Robert Shannon, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Research Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Address1537 Norfolk Street Street
Health Sciences Campus
Los Angeles CA 90033
Phone+1 818 306 0206
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    I am interested in how auditory information is coded in the nervous system. My original research attempted to find common elements in physiological responses and perception of acoustic sound. Since 1977 my research has focused primarily on prosthetic electrical stimulation to restore hearing: cochlear implants, brainstem implants and midbrain implants. My research programs range from the biophysics and psychophysics of electrical stimulation of the auditory system, to speech pattern recognition and the design of signal processing for prosthetic devices. Research on auditory prostheses spans the fields of biomedical engineering, anatomy, physiology, psychophysics, perceptual object formation and pattern recognition. Artificial activation of a sensory system at different levels of processing can reveal the importance of various cues to auditory perception. The comparison of simple and complex perception between normal hearing and prosthetic activation of the cochlea, auditory brainstem and auditory midbrain gives insights into processing, storage and retrieval of auditory information in the nervous system.
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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC015965Apr 1, 2017 - Mar 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    2013 and 2015 Conferences on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC013522Jul 1, 2013 - Feb 28, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2011 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC012024Jul 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2009 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC010300Jul 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2007 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC009206Jun 1, 2007 - May 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2005 Conference on Implantable auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC007831Jul 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    House Research Institute Core Center
    NIH P30DC006276Aug 1, 2003 - Jan 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2003 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses
    NIH R13DC006256Aug 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2001 Conference On Implantable Auditory Prosthses
    NIH R13DC005041Aug 1, 2001 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R13DC004172Aug 1, 1999 - Jul 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC092100Jan 1, 1999 - Dec 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R13DC003385Aug 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R13DC002770Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlea, Brainstem, and Midbrain
    NIH R01DC001526May 1, 1992 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R29DC000409Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R29NS024754Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Clinical Trials

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Benefits of Cochlear Implantation for Single-Sided Deafness: Data From the House Clinic-University of Southern California-University of California, Los Angeles Clinical Trial. Ear Hear. 2019 Jul/Aug; 40(4):766-781. Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Wilkinson EP, Mills D, Hagan SC, Lupo JE, Padilla M, Shannon RV. PMID: 30358655.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic HealthCTClinical Trials
    2. Initial Results of a Safety and Feasibility Study of Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Children. Otol Neurotol. 2017 02; 38(2):212-220. Wilkinson EP, Eisenberg LS, Krieger MD, Schwartz MS, Winter M, Glater JL, Martinez AS, Fisher LM, Shannon RV, Los Angeles Pediatric ABI Team . PMID: 27898605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    3. Consensus statement: Long-term results of ABI in children with complex inner ear malformations and decision making between CI and ABI. Cochlear Implants Int. 2016 07; 17(4):163-171. Sennaroglu L, Colletti V, Lenarz T, Manrique M, Laszig R, Rask-Andersen H, Göksu N, Offeciers E, Saeed S, Behr R, Bayazit Y, Casselman J, Freeman S, Kileny P, Lee DJ, Shannon RV, Kameswaran M, Hagr A, Zarowski A, Schwartz MS, Bilginer B, Kishore A, Sennaroglu G, Yücel E, Saraç S, Atas A, Colletti L, O'Driscoll M, Moon IS, Gärtner L, Huarte A, Nyberg G, Mocan BÖ, Atay G, Bajin MD, Çinar BÇ, Batuk MÖ, Yarali M, Aydinli FE, Aslan F, Kirazli MC, Özkan HB, Hans JM, Kosaner J, Polak M. PMID: 27442073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music? Trends Cogn Sci. 2016 Apr; 20(4):245-247. Shannon RV. PMID: 26944220.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    5. Regulatory and funding strategies to develop a safety study of an auditory brainstem implant in young children who are deaf. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2015 Sep; 49(5):659-665. Fisher LM, Eisenberg LS, Krieger M, Wilkinson EP, Shannon RV, Los Angeles Pediatric ABI Team . PMID: 26366332.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    6. Auditory implant research at the House Ear Institute 1989-2013. Hear Res. 2015 Apr; 322:57-66. Shannon RV. PMID: 25449009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    7. The development of auditory perception in children after auditory brainstem implantation. Audiol Neurootol. 2014; 19(6):386-94. Colletti L, Shannon RV, Colletti V. PMID: 25377987.