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Robert E Maxson, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Biochemistry & Molecular Medicine
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    The overall interest of the Maxson laboratory is the molecular genetic basis of embryonic pattern formation. We focus on processes that regulate the development of the calvaria, the flat bones that compose the top of the skull. These bones are derived from populations of neural crest and mesoderm that undergo extensive migration and proliferation as they develop into the exquisitely patterned calvarial bones. Between the bones are sutures, fibrous structures that form flexible joints uniting the bones, and that also serve as sources of stem cells that enable the bones to grow in coordination with the brain.

    Using genetic approaches in humans and mice, we have identified several genes that participate in the development of the calvarial bones and sutures. These include MSX2, which when mutated causes craniosynostosis, the fusion of the calvarial bones at the sutures, and Twist1, also required for suture development.

    Our most recent work involves an interaction between Twist1 and a related transcription factor, Tcf12. This interaction has a central role in the development of the coronal suture as well as in the pathophysiology of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, a human disorder that results in craniosynostosis. We have investigated this interaction in mice, and in a collaboration with Gage Crump, in zebrafish. Current work focuses on how Twist1 and Tcf12 influence osteogenic precursor proliferation and differentiation, and how deficiencies in these processes lead to craniosynostosis.

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    Molecular and Cellular Basis of Craniosynostosis
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE026339Jul 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2012 Craniofacial Morphogenesis &Tissue Regeneration GRS &GRC
    NIH/NIDCR R13DE022501Feb 23, 2012 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Patterned Growth of the Mammalian Skull
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE019650Apr 1, 2009 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Twist1 in Boundary Formation and Craniosynostosis
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE016320Dec 1, 2004 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMPROVING ANIMAL RESOURCES AT THE CANCER CENTER
    NIH/NCRR G20RR013286Jul 15, 1999 - Jul 14, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EXPRESSION &FUNCTION OF HOMEOBOX GENES
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE012450Feb 1, 1989 - Jan 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF MAMMALIAN HOMEOBOX GENES
    NIH/NICHD R01HD022416Jan 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TEMPORAL REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NICHD R01HD018582Sep 1, 1983 - Aug 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Teng CS, Ting MC, Farmer DT, Brockop M, Maxson RE, Crump JG. Altered bone growth dynamics prefigure craniosynostosis in a zebrafish model of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Elife. 2018 10 25; 7. PMID: 30375332.
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    2. Nguyen BH, Ishii M, Maxson RE, Wang J. Culturing and Manipulation of O9-1 Neural Crest Cells. J Vis Exp. 2018 10 09; (140). PMID: 30371662.
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    3. Hughes MW, Jiang TX, Plikus MV, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Lin CH, Schafer C, Maxson R, Widelitz RB, Chuong CM. Msx2 Supports Epidermal Competency during Wound-Induced Hair Follicle Neogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2018 09; 138(9):2041-2050. PMID: 29577917.
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    4. Teng CS, Yen HY, Barske L, Smith B, Llamas J, Segil N, Go J, Sanchez-Lara PA, Maxson RE, Crump JG. Requirement for Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the bones of the mouse and human middle ear. Sci Rep. 2017 05 31; 7(1):2497. PMID: 28566723.
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    5. Sun J, Ting MC, Ishii M, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 function together in the regulation of primordial germ cell migration in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2016 09 01; 417(1):11-24. PMID: 27435625.
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    6. Wang J, Xiao Y, Hsu CW, Martinez-Traverso IM, Zhang M, Bai Y, Ishii M, Maxson RE, Olson EN, Dickinson ME, Wythe JD, Martin JF. Yap and Taz play a crucial role in neural crest-derived craniofacial development. Development. 2016 Feb 01; 143(3):504-15. PMID: 26718006.
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    7. Liu Y, Pike MC, Wu N, Lin YG, Mucowski S, Punj V, Tang Y, Yen HY, Stanczyk FZ, Enbom E, Austria T, Widschwendter M, Maxson R, Dubeau L. Brca1 Mutations Enhance Mouse Reproductive Functions by Increasing Responsiveness to Male-Derived Scent. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139013. PMID: 26488398.
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    8. Ishii M, Sun J, Ting MC, Maxson RE. The Development of the Calvarial Bones and Sutures and the Pathophysiology of Craniosynostosis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2015; 115:131-56. PMID: 26589924.
