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Robert Charles Seeger, MD

TitleProfessor of Pediatrics
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentPediatrics
AddressCHL Mail Stop 57
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90089
Phone+1 323 361 5618
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    Other Positions
    TitleSection Head for Research in the Division of HemOncBMT


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    University of Southern California School2011Mellon Mentoring Award
    Willamette University2008Distinguished Alumni Citation
    2001H. Russell Smith Award for Innovation in Pediatric Biomedical Research

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Seeger is Professor of Pediatrics in the Keck School of Medicine, Director of Cancer Research Program of the Saban Research Institute, and Division Head for Basic and Translational Research of the Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases at CHLA. Dr. Seeger obtained MD and MS degrees from the University of Oregon School of Medicine, Pediatric training at the University of Minnesota, and research training at the NIH and University College London. Before joining USC in 1989 as a Professor of Pediatrics, he was Professor of Pediatrics at the UCLA School of Medicine.

    He is a well-funded investigator and currently is the Principal Investigator of a PPG, an R01, an R33, and two U10s. Dr. Seeger’s therapeutic research deals with immunotherapy strategies that seek to maximize natural killer (NK) cell activity with tumor cell targeting antibodies and with agents that modify the tumor microenvironment milieu to minimize NK suppressive effects of monocytes/macrophages producing IL-6 and TGFß1. His biomarker research, in collaboration with Dr. Shahab Asgharzadeh, has resulted in a 14-gene expression signature (TaqMan® Low Density Array, TLDA) that predicts outcome for children with high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. He also has developed a second TLDA assay that quantifies expression of 5 neuroblastoma genes in bone marrow and blood with the ability to detect 1 tumor cell/million normal cells. This assay is proving useful for monitoring response and predicting outcome.

    Finally, in his role as Principal Investigator of and NCI-funded Neuroblastoma PPG, he Co-Chairs the Scientific Review Committee of the New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy consortium (NANT, see www.nant.org), which sets directions and reviews clinical trial proposals. The NANT is an early-phase clinical trials consortium of 15 institutions in North America that tests new treatments, biomarkers, and imaging for children with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma. Thus, his expertise includes pre-clinical immunotherapy, biomarker development and application, and early phase clinical trials.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Discovering and Exploiting Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Therapy Resistance
    NIH/NCI P01CA217959Sep 18, 2017 - Aug 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Diagnostics for Risk Stratification and Monitoring of Neuroblastoma
    NIH/NCI R01CA182633Mar 4, 2014 - Feb 28, 2017
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Gene Expression of Neuroblastoma and Normal Cells in Bone Marrow Predicts Outcome
    NIH/NCI R33CA152809Sep 1, 2010 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biology and Therapy of High Risk Neuroblastoma
    NIH/NCI P01CA081403Jul 6, 2000 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Clinical Correlative Studies of Neuroblastoma
    NIH/NCI R01CA060104Aug 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CLINICAL CORRELATIVE STUDIES OF NEUROBLASTOMA
    NIH/NCI U01CA060104Aug 1, 1993 - Jan 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNOCYTOLOGY OF MARROW METASTASES IN NEUROBLASTOMA
    NIH/NCI R03CA053329Sep 30, 1990 - Sep 29, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA ANTIGENS