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Two Laskers and Counting: Learning From the Past Enables Future Innovations With Central Neural Prostheses. Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun; 8(3):439-41. Lim HH, Shannon RV. PMID: 25468073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    9. Training improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a psychophysical task. J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Jan; 135(1):334-41. Goldsworthy RL, Shannon RV. PMID: 24437773.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Improving speech perception in noise with current focusing in cochlear implant users. Hear Res. 2013 May; 299:29-36. Srinivasan AG, Padilla M, Shannon RV, Landsberger DM. PMID: 23467170.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    11. Auditory brainstem implants for neurofibromatosis type 2. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Oct; 20(5):353-7. Colletti L, Shannon R, Colletti V. PMID: 22886036.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Improving virtual channel discrimination in a multi-channel context. Hear Res. 2012 Apr; 286(1-2):19-29. Srinivasan AG, Shannon RV, Landsberger DM. PMID: 22616092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    13. Advances in auditory prostheses. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012 Feb; 25(1):61-6. Shannon RV. PMID: 22157109.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Histopathological analysis of a 15-year user of an auditory brainstem implant. Laryngoscope. 2012 Mar; 122(3):645-8. Otto SR, Moore J, Linthicum F, Hitselberger W, Brackmann D, Shannon RV. PMID: 22253008.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Estimated net saving to society from cochlear implantation in infants: a preliminary analysis. Laryngoscope. 2011 Nov; 121(11):2455-60. Colletti L, Mandalà M, Shannon RV, Colletti V. PMID: 22020896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Infants versus older children fitted with cochlear implants: performance over 10 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Apr; 75(4):504-9. Colletti L, Mandalà M, Zoccante L, Shannon RV, Colletti V. PMID: 21277638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Current focusing sharpens local peaks of excitation in cochlear implant stimulation. Hear Res. 2010 Dec 01; 270(1-2):89-100. Srinivasan AG, Landsberger DM, Shannon RV. PMID: 20850513.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Effect of stimulation rate on cochlear implant users' phoneme, word and sentence recognition in quiet and in noise. Audiol Neurootol. 2011; 16(2):113-23. Shannon RV, Cruz RJ, Galvin JJ. PMID: 20639631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic HealthCTClinical Trials
    19. Complications in auditory brainstem implant surgery in adults and children. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jun; 31(4):558-64. Colletti V, Shannon RV, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. PMID: 20393378.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Outcomes in nontumor adults fitted with the auditory brainstem implant: 10 years' experience. Otol Neurotol. 2009 Aug; 30(5):614-8. Colletti V, Shannon R, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. PMID: 19546832.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Melodic contour identification and music perception by cochlear implant users. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul; 1169:518-33. Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 19673835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Beyond cochlear implants: awakening the deafened brain. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jun; 12(6):686-91. Moore DR, Shannon RV. PMID: 19471266.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    23. Imaging in 28 children with cochlear nerve aplasia. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009 Apr; 129(4):458-61. Carner M, Colletti L, Shannon R, Cerini R, Barillari M, Mucelli RP, Colletti V. PMID: 19263257.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Evoked cortical activity and speech recognition as a function of the number of simulated cochlear implant channels. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Apr; 120(4):776-82. Friesen LM, Tremblay KL, Rohila N, Wright RA, Shannon RV, Baskent D, Rubinstein JT. PMID: 19250865.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Progress in restoration of hearing with the auditory brainstem implant. Prog Brain Res. 2009; 175:333-45. Colletti V, Shannon RV, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. PMID: 19660666.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Audiologic outcomes with the penetrating electrode auditory brainstem implant. Otol Neurotol. 2008 Dec; 29(8):1147-54. Otto SR, Shannon RV, Wilkinson EP, Hitselberger WE, McCreery DB, Moore JK, Brackmann DE. PMID: 18931643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Auditory brainstem implants. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Jan; 5(1):128-36. Schwartz MS, Otto SR, Shannon RV, Hitselberger WE, Brackmann DE. PMID: 18164492.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Combined effects of frequency compression-expansion and shift on speech recognition. Ear Hear. 2007 Jun; 28(3):277-89. Baskent D, Shannon RV. PMID: 17485977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    29. The first successful case of hearing produced by electrical stimulation of the human midbrain. Otol Neurotol. 2007 Jan; 28(1):39-43. Colletti V, Shannon R, Carner M, Sacchetto L, Turazzi S, Masotto B, Colletti L. PMID: 17195744.