2213-5. PMID: 19040937.
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    55. Guner YS, Chokshi N, Petrosyan M, Upperman JS, Ford HR, Grikscheit TC. Necrotizing enterocolitis--bench to bedside: novel and emerging strategies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2008 Nov; 17(4):255-65. PMID: 19019294.
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    56. Grikscheit TC, Sala FG, Ogilvie J, Bower KA, Ochoa ER, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered spleen protects against overwhelming pneumococcal sepsis in a rodent model. J Surg Res. 2008 Oct; 149(2):214-8. PMID: 18621401.
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    57. Little DC, Yoder SM, Grikscheit TC, Jackson CC, Fuchs JR, McCrudden KW, Holcomb GW. Cost considerations and applicant characteristics for the Pediatric Surgery Match. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jan; 40(1):69-73; discussion 73-4. PMID: 15868561.
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    58. Grikscheit TC, Siddique A, Ochoa ER, Srinivasan A, Alsberg E, Hodin RA, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered small intestine improves recovery after massive small bowel resection. Ann Surg. 2004 Nov; 240(5):748-54. PMID: 15492554; PMCID: PMC1356478.
    59. Duxbury MS, Grikscheit TC, Gardner-Thorpe J, Rocha FG, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Lymphangiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Transplantation. 2004 Apr 27; 77(8):1162-6. PMID: 15114078.
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    60. Gardner-Thorpe J, Grikscheit TC, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Tissue Eng. 2003 Dec; 9(6):1255-61. PMID: 14670113.
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    61. Grikscheit T, Srinivasan A, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered stomach: a preliminary report of a versatile in vivo model with therapeutic potential. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Sep; 38(9):1305-9. PMID: 14523810.
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    62. Ramsanahie A, Duxbury MS, Grikscheit TC, Perez A, Rhoads DB, Gardner-Thorpe J, Ogilvie J, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Effect of GLP-2 on mucosal morphology and SGLT1 expression in tissue-engineered neointestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1345-52. PMID: 12919941.
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    63. Grikscheit T, Ochoa ER, Srinivasan A, Gaissert H, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered esophagus: experimental substitution by onlay patch or interposition. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Aug; 126(2):537-44. PMID: 12928655.
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    64. Grikscheit TC. Tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal tract for surgical replacement: a nutrition tool of the future? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Aug; 62(3):739-43. PMID: 14692609.
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    65. Grikscheit TC, Ochoa ER, Ramsanahie A, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Whang EE, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered large intestine resembles native colon with appropriate in vitro physiology and architecture. Ann Surg. 2003 Jul; 238(1):35-41. PMID: 12832963; PMCID: PMC1422658.
    66. Perez A, Grikscheit TC, Blumberg RS, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Tissue-engineered small intestine: ontogeny of the immune system. Transplantation. 2002 Sep 15; 74(5):619-23. PMID: 12352876.
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    67. Grikscheit TC, Ogilvie JB, Ochoa ER, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered colon exhibits function in vivo. Surgery. 2002 Aug; 132(2):200-4. PMID: 12219012.
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    68. Grikscheit TC, Vacanti JP. The history and current status of tissue engineering: The future of pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):277-88. PMID: 11877635.
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