    NIH/NCI R01CA022794Feb 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Ozkaynak MF, Gilman AL, London WB, Naranjo A, Diccianni MB, Tenney SC, Smith M, Messer KS, Seeger R, Reynolds CP, Smith LM, Shulkin BL, Parisi M, Maris JM, Park JR, Sondel PM, Yu AL. Corrigendum: A Comprehensive Safety Trial of Chimeric Antibody 14.18 With GM-CSF, IL-2, and Isotretinoin in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Following Myeloablative Therapy: Children's Oncology Group Study ANBL0931. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1641. PMID: 30046297.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ozkaynak MF, Gilman AL, London WB, Naranjo A, Diccianni MB, Tenney SC, Smith M, Messer KS, Seeger R, Reynolds CP, Smith LM, Shulkin BL, Parisi M, Maris JM, Park JR, Sondel PM, Yu AL. A Comprehensive Safety Trial of Chimeric Antibody 14.18 With GM-CSF, IL-2, and Isotretinoin in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Following Myeloablative Therapy: Children's Oncology Group Study ANBL0931. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1355. PMID: 29967609.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wei JS, Kuznetsov IB, Zhang S, Song YK, Asgharzadeh S, Sindiri S, Wen X, Patidar R, Nagaraj S, Walton A, Guidry Auvil JM, Gerhard DS, Yuksel A, Catchpoole DR, Hewitt SM, Sondel PM, Seeger R, Maris JM, Khan J. Clinically Relevant Cytotoxic Immune Cell Signatures and Clonal Expansion of T Cell Receptors in High-risk MYCN-not-amplified Human Neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 May 21. PMID: 29784674.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Webb MW, Sun J, Sheard MA, Liu WY, Wu HW, Jackson JR, Malvar J, Sposto R, Daniel D, Seeger R. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor blockade improves the efficacy of chemotherapy against human neuroblastoma in the absence of T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. 2018 Apr 17. PMID: 29665011.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Rajbhandari P, Lopez G, Capdevila C, Salvatori B, Yu J, Rodriguez-Barrueco R, Martinez D, Yarmarkovich M, Weichert-Leahey N, Abraham BJ, Alvarez MJ, Iyer A, Harenza JL, Oldridge D, De Preter K, Koster J, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Wei JS, Khan J, Vandesompele J, Mestdagh P, Versteeg R, Look AT, Young RA, Iavarone A, Lasorella A, Silva JM, Maris JM, Califano A. Cross-Cohort Analysis Identifies a TEAD4-MYCN Positive Feedback Loop as the Core Regulatory Element of High-Risk Neuroblastoma. Cancer Discov. 2018 May; 8(5):582-599. PMID: 29510988.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Robison NJ, Yeo KK, Berliner AP, Malvar J, Sheard MA, Margol AS, Seeger R, Rushing T, Finlay JL, Sposto R, Dhall G. Phase I trial of dasatinib, lenalidomide, and temozolomide in children with relapsed or refractory central nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol. 2018 May; 138(1):199-207. PMID: 29427149.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Niemas-Teshiba R, Matsuno R, Wang LL, Tang XX, Chiu B, Zeki J, Coburn J, Ornell K, Naranjo A, Van Ryn C, London WB, Hogarty MD, Gastier-Foster JM, Look AT, Park JR, Maris JM, Cohn SL, Seeger R, Asgharzadeh S, Ikegaki N, Shimada H. MYC-family protein overexpression and prominent nucleolar formation represent prognostic indicators and potential therapeutic targets for aggressive high-MKI neuroblastomas: a report from the children's oncology group. Oncotarget. 2018 Jan 19; 9(5):6416-6432. PMID: 29464082.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wen C, Seeger R, Fabbri M, Wang L, Wayne AS, Jong AY. Biological roles and potential applications of immune cell-derived extracellular vesicles. J Extracell Vesicles. 2017; 6(1):1400370. PMID: 29209467.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Borriello L, Nakata R, Sheard MA, Fernandez GE, Sposto R, Malvar J, Blavier L, Shimada H, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, DeClerck YA. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Share Characteristics and Protumorigenic Activity with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Cancer Res. 2017 09 15; 77(18):5142-5157. PMID: 28687621.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Marachelian A, Villablanca JG, Liu CW, Liu B, Goodarzian F, Lai HA, Shimada H, Tran HC, Parra JA, Gallego R, Bedrossian N, Young S, Czarnecki S, Kennedy R, Weiss BD, Goldsmith K, Granger M, Matthay KK, Groshen S, Asgharzadeh S, Sposto R, Seeger R. Expression of Five Neuroblastoma Genes in Bone Marrow or Blood of Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Neuroblastoma Provides a New Biomarker for Disease and Prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Sep 15; 23(18):5374-5383. PMID: 28559462.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Jong AY, Wu CH, Li J, Sun J, Fabbri M, Wayne AS, Seeger R. Large-scale isolation and cytotoxicity of extracellular vesicles derived from activated human natural killer cells. J Extracell Vesicles. 2017; 6(1):1294368. PMID: 28326171.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Burchill SA, Beiske K, Shimada H, Ambros PF, Seeger R, Tytgat GA, Brock PR, Haber M, Park JR, Berthold F. Recommendations for the standardization of bone marrow disease assessment and reporting in children with neuroblastoma on behalf of the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria Bone Marrow Working Group. Cancer. 2017 Apr 01; 123(7):1095-1105. PMID: 27984660.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Gutova M, Goldstein L, Metz M, Hovsepyan A, Tsurkan LG, Tirughana R, Tsaturyan L, Annala AJ, Synold TW, Wan Z, Seeger R, Anderson C, Moats RA, Potter PM, Aboody KS. Optimization of a Neural Stem-Cell-Mediated Carboxylesterase/Irinotecan Gene Therapy for Metastatic Neuroblastoma. Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2017 Mar 17; 4:67-76. PMID: 28345025.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Erdreich-Epstein A, Singh AR, Joshi S, Vega FM, Guo P, Xu J, Groshen S, Ye W, Millard M, Campan M, Morales G, Garlich JR, Laird PW, Seeger R, Shimada H, Durden DL. Association of high microvessel avß3 and low PTEN with poor outcome in stage 3 neuroblastoma: rationale for using first in class dual PI3K/BRD4 inhibitor, SF1126. Oncotarget. 2017 Aug 08; 8(32):52193-52210. PMID: 28881723.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Tran HC, Wan Z, Sheard MA, Sun J, Jackson JR, Malvar J, Xu Y, Wang L, Sposto R, Kim ES, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R. TGFßR1 Blockade with Galunisertib (LY2157299) Enhances Anti-Neuroblastoma Activity of the Anti-GD2 Antibody Dinutuximab (ch14.18) with Natural Killer Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Feb 01; 23(3):804-813. PMID: 27756784.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Jackson JR, Kim Y, Seeger R, Kim ES. A novel minimal residual disease model of neuroblastoma in mice. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Jun; 51(6):991-4. PMID: 26995512.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Zhang S, Wei JS, Li SQ, Badgett TC, Song YK, Agarwal S, Coarfa C, Tolman C, Hurd L, Liao H, He J, Wen X, Liu Z, Thiele CJ, Westermann F, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Maris JM, Guidry Auvil JM, Smith MA, Kolaczyk ED, Shohet J, Khan J. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. Cancer Lett. 2016 Feb 28; 371(2):214-24. PMID: 26683771.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Borriello L, Seeger R, Asgharzadeh S, DeClerck YA. More than the genes, the tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma. Cancer Lett. 2016 09 28; 380(1):304-14. PMID: 26597947.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Schnepp RW, Khurana P, Attiyeh EF, Raman P, Chodosh SE, Oldridge DA, Gagliardi ME, Conkrite KL, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Madison BB, Rustgi AK, Maris JM, Diskin SJ. A LIN28B-RAN-AURKA Signaling Network Promotes Neuroblastoma Tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2015 Nov 09; 28(5):599-609. PMID: 26481147; PMCID: PMC4643330 [Available on 11/09/16].
    20. Anderson CP, Matthay KK, Perentesis JP, Neglia JP, Bailey HH, Villablanca JG, Groshen S, Hasenauer B, Maris JM, Seeger R, Reynolds CP. Pilot study of intravenous melphalan combined with continuous infusion L-S,R-buthionine sulfoximine for children with recurrent neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Oct; 62(10):1739-46. PMID: 26153194.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Russell MR, Penikis A, Oldridge DA, Alvarez-Dominguez JR, McDaniel L, Diamond M, Padovan O, Raman P, Li Y, Wei JS, Zhang S, Gnanchandran J, Seeger R, Asgharzadeh S, Khan J, Diskin SJ, Maris JM, Cole KA. CASC15-S Is a Tumor Suppressor lncRNA at the 6p22 Neuroblastoma Susceptibility Locus. Cancer Res. 2015 Aug 01; 75(15):3155-66. PMID: 26100672; PMCID: PMC4526355.
    22. Challagundla KB, Wise PM, Neviani P, Chava H, Murtadha M, Xu T, Kennedy R, Ivan C, Zhang X, Vannini I, Fanini F, Amadori D, Calin GA, Hadjidaniel M, Shimada H, Jong A, Seeger R, Asgharzadeh S, Goldkorn A, Fabbri M. Exosome-mediated transfer of microRNAs within the tumor microenvironment and neuroblastoma resistance to chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Jul; 107(7). PMID: 25972604; PMCID: PMC4651042.
    23. Oberthuer A, Juraeva D, Hero B, Volland R, Sterz C, Schmidt R, Faldum A, Kahlert Y, Engesser A, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Ohira M, Nakagawara A, Scaruffi P, Tonini GP, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Delattre O, Schleiermacher G, Vandesompele J, Speleman F, Noguera R, Piqueras M, Bénard J, Valent A, Avigad S, Yaniv I, Grundy RG, Ortmann M, Shao C, Schwab M, Eils R, Simon T, Theissen J, Berthold F, Westermann F, Brors B, Fischer M. Revised risk estimation and treatment stratification of low- and intermediate-risk neuroblastoma patients by integrating clinical and molecular prognostic markers. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Apr 15; 21(8):1904-15. PMID: 25231397.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Teshiba R, Kawano S, Wang LL, He L, Naranjo A, London WB, Seeger R, Gastier-Foster JM, Look AT, Hogarty MD, Cohn SL, Maris JM, Park JR, Shimada H. Age-dependent prognostic effect by Mitosis-Karyorrhexis Index in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 17(6):441-9. PMID: 25207821; PMCID: PMC4340697.
    25. Gustafson WC, Meyerowitz JG, Nekritz EA, Chen J, Benes C, Charron E, Simonds EF, Seeger R, Matthay KK, Hertz NT, Eilers M, Shokat KM, Weiss WA. Drugging MYCN through an allosteric transition in Aurora kinase A. Cancer Cell. 2014 Sep 08; 26(3):414-427. PMID: 25175806; PMCID: PMC4160413.
    26. Xu Y, Sun J, Sheard MA, Tran HC, Wan Z, Liu WY, Asgharzadeh S, Sposto R, Wu HW, Seeger R. Lenalidomide overcomes suppression of human natural killer cell anti-tumor functions by neuroblastoma microenvironment-associated IL-6 and TGFß1. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013 Oct; 62(10):1637-48. PMID: 23982484; PMCID: PMC3907789.
    27. Wang LL, Suganuma R, Ikegaki N, Tang X, Naranjo A, McGrady P, London WB, Hogarty MD, Gastier-Foster JM, Look AT, Park JR, Maris JM, Cohn SL, Seeger R, Shimada H. Neuroblastoma of undifferentiated subtype, prognostic significance of prominent nucleolar formation, and MYC/MYCN protein expression: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer. 2013 Oct 15; 119(20):3718-26. PMID: 23901000; PMCID: PMC4554323.
    28. Kreissman SG, Seeger R, Matthay KK, London WB, Sposto R, Grupp SA, Haas-Kogan DA, Laquaglia MP, Yu AL, Diller L, Buxton A, Park JR, Cohn SL, Maris JM, Reynolds CP, Villablanca JG. Purged versus non-purged peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma (COG A3973): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Sep; 14(10):999-1008. PMID: 23890779; PMCID: PMC3963485.
    29. Sheard MA, Asgharzadeh S, Liu Y, Lin TY, Wu HW, Ji L, Groshen S, Lee DA, Seeger R. Membrane-bound TRAIL supplements natural killer cell cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells. J Immunother. 2013 Jun; 36(5):319-29. PMID: 23719242; PMCID: PMC4064791.
    30. Ara T, Nakata R, Sheard MA, Shimada H, Buettner R, Groshen SG, Ji L, Yu H, Jove R, Seeger R, DeClerck YA. Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 2013 Jul 01; 73(13):3852-64. PMID: 23633489; PMCID: PMC3740971.
    31. Liu Y, Wu HW, Sheard MA, Sposto R, Somanchi SS, Cooper LJ, Lee DA, Seeger R. Growth and activation of natural killer cells ex vivo from children with neuroblastoma for adoptive cell therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 15; 19(8):2132-43. PMID: 23378384; PMCID: PMC3658308.
    32. Pugh TJ, Morozova O, Attiyeh EF, Asgharzadeh S, Wei JS, Auclair D, Carter SL, Cibulskis K, Hanna M, Kiezun A, Kim J, Lawrence MS, Lichenstein L, McKenna A, Pedamallu CS, Ramos AH, Shefler E, Sivachenko A, Sougnez C, Stewart C, Ally A, Birol I, Chiu R, Corbett RD, Hirst M, Jackman SD, Kamoh B, Khodabakshi AH, Krzywinski M, Lo A, Moore RA, Mungall KL, Qian J, Tam A, Thiessen N, Zhao Y, Cole KA, Diamond M, Diskin SJ, Mosse YP, Wood AC, Ji L, Sposto R, Badgett T, London WB, Moyer Y, Gastier-Foster JM, Smith MA, Guidry Auvil JM, Gerhard DS, Hogarty MD, Jones SJ, Lander ES, Gabriel SB, Getz G, Seeger R, Khan J, Marra MA, Meyerson M, Maris JM. The genetic landscape of high-risk neuroblastoma. Nat Genet. 2013 Mar; 45(3):279-84. PMID: 23334666; PMCID: PMC3682833.
    33. Asgharzadeh S, Salo JA, Ji L, Oberthuer A, Fischer M, Berthold F, Hadjidaniel M, Liu CW, Metelitsa LS, Pique-Regi R, Wakamatsu P, Villablanca JG, Kreissman SG, Matthay KK, Shimada H, London WB, Sposto R, Seeger R. Clinical significance of tumor-associated inflammatory cells in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 01; 30(28):3525-32. PMID: 22927533; PMCID: PMC3675667.
    34. Suganuma R, Wang LL, Sano H, Naranjo A, London WB, Seeger R, Hogarty MD, Gastier-Foster JM, Look AT, Park JR, Maris JM, Cohn SL, Amann G, Beiske K, Cullinane CJ, d'Amore ES, Gambini C, Jarzembowski JA, Joshi VV, Navarro S, Peuchmaur M, Shimada H. Peripheral neuroblastic tumors with genotype-phenotype discordance: a report from the Children's Oncology Group and the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 Mar; 60(3):363-70. PMID: 22744966; PMCID: PMC3397468.
    35. Yang F, Jove V, Buettner R, Xin H, Wu J, Wang Y, Nam S, Xu Y, Ara T, DeClerck YA, Seeger R, Yu H, Jove R. Sorafenib inhibits endogenous and IL-6/S1P induced JAK2-STAT3 signaling in human neuroblastoma, associated with growth suppression and apoptosis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2012 May; 13(7):534-41. PMID: 22406995.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Bosse KR, Diskin SJ, Cole KA, Wood AC, Schnepp RW, Norris G, Nguyen le B, Jagannathan J, Laquaglia M, Winter C, Diamond M, Hou C, Attiyeh EF, Mosse YP, Pineros V, Dizin E, Zhang Y, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Capasso M, Pawel BR, Devoto M, Hakonarson H, Rappaport EF, Irminger-Finger I, Maris JM. Common variation at BARD1 results in the expression of an oncogenic isoform that influences neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenicity. Cancer Res. 2012 Apr 15; 72(8):2068-78. PMID: 22350409; PMCID: PMC3328617.
    37. Seeger R. Immunology and immunotherapy of neuroblastoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 2011 Oct; 21(4):229-37. PMID: 21971567; PMCID: PMC3658311.
    38. Delgado DC, Hank JA, Kolesar J, Lorentzen D, Gan J, Seo S, Kim K, Shusterman S, Gillies SD, Reisfeld RA, Yang R, Gadbaw B, DeSantes KB, London WB, Seeger R, Maris JM, Sondel PM. Genotypes of NK cell KIR receptors, their ligands, and Fc? receptors in the response of neuroblastoma patients to Hu14.18-IL2 immunotherapy. Cancer Res. 2010 Dec 01; 70(23):9554-61. PMID: 20935224; PMCID: PMC2999644.
    39. Shusterman S, London WB, Gillies SD, Hank JA, Voss SD, Seeger R, Reynolds CP, Kimball J, Albertini MR, Wagner B, Gan J, Eickhoff J, DeSantes KB, Cohn SL, Hecht T, Gadbaw B, Reisfeld RA, Maris JM, Sondel PM. Antitumor activity of hu14.18-IL2 in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma: a Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 20; 28(33):4969-75. PMID: 20921469; PMCID: PMC3020698.
    40. Baker DL, Schmidt ML, Cohn SL, Maris JM, London WB, Buxton A, Stram D, Castleberry RP, Shimada H, Sandler A, Shamberger RC, Look AT, Reynolds CP, Seeger R, Matthay KK. Outcome after reduced chemotherapy for intermediate-risk neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 30; 363(14):1313-23. PMID: 20879880; PMCID: PMC2993160.
    41. Yu AL, Gilman AL, Ozkaynak MF, London WB, Kreissman SG, Chen HX, Smith M, Anderson B, Villablanca JG, Matthay KK, Shimada H, Grupp SA, Seeger R, Reynolds CP, Buxton A, Reisfeld RA, Gillies SD, Cohn SL, Maris JM, Sondel PM. Anti-GD2 antibody with GM-CSF, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 30; 363(14):1324-34. PMID: 20879881; PMCID: PMC3086629.
    42. London WB, Frantz CN, Campbell LA, Seeger R, Brumback BA, Cohn SL, Matthay KK, Castleberry RP, Diller L. Phase II randomized comparison of topotecan plus cyclophosphamide versus topotecan alone in children with recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma: a Children's Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 20; 28(24):3808-15. PMID: 20660830; PMCID: PMC2940398.
    43. Hölzel M, Huang S, Koster J, Ora I, Lakeman A, Caron H, Nijkamp W, Xie J, Callens T, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Messiaen L, Versteeg R, Bernards R. NF1 is a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma that determines retinoic acid response and disease outcome. Cell. 2010 Jul 23; 142(2):218-29. PMID: 20655465; PMCID: PMC2913027.
    44. Oberthuer A, Hero B, Berthold F, Juraeva D, Faldum A, Kahlert Y, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Scaruffi P, Tonini GP, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Delattre O, Schleiermacher G, Vandesompele J, Vermeulen J, Speleman F, Noguera R, Piqueras M, Bénard J, Valent A, Avigad S, Yaniv I, Weber A, Christiansen H, Grundy RG, Schardt K, Schwab M, Eils R, Warnat P, Kaderali L, Simon T, Decarolis B, Theissen J, Westermann F, Brors B, Fischer M. Prognostic impact of gene expression-based classification for neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20; 28(21):3506-15. PMID: 20567016.
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    45. Xiong G, Husseiny MI, Song L, Erdreich-Epstein A, Shackleford GM, Seeger R, Jäckel D, Hensel M, Metelitsa LS. Novel cancer vaccine based on genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jun 01; 126(11):2622-34. PMID: 19824039; PMCID: PMC2993175.
    46. Bensimhon P, Villablanca JG, Sender LS, Matthay KK, Park JR, Seeger R, London WB, Yap JS, Kreissman SG. Peripheral blood stem cell support for multiple cycles of dose intensive induction therapy is feasible with little risk of tumor contamination in advanced stage neuroblastoma: a report from the Childrens Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Apr; 54(4):596-602. PMID: 20049927; PMCID: PMC2905158.
    47. Hu H, Du L, Nagabayashi G, Seeger R, Gatti RA. ATM is down-regulated by N-Myc-regulated microRNA-421. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 26; 107(4):1506-11. PMID: 20080624; PMCID: PMC2824372.
    48. Okamatsu C, London WB, Naranjo A, Hogarty MD, Gastier-Foster JM, Look AT, LaQuaglia M, Maris JM, Cohn SL, Matthay KK, Seeger R, Saji T, Shimada H. Clinicopathological characteristics of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma: a report from the CCG and COG. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Oct; 53(4):563-9. PMID: 19530234; PMCID: PMC2730988.
    49. Song L, Asgharzadeh S, Salo J, Engell K, Wu HW, Sposto R, Ara T, Silverman AM, DeClerck YA, Seeger R, Metelitsa LS. Valpha24-invariant NKT cells mediate antitumor activity via killing of tumor-associated macrophages. J Clin Invest. 2009 Jun; 119(6):1524-36. PMID: 19411762; PMCID: PMC2689106.
    50. Capasso M, Devoto M, Hou C, Asgharzadeh S, Glessner JT, Attiyeh EF, Mosse YP, Kim C, Diskin SJ, Cole KA, Bosse K, Diamond M, Laudenslager M, Winter C, Bradfield JP, Scott RH, Jagannathan J, Garris M, McConville C, London WB, Seeger R, Grant SF, Li H, Rahman N, Rappaport E, Hakonarson H, Maris JM. Common variations in BARD1 influence susceptibility to high-risk neuroblastoma. Nat Genet. 2009 Jun; 41(6):718-23. PMID: 19412175.
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    51. Huang S, Laoukili J, Epping MT, Koster J, Hölzel M, Westerman BA, Nijkamp W, Hata A, Asgharzadeh S, Seeger R, Versteeg R, Beijersbergen RL, Bernards R. ZNF423 is critically required for retinoic acid-induced differentiation and is a marker of neuroblastoma outcome. Cancer Cell. 2009 Apr 07; 15(4):328-40. PMID: 19345331; PMCID: PMC2693316.
    52. Matthay KK, Reynolds CP, Seeger R, Shimada H, Adkins ES, Haas-Kogan D, Gerbing RB, London WB, Villablanca JG. Long-term results for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated on a randomized trial of myeloablative therapy followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid: a children's oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 01; 27(7):1007-13. PMID: 19171716; PMCID: PMC2738615.
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