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Frequency transposition around dead regions simulated with a noiseband vocoder. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006 Feb; 119(2):1156-63. Baskent D, Shannon RV. PMID: 16521776.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Effects of electrode design and configuration on channel interactions. Hear Res. 2006 Jan; 211(1-2):33-45. Stickney GS, Loizou PC, Mishra LN, Assmann PF, Shannon RV, Opie JM. PMID: 16338109.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Effects of stimulation mode, level and location on forward-masked excitation patterns in cochlear implant patients. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006 Mar; 7(1):15-25. Chatterjee M, Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 16270234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Open set speech perception with auditory brainstem implant? Laryngoscope. 2005 Nov; 115(11):1974-8. Colletti V, Shannon RV. PMID: 16319608.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Interactions between cochlear implant electrode insertion depth and frequency-place mapping. J Acoust Soc Am. 2005 Mar; 117(3 Pt 1):1405-16. Baskent D, Shannon RV. PMID: 15807028.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Effects of stimulation rate on speech recognition with cochlear implants. Audiol Neurootol. 2005 May-Jun; 10(3):169-84. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Cruz RJ. PMID: 15724088.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    36. Speech and music have different requirements for spectral resolution. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2005; 70:121-34. Shannon RV. PMID: 16472633.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Frequency-place compression and expansion in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Nov; 116(5):3130-40. Baskent D, Shannon RV. PMID: 15603158.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. The number of spectral channels required for speech recognition depends on the difficulty of the listening situation. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2004 May; (552):50-4. Shannon RV, Fu QJ, Galvin J. PMID: 15219048.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 96     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. The multichannel auditory brainstem implant: how many electrodes make sense? J Neurosurg. 2004 Jan; 100(1):16-23. Kuchta J, Otto SR, Shannon RV, Hitselberger WE, Brackmann DE. PMID: 14743907.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    40. Speech recognition under conditions of frequency-place compression and expansion. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Apr; 113(4 Pt 1):2064-76. Baskent D, Shannon RV. PMID: 12703717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Use of a multichannel auditory brainstem implant for neurofibromatosis type 2. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2003; 81(1-4):110-4. Schwartz MS, Otto SR, Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Shannon RV. PMID: 14742973.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. The relative importance of amplitude, temporal, and spectral cues for cochlear implant processor design. Am J Audiol. 2002 Dec; 11(2):124-7. Shannon RV. PMID: 12691223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. Perceptual learning following changes in the frequency-to-electrode assignment with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002 Oct; 112(4):1664-74. Fu QJ, Shannon RV, Galvin JJ. PMID: 12398471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Frequency mapping in cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2002 Aug; 23(4):339-48. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 12195176.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Holes in hearing. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2002 Jun; 3(2):185-99. Shannon RV, Galvin JJ, Baskent D. PMID: 12162368.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Multichannel auditory brainstem implant: update on performance in 61 patients. J Neurosurg. 2002 Jun; 96(6):1063-71. Otto SR, Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Shannon RV, Kuchta J. PMID: 12066908.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Speech dynamic range and its effect on cochlear implant performance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002 Jan; 111(1 Pt 1):377-86. Zeng FG, Grant G, Niparko J, Galvin J, Shannon R, Opie J, Segel P. PMID: 11831811.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    48. Speech recognition in noise as a function of the number of spectral channels: comparison of acoustic hearing and cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001 Aug; 110(2):1150-63. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Baskent D, Wang X. PMID: 11519582.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 322     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Effects of electrode location on speech recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000 Sep; 11(8):418-28. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. PMID: 11012237.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Effects of dynamic range and amplitude mapping on phoneme recognition in Nucleus-22 cochlear implant users. Ear Hear. 2000 Jun; 21(3):227-35. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10890731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Speech recognition with reduced spectral cues as a function of age. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 May; 107(5 Pt 1):2704-10. Eisenberg LS, Shannon RV, Martinez AS, Wygonski J, Boothroyd A. PMID: 10830392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 93     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    52. Effects of phase duration and electrode separation on loudness growth in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Mar; 107(3):1637-44. Chatterjee M, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10738817.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Effect of stimulation rate on phoneme recognition by nucleus-22 cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Jan; 107(1):589-97. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10641667.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Effect of acoustic dynamic range on phoneme recognition in quiet and noise by cochlear implant users. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Dec; 106(6):L65-70. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10615712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    55. Consonant recordings for speech testing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Dec; 106(6):L71-4. Shannon RV, Jensvold A, Padilla M, Robert ME, Wang X. PMID: 10615713.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. The effect of frequency allocation on phoneme recognition with the nucleus 22 cochlear implant. Am J Otol. 1999 Nov; 20(6):729-34. Friesen LM, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. PMID: 10565716.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Effects of electrode location and spacing on phoneme recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. Ear Hear. 1999 Aug; 20(4):321-31. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10466568.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Phoneme recognition by cochlear implant users as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and nonlinear amplitude mapping. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Aug; 106(2):L18-23. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10462822.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    59. Effects of electrode configuration and frequency allocation on vowel recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. Ear Hear. 1999 Aug; 20(4):332-44. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10466569.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Psychophysical laws revealed by electric hearing. Neuroreport. 1999 Jun 23; 10(9):1931-5. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. PMID: 10501535.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Recognition of spectrally degraded and frequency-shifted vowels in acoustic and electric hearing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999 Mar; 105(3):1889-900. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10089611.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Effects of noise and spectral resolution on vowel and consonant recognition: acoustic and electric hearing. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Dec; 104(6):3586-96. Fu QJ, Shannon RV, Wang X. PMID: 9857517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 96     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    63. Effects of amplitude nonlinearity on phoneme recognition by cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Nov; 104(5):2570-7. Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 9821336.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    64. Gap detection as a measure of electrode interaction in cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Oct; 104(4):2372-84. Hanekom JJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 10491701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    65. Speech recognition with altered spectral distribution of envelope cues. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Oct; 104(4):2467-76. Shannon RV, Zeng FG, Wygonski J. PMID: 10491708.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Importance of tonal envelope cues in Chinese speech recognition. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 Jul; 104(1):505-10. Fu QJ, Zeng FG, Shannon RV, Soli SD. PMID: 9670541.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    67. Within-channel gap detection using dissimilar markers in cochlear implant listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 May; 103(5 Pt 1):2515-9. Chatterjee M, Fu QJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 9604345.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. Forward masked excitation patterns in multielectrode electrical stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998 May; 103(5 Pt 1):2565-72. Chatterjee M, Shannon RV. PMID: 9604350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    69. Design for an inexpensive but effective cochlear implant. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Feb; 118(2):235-41. Wilson BS, Rebscher S, Zeng FG, Shannon RV, Loeb GE, Lawson DT, Zerbi M. PMID: 9482558.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    70. Speech recognition as a function of the number of electrodes used in the SPEAK cochlear implant speech processor. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1997 Oct; 40(5):1201-15. Fishman KE, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. PMID: 9328890.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. Multi-unit mapping of acoustic stimuli in gerbil inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 1997 Jun; 108(1-2):145-56. Harris DM, Shannon RV, Snyder R, Carney E. PMID: 9213128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Threshold-distance measures from electrical stimulation of human brainstem. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1997 Mar; 5(1):70-4. Shannon RV, Moore JK, McCreery DB, Portillo F. PMID: 9086387.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    73. Place pitch discrimination and speech recognition in cochlear implant users. S Afr J Commun Disord. 1996; 43:27-40. Hanekom JJ, Shannon RV. PMID: 9265842.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. Loudness of simple and complex stimuli in electric hearing. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1995 Sep; 166:235-8. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. PMID: 7668651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    75. Possible origins of the non-monotonic intensity discrimination function in forward masking. Hear Res. 1995 Feb; 82(2):216-24. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. PMID: 7775287.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Loudness-coding mechanisms inferred from electric stimulation of the human auditory system. Science. 1994 Apr 22; 264(5158):564-6. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. PMID: 8160013.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    77. Auditory brainstem implant: I. Issues in surgical implantation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Jun; 108(6):624-33. Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Nelson RA, Moore J, Waring MD, Portillo F, Shannon RV, Telischi FF. PMID: 8515999.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    78. Auditory brainstem implant: II. Postsurgical issues and performance. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Jun; 108(6):634-42. Shannon RV, Fayad J, Moore J, Lo WW, Otto S, Nelson RA, O'Leary M. PMID: 8516000.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    79. Quantitative comparison of electrically and acoustically evoked auditory perception: implications for the location of perceptual mechanisms. Prog Brain Res. 1993; 97:261-9. Shannon RV. PMID: 8234752.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    80. Loudness balance between electric and acoustic stimulation. Hear Res. 1992 Jul; 60(2):231-5. Zeng FG, Shannon RV. PMID: 1639732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    81. Temporal modulation transfer functions in patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Apr; 91(4 Pt 1):2156-64. Shannon RV. PMID: 1597606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    82. Psychophysical measures from electrical stimulation of the human cochlear nucleus. Hear Res. 1990 Aug 01; 47(1-2):159-68. Shannon RV, Otto SR. PMID: 2228792.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    83. Forward masking in patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Aug; 88(2):741-4. Shannon RV. PMID: 2212298.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    84. A computer interface for psychophysical and speech research with the Nucleus cochlear implant. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Feb; 87(2):905-7. Shannon RV, Adams DD, Ferrel RL, Palumbo RL, Grandgenett M. PMID: 2307784.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    85. Recent advances in cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1990 Jan; 87(1):421-2. Shannon RV. PMID: 2299048.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    86. A model of threshold for pulsatile electrical stimulation of cochlear implants. Hear Res. 1989 Jul; 40(3):197-204. Shannon RV. PMID: 2793602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    87. Threshold functions for electrical stimulation of the human cochlear nucleus. Hear Res. 1989 Jun 15; 40(1-2):173-7. Shannon RV. PMID: 2768080.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    88. Detection of gaps in sinusoids and pulse trains by patients with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 1989 Jun; 85(6):2587-92. Shannon RV. PMID: 2745882.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    89. Growth of pulsation threshold of a suppressed tone as a function of its level. Hear Res. 1986; 21(3):251-5. Shannon RV, Houtgast T. PMID: 3722004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    90. Psychophysical suppression of selective portions of pulsation threshold patterns. Hear Res. 1986; 21(3):257-60. Shannon RV. PMID: 3722005.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    91. Threshold and loudness functions for pulsatile stimulation of cochlear implants. Hear Res. 1985 May; 18(2):135-43. Shannon RV. PMID: 3840159.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    92. Multichannel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in man. II. Channel interaction. Hear Res. 1983 Oct; 12(1):1-16. Shannon RV. PMID: 6689326.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    93. Multichannel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in man. I. Basic psychophysics. Hear Res. 1983 Aug; 11(2):157-89. Shannon RV. PMID: 6619003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 86     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    94. Growth of loudness for sinusoidal and pulsatile electrical stimulation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):13-4. Shannon RV. PMID: 6784644.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. Psychophysical measurements relating suppression and combination tones. J Acoust Soc Am. 1980 Sep; 68(3):825-9. Shannon RV, Houtgast T. PMID: 7419817.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    96. Two-tone unmasking and suppression in a forward-masking situation. J Acoust Soc Am. 1976 Jun; 59(6):1460-70. Shannon RV. PMID: 939879.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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