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Robert Shannon, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Research Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Phone+1 818 306 0206
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    Collapse Overview
    I am interested in how auditory information is coded in the nervous system. My original research attempted to find common elements in physiological responses and perception of acoustic sound. Since 1977 my research has focused primarily on prosthetic electrical stimulation to restore hearing: cochlear implants, brainstem implants and midbrain implants. My research programs range from the biophysics and psychophysics of electrical stimulation of the auditory system, to speech pattern recognition and the design of signal processing for prosthetic devices. Research on auditory prostheses spans the fields of biomedical engineering, anatomy, physiology, psychophysics, perceptual object formation and pattern recognition. Artificial activation of a sensory system at different levels of processing can reveal the importance of various cues to auditory perception. The comparison of simple and complex perception between normal hearing and prosthetic activation of the cochlea, auditory brainstem and auditory midbrain gives insights into processing, storage and retrieval of auditory information in the nervous system.

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC015965Apr 1, 2017 - Mar 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    2013 and 2015 Conferences on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC013522Jul 1, 2013 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2011 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC012024Jul 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2009 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC010300Jul 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2007 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC009206Jun 1, 2007 - May 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2005 Conference on Implantable auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC007831Jul 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    House Research Institute Core Center
    NIH/NIDCD P30DC006276Aug 1, 2003 - Jan 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2003 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC006256Aug 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2001 Conference On Implantable Auditory Prosthses
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC005041Aug 1, 2001 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    1999 CONFERENCE ON IMPLANTABLE AUDITORY PROSTHESES
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC004172Aug 1, 1999 - Jul 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SPEECH PROCESSORS FOR AUDITORY PROSTHESES HOUSE EAR INST
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC092100Jan 1, 1999 - Dec 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    1997 CONFERENCE ON IMPLANTABLE AUDITORY PROSTHESES
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC003385Aug 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    1995 CONFERENCE ON IMPLANTABLE AUDITORY PROSTHESES
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC002770Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlea, Brainstem, and Midbrain
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC001526May 1, 1992 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TEMPORAL PROCESSING IN COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
    NIH/NIDCD R29DC000409Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TEMPORAL PROCESSING IN COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
    NIH/NINDS R29NS024754Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Wilkinson EP, Mills D, Hagan SC, Lupo JE, Padilla M, Shannon RV. Benefits of Cochlear Implantation for Single-Sided Deafness: Data From the House Clinic-University of Southern California-University of California, Los Angeles Clinical Trial. Ear Hear. 2018 Oct 22. PMID: 30358655.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Wilkinson EP, Eisenberg LS, Krieger MD, Schwartz MS, Winter M, Glater JL, Martinez AS, Fisher LM, Shannon RV. Initial Results of a Safety and Feasibility Study of Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Children. Otol Neurotol. 2017 02; 38(2):212-220. PMID: 27898605.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Sennaroglu L, Colletti V, Lenarz T, Manrique M, Laszig R, Rask-Andersen H, Göksu N, Offeciers E, Saeed S, Behr R, Bayazit Y, Casselman J, Freeman S, Kileny P, Lee DJ, Shannon RV, Kameswaran M, Hagr A, Zarowski A, Schwartz MS, Bilginer B, Kishore A, Sennaroglu G, Yücel E, Saraç S, Atas A, Colletti L, O'Driscoll M, Moon IS, Gärtner L, Huarte A, Nyberg G, Mocan BÖ, Atay G, Bajin MD, Çinar BÇ, Batuk MÖ, Yarali M, Aydinli FE, Aslan F, Kirazli MC, Özkan HB, Hans JM, Kosaner J, Polak M. Consensus statement: Long-term results of ABI in children with complex inner ear malformations and decision making between CI and ABI. Cochlear Implants Int. 2016 07; 17(4):163-171. PMID: 27442073.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Shannon RV. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music? Trends Cogn Sci. 2016 Apr; 20(4):245-247. PMID: 26944220.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Fisher LM, Eisenberg LS, Krieger M, Wilkinson EP, Shannon RV. Regulatory and funding strategies to develop a safety study of an auditory brainstem implant in young children who are deaf. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2015 Sep; 49(5):659-665. PMID: 26366332.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Shannon RV. Auditory implant research at the House Ear Institute 1989-2013. Hear Res. 2015 Apr; 322:57-66. PMID: 25449009.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Colletti L, Shannon RV, Colletti V. The development of auditory perception in children after auditory brainstem implantation. Audiol Neurootol. 2014; 19(6):386-94. PMID: 25377987.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Lim HH, Shannon RV. Two Laskers and Counting: Learning From the Past Enables Future Innovations With Central Neural Prostheses. Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun; 8(3):439-41. PMID: 25468073.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Goldsworthy RL, Shannon RV. Training improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a psychophysical task. J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Jan; 135(1):334-41. PMID: 24437773.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Srinivasan AG, Padilla M, Shannon RV, Landsberger DM. Improving speech perception in noise with current focusing in cochlear implant users. Hear Res. 2013 May; 299:29-36. PMID: 23467170.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Colletti L, Shannon R, Colletti V. Auditory brainstem implants for neurofibromatosis type 2. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Oct; 20(5):353-7. PMID: 22886036.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Srinivasan AG, Shannon RV, Landsberger DM. Improving virtual channel discrimination in a multi-channel context. Hear Res. 2012 Apr; 286(1-2):19-29. PMID: 22616092.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Shannon RV. Advances in auditory prostheses. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012 Feb; 25(1):61-6. PMID: 22157109.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Otto SR, Moore J, Linthicum F, Hitselberger W, Brackmann D, Shannon RV. Histopathological analysis of a 15-year user of an auditory brainstem implant. Laryngoscope. 2012 Mar; 122(3):645-8. PMID: 22253008.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Colletti L, Mandalà M, Shannon RV, Colletti V. Estimated net saving to society from cochlear implantation in infants: a preliminary analysis. Laryngoscope. 2011 Nov; 121(11):2455-60. PMID: 22020896.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Colletti L, Mandalà M, Zoccante L, Shannon RV, Colletti V. Infants versus older children fitted with cochlear implants: performance over 10 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Apr; 75(4):504-9. PMID: 21277638.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Srinivasan AG, Landsberger DM, Shannon RV. Current focusing sharpens local peaks of excitation in cochlear implant stimulation. Hear Res. 2010 Dec 01; 270(1-2):89-100. PMID: 20850513.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Shannon RV, Cruz RJ, Galvin JJ. Effect of stimulation rate on cochlear implant users' phoneme, word and sentence recognition in quiet and in noise. Audiol Neurootol. 2011; 16(2):113-23. PMID: 20639631.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Colletti V, Shannon RV, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. Complications in auditory brainstem implant surgery in adults and children. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jun; 31(4):558-64. PMID: 20393378.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Colletti V, Shannon R, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. Outcomes in nontumor adults fitted with the auditory brainstem implant: 10 years' experience. Otol Neurotol. 2009 Aug; 30(5):614-8. PMID: 19546832.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Melodic contour identification and music perception by cochlear implant users. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul; 1169:518-33. PMID: 19673835.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Moore DR, Shannon RV. Beyond cochlear implants: awakening the deafened brain. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jun; 12(6):686-91. PMID: 19471266.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Carner M, Colletti L, Shannon R, Cerini R, Barillari M, Mucelli RP, Colletti V. Imaging in 28 children with cochlear nerve aplasia. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009 Apr; 129(4):458-61. PMID: 19263257.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Friesen LM, Tremblay KL, Rohila N, Wright RA, Shannon RV, Baskent D, Rubinstein JT. Evoked cortical activity and speech recognition as a function of the number of simulated cochlear implant channels. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Apr; 120(4):776-82. PMID: 19250865.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Colletti V, Shannon RV, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. Progress in restoration of hearing with the auditory brainstem implant. Prog Brain Res. 2009; 175:333-45. PMID: 19660666.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Otto SR, Shannon RV, Wilkinson EP, Hitselberger WE, McCreery DB, Moore JK, Brackmann DE. Audiologic outcomes with the penetrating electrode auditory brainstem implant. Otol Neurotol. 2008 Dec; 29(8):1147-54. PMID: 18931643.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Schwartz MS, Otto SR, Shannon RV, Hitselberger WE, Brackmann DE. Auditory brainstem implants. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Jan; 5(1):128-36. PMID: 18164492.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Baskent D, Shannon RV. Combined effects of frequency compression-expansion and shift on speech recognition. Ear Hear. 2007 Jun; 28(3):277-89. PMID: 17485977.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Colletti V, Shannon R, Carner M, Sacchetto L, Turazzi S, Masotto B, Colletti L. The first successful case of hearing produced by electrical stimulation of the human midbrain. Otol Neurotol. 2007 Jan; 28(1):39-43. PMID: 17195744.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Baskent D, Shannon RV. Frequency transposition around dead regions simulated with a noiseband vocoder. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006 Feb; 119(2):1156-63. PMID: 16521776.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Stickney GS, Loizou PC, Mishra LN, Assmann PF, Shannon RV, Opie JM. Effects of electrode design and configuration on channel interactions. Hear Res. 2006 Jan; 211(1-2):33-45. PMID: 16338109.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Chatterjee M, Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of stimulation mode, level and location on forward-masked excitation patterns in cochlear implant patients. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006 Mar; 7(1):15-25. PMID: 16270234.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Colletti V, Shannon RV. Open set speech perception with auditory brainstem implant? Laryngoscope. 2005 Nov; 115(11):1974-8. PMID: 16319608.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Baskent D, Shannon RV. Interactions between cochlear implant electrode insertion depth and frequency-place mapping. J Acoust Soc Am. 2005 Mar; 117(3 Pt 1):1405-16. PMID: 15807028.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Cruz RJ. Effects of stimulation rate on speech recognition with cochlear implants. Audiol Neurootol. 2005 May-Jun; 10(3):169-84. PMID: 15724088.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Shannon RV. Speech and music have different requirements for spectral resolution. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2005; 70:121-34. PMID: 16472633.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Baskent D, Shannon RV. Frequency-place compression and expansion in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Nov; 116(5):3130-40. PMID: 15603158.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Shannon RV, Fu QJ, Galvin J. The number of spectral channels required for speech recognition depends on the difficulty of the listening situation. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2004 May; (552):50-4. PMID: 15219048.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Kuchta J, Otto SR, Shannon RV, Hitselberger WE, Brackmann DE. The multichannel auditory brainstem implant: how many electrodes make sense? J Neurosurg. 2004 Jan; 100(1):16-23. PMID: 14743907.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Baskent D, Shannon RV. Speech recognition under conditions of frequency-place compression and expansion. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Apr; 113(4 Pt 1):2064-76. PMID: 12703717.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Schwartz MS, Otto SR, Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Shannon RV. Use of a multichannel auditory brainstem implant for neurofibromatosis type 2. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2003; 81(1-4):110-4. PMID: 14742973.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Shannon RV. The relative importance of amplitude, temporal, and spectral cues for cochlear implant processor design. Am J Audiol. 2002 Dec; 11(2):124-7. PMID: 12691223.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Fu QJ, Shannon RV, Galvin JJ. Perceptual learning following changes in the frequency-to-electrode assignment with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002 Oct; 112(4):1664-74. PMID: 12398471.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Frequency mapping in cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2002 Aug; 23(4):339-48. PMID: 12195176.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Shannon RV, Galvin JJ, Baskent D. Holes in hearing. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2002 Jun; 3(2):185-99. PMID: 12162368.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Otto SR, Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Shannon RV, Kuchta J. Multichannel auditory brainstem implant: update on performance in 61 patients. J Neurosurg. 2002 Jun; 96(6):1063-71. PMID: 12066908.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Zeng FG, Grant G, Niparko J, Galvin J, Shannon R, Opie J, Segel P. Speech dynamic range and its effect on cochlear implant performance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002 Jan; 111(1 Pt 1):377-86. PMID: 11831811.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Baskent D, Wang X. Speech recognition in noise as a function of the number of spectral channels: comparison of acoustic hearing and cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001 Aug; 110(2):1150-63. PMID: 11519582.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. Effects of electrode location on speech recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000 Sep; 11(8):418-28. PMID: 11012237.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of dynamic range and amplitude mapping on phoneme recognition in Nucleus-22 cochlear implant users. Ear Hear. 2000 Jun; 21(3):227-35. PMID: 10890731.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Eisenberg LS, Shannon RV, Martinez AS, Wygonski J, Boothroyd A. Speech recognition with reduced spectral cues as a function of age. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 May; 107(5 Pt 1):2704-10. PMID: 10830392.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Chatterjee M, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of phase duration and electrode separation on loudness growth in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Mar; 107(3):1637-44. PMID: 10738817.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effect of stimulation rate on phoneme recognition by nucleus-22 cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Jan; 107(1):589-97. PMID: 10641667.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Shannon RV, Jensvold A, Padilla M, Robert ME, Wang X. Consonant recordings for speech testing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Dec; 106(6):L71-4. PMID: 10615713.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effect of acoustic dynamic range on phoneme recognition in quiet and noise by cochlear implant users. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Dec; 106(6):L65-70. PMID: 10615712.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. The effect of frequency allocation on phoneme recognition with the nucleus 22 cochlear implant. Am J Otol. 1999 Nov; 20(6):729-34. PMID: 10565716.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of electrode location and spacing on phoneme recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. Ear Hear. 1999 Aug; 20(4):321-31. PMID: 10466568.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of electrode configuration and frequency allocation on vowel recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. Ear Hear. 1999 Aug; 20(4):332-44. PMID: 10466569.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Phoneme recognition by cochlear implant users as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and nonlinear amplitude mapping. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Aug; 106(2):L18-23. PMID: 10462822.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. Psychophysical laws revealed by electric hearing. Neuroreport. 1999 Jun 23; 10(9):1931-5. PMID: 10501535.
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    61. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Recognition of spectrally degraded and frequency-shifted vowels in acoustic and electric hearing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Mar; 105(3):1889-900. PMID: 10089611.
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    62. Fu QJ, Shannon RV, Wang X. Effects of noise and spectral resolution on vowel and consonant recognition: acoustic and electric hearing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Dec; 104(6):3586-96. PMID: 9857517.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Effects of amplitude nonlinearity on phoneme recognition by cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Nov; 104(5):2570-7. PMID: 9821336.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Hanekom JJ, Shannon RV. Gap detection as a measure of electrode interaction in cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Oct; 104(4):2372-84. PMID: 10491701.
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    65. Shannon RV, Zeng FG, Wygonski J. Speech recognition with altered spectral distribution of envelope cues. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Oct; 104(4):2467-76. PMID: 10491708.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Fu QJ, Zeng FG, Shannon RV, Soli SD. Importance of tonal envelope cues in Chinese speech recognition. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Jul; 104(1):505-10. PMID: 9670541.
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    67. Chatterjee M, Shannon RV. Forward masked excitation patterns in multielectrode electrical stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 May; 103(5 Pt 1):2565-72. PMID: 9604350.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Chatterjee M, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. Within-channel gap detection using dissimilar markers in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 May; 103(5 Pt 1):2515-9. PMID: 9604345.
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    69. Wilson BS, Rebscher S, Zeng FG, Shannon RV, Loeb GE, Lawson DT, Zerbi M. Design for an inexpensive but effective cochlear implant. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Feb; 118(2):235-41. PMID: 9482558.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Fishman KE, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. Speech recognition as a function of the number of electrodes used in the SPEAK cochlear implant speech processor. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1997 Oct; 40(5):1201-15. PMID: 9328890.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Harris DM, Shannon RV, Snyder R, Carney E. Multi-unit mapping of acoustic stimuli in gerbil inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 1997 Jun; 108(1-2):145-56. PMID: 9213128.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Shannon RV, Moore JK, McCreery DB, Portillo F. Threshold-distance measures from electrical stimulation of human brainstem. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1997 Mar; 5(1):70-4. PMID: 9086387.
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    73. Hanekom JJ, Shannon RV. Place pitch discrimination and speech recognition in cochlear implant users. S Afr J Commun Disord. 1996; 43:27-40. PMID: 9265842.
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    74. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. Loudness of simple and complex stimuli in electric hearing. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1995 Sep; 166:235-8. PMID: 7668651.
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    75. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. Possible origins of the non-monotonic intensity discrimination function in forward masking. Hear Res. 1995 Feb; 82(2):216-24. PMID: 7775287.
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    76. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. Loudness-coding mechanisms inferred from electric stimulation of the human auditory system. Science. 1994 Apr 22; 264(5158):564-6. PMID: 8160013.
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    77. Shannon RV, Fayad J, Moore J, Lo WW, Otto S, Nelson RA, O'Leary M. Auditory brainstem implant: II. Postsurgical issues and performance. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Jun; 108(6):634-42. PMID: 8516000.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Nelson RA, Moore J, Waring MD, Portillo F, Shannon RV, Telischi FF. Auditory brainstem implant: I. Issues in surgical implantation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Jun; 108(6):624-33. PMID: 8515999.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Shannon RV. Quantitative comparison of electrically and acoustically evoked auditory perception: implications for the location of perceptual mechanisms. Prog Brain Res. 1993; 97:261-9. PMID: 8234752.
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    80. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. Loudness balance between electric and acoustic stimulation. Hear Res. 1992 Jul; 60(2):231-5. PMID: 1639732.
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    81. Shannon RV. Temporal modulation transfer functions in patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Apr; 91(4 Pt 1):2156-64. PMID: 1597606.
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    82. Shannon RV, Otto SR. Psychophysical measures from electrical stimulation of the human cochlear nucleus. Hear Res. 1990 Aug 01; 47(1-2):159-68. PMID: 2228792.
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    83. Shannon RV. Forward masking in patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Aug; 88(2):741-4. PMID: 2212298.
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    84. Shannon RV, Adams DD, Ferrel RL, Palumbo RL, Grandgenett M. A computer interface for psychophysical and speech research with the Nucleus cochlear implant. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Feb; 87(2):905-7. PMID: 2307784.
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    85. Shannon RV. Recent advances in cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Jan; 87(1):421-2. PMID: 2299048.
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    86. Shannon RV. A model of threshold for pulsatile electrical stimulation of cochlear implants. Hear Res. 1989 Jul; 40(3):197-204. PMID: 2793602.
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    87. Shannon RV. Threshold functions for electrical stimulation of the human cochlear nucleus. Hear Res. 1989 Jun 15; 40(1-2):173-7. PMID: 2768080.
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    88. Shannon RV. Detection of gaps in sinusoids and pulse trains by patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1989 Jun; 85(6):2587-92. PMID: 2745882.
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    89. Shannon RV. Psychophysical suppression of selective portions of pulsation threshold patterns. Hear Res. 1986; 21(3):257-60. PMID: 3722005.
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    90. Shannon RV, Houtgast T. Growth of pulsation threshold of a suppressed tone as a function of its level. Hear Res. 1986; 21(3):251-5. PMID: 3722004.
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    91. Shannon RV. Threshold and loudness functions for pulsatile stimulation of cochlear implants. Hear Res. 1985 May; 18(2):135-43. PMID: 3840159.
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    92. Shannon RV. Multichannel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in man. II. Channel interaction. Hear Res. 1983 Oct; 12(1):1-16. PMID: 6689326.
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    93. Shannon RV. Multichannel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in man. I. Basic psychophysics. Hear Res. 1983 Aug; 11(2):157-89. PMID: 6619003.
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    94. Shannon RV. Growth of loudness for sinusoidal and pulsatile electrical stimulation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):13-4. PMID: 6784644.
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    95. Shannon RV, Houtgast T. Psychophysical measurements relating suppression and combination tones. J Acoust Soc Am. 1980 Sep; 68(3):825-9. PMID: 7419817.
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    96. Shannon RV. Two-tone unmasking and suppression in a forward-masking situation. J Acoust Soc Am. 1976 Jun; 59(6):1460-70. PMID: 939879.
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