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    9. Liu Y, Yen HY, Austria T, Pettersson J, Peti-Peterdi J, Maxson R, Widschwendter M, Dubeau L. A Mouse Model That Reproduces the Developmental Pathways and Site Specificity of the Cancers Associated With the Human BRCA1 Mutation Carrier State. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct; 2(10):1318-30. PMID: 26629527.
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    10. Cheng SL, Behrmann A, Shao JS, Ramachandran B, Krchma K, Bello Arredondo Y, Kovacs A, Mead M, Maxson R, Towler DA. Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient mice fed diabetogenic diets. Diabetes. 2014 Dec; 63(12):4326-37. PMID: 25056439.
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    11. Cha J, Sun X, Bartos A, Fenelon J, Lefèvre P, Daikoku T, Shaw G, Maxson R, Murphy BD, Renfree MB, Dey SK. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause. Open Biol. 2013 Apr 24; 3(4):130035. PMID: 23615030.
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    12. Yumoto K, Thomas PS, Lane J, Matsuzaki K, Inagaki M, Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Scott GJ, Ray MK, Ishii M, Maxson R, Mishina Y, Kaartinen V. TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (Tak1) mediates agonist-induced Smad activation and linker region phosphorylation in embryonic craniofacial neural crest-derived cells. J Biol Chem. 2013 May 10; 288(19):13467-80. PMID: 23546880.
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    13. Sharma VP, Fenwick AL, Brockop MS, McGowan SJ, Goos JA, Hoogeboom AJ, Brady AF, Jeelani NO, Lynch SA, Mulliken JB, Murray DJ, Phipps JM, Sweeney E, Tomkins SE, Wilson LC, Bennett S, Cornall RJ, Broxholme J, Kanapin A, Johnson D, Wall SA, van der Spek PJ, Mathijssen IM, Maxson RE, Twigg SR, Wilkie AO. Mutations in TCF12, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix partner of TWIST1, are a frequent cause of coronal craniosynostosis. Nat Genet. 2013 Mar; 45(3):304-7. PMID: 23354436.
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    14. Sun J, Ishii M, Ting MC, Maxson R. Foxc1 controls the growth of the murine frontal bone rudiment by direct regulation of a Bmp response threshold of Msx2. Development. 2013 Mar; 140(5):1034-44. PMID: 23344708.
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    15. Ishii M, Arias AC, Liu L, Chen YB, Bronner ME, Maxson RE. A stable cranial neural crest cell line from mouse. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Nov 20; 21(17):3069-80. PMID: 22889333.
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    16. Yen HY, Gabet Y, Liu Y, Martin A, Wu NL, Pike MC, Frenkel B, Maxson R, Dubeau L. Alterations in Brca1 expression in mouse ovarian granulosa cells have short-term and long-term consequences on estrogen-responsive organs. Lab Invest. 2012 Jun; 92(6):802-11. PMID: 22488153.
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    17. Ting MC, Liao CP, Yan C, Jia L, Groshen S, Frenkel B, Roy-Burman P, Coetzee GA, Maxson R. An enhancer from the 8q24 prostate cancer risk region is sufficient to direct reporter gene expression to a subset of prostate stem-like epithelial cells in transgenic mice. Dis Model Mech. 2012 May; 5(3):366-74. PMID: 22279083.
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    18. Daikoku T, Cha J, Sun X, Tranguch S, Xie H, Fujita T, Hirota Y, Lydon J, DeMayo F, Maxson R, Dey SK. Conditional deletion of Msx homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity. Dev Cell. 2011 Dec 13; 21(6):1014-25. PMID: 22100262.
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    19. Yen HY, Ting MC, Maxson RE. Jagged1 functions downstream of Twist1 in the specification of the coronal suture and the formation of a boundary between osteogenic and non-osteogenic cells. Dev Biol. 2010 Nov 15; 347(2):258-70. PMID: 20727876.
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    20. Roybal PG, Wu NL, Sun J, Ting MC, Schafer CA, Maxson RE. Inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 in neural crest reveals an unexpected role in suppressing heterotopic bone formation in the head. Dev Biol. 2010 Jul 01; 343(1-2):28-39. PMID: 20398647.
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    21. Pace DA, Maxson R, Manahan DT. Ribosomal analysis of rapid rates of protein synthesis in the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri. Biol Bull. 2010 Feb; 218(1):48-60. PMID: 20203253.
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    22. Hong H, Yen HY, Brockmeyer A, Liu Y, Chodankar R, Pike MC, Stanczyk FZ, Maxson R, Dubeau L. Changes in the mouse estrus cycle in response to BRCA1 inactivation suggest a potential link between risk factors for familial and sporadic ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2010 Jan 01; 70(1):221-8. PMID: 20028858.
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    23. Ting MC, Wu NL, Roybal PG, Sun J, Liu L, Yen Y, Maxson RE. EphA4 as an effector of Twist1 in the guidance of osteogenic precursor cells during calvarial bone growth and in craniosynostosis. Development. 2009 Mar; 136(5):855-64. PMID: 19201948.
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    24. Asahina K, Tsai SY, Li P, Ishii M, Maxson RE, Sucov HM, Tsukamoto H. Mesenchymal origin of hepatic stellate cells, submesothelial cells, and perivascular mesenchymal cells during mouse liver development. Hepatology. 2009 Mar; 49(3):998-1011. PMID: 19085956.
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    25. Plikus MV, Widelitz RB, Maxson R, Chuong CM. Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity. Int J Dev Biol. 2009; 53(5-6):857-68. PMID: 19378257.
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    26. Li P, Tong C, Mehrian-Shai R, Jia L, Wu N, Yan Y, Maxson RE, Schulze EN, Song H, Hsieh CL, Pera MF, Ying QL. Germline competent embryonic stem cells derived from rat blastocysts. Cell. 2008 Dec 26; 135(7):1299-310. PMID: 19109898.
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    27. Chen YH, Ishii M, Sucov HM, Maxson RE. Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium. BMC Dev Biol. 2008 Jul 30; 8:75. PMID: 18667074.
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    28. Plikus MV, Mayer JA, de la Cruz D, Baker RE, Maini PK, Maxson R, Chuong CM. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration. Nature. 2008 Jan 17; 451(7176):340-4. PMID: 18202659.
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    29. Maxson R, Ishii M. The Bmp pathway in skull vault development. Front Oral Biol. 2008; 12:197-208. PMID: 18391502.
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    30. Fu H, Ishii M, Gu Y, Maxson R. Conditional alleles of Msx1 and Msx2. Genesis. 2007 Aug; 45(8):477-81. PMID: 17654563.
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    31. Han J, Ishii M, Bringas P, Maas RL, Maxson RE, Chai Y. Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev. 2007 Sep-Oct; 124(9-10):729-45. PMID: 17693062.
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    32. Chen YH, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov HM, Maxson RE. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007 Aug 15; 308(2):421-37. PMID: 17601530.
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    33. Chai Y, Maxson RE. Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006 Sep; 235(9):2353-75. PMID: 16680722.
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    34. Merrill AE, Bochukova EG, Brugger SM, Ishii M, Pilz DT, Wall SA, Lyons KM, Wilkie AO, Maxson RE. Cell mixing at a neural crest-mesoderm boundary and deficient ephrin-Eph signaling in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Apr 15; 15(8):1319-28. PMID: 16540516.
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    35. Ishii M, Han J, Yen HY, Sucov HM, Chai Y, Maxson RE. Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development. 2005 Nov; 132(22):4937-50. PMID: 16221730.
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    36. Liu W, Selever J, Murali D, Sun X, Brugger SM, Ma L, Schwartz RJ, Maxson R, Furuta Y, Martin JF. Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2005 Jul 15; 283(2):282-93. PMID: 15936012.
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    37. Maxson R. Adaptation: a developmental biologist in the Antarctic. Genesis. 2005 Jul; 42(3):117-23. PMID: 15986441.
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    38. Chodankar R, Kwang S, Sangiorgi F, Hong H, Yen HY, Deng C, Pike MC, Shuler CF, Maxson R, Dubeau L. Cell-nonautonomous induction of ovarian and uterine serous cystadenomas in mice lacking a functional Brca1 in ovarian granulosa cells. Curr Biol. 2005 Mar 29; 15(6):561-5. PMID: 15797026.
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    39. Brugger SM, Merrill AE, Torres-Vazquez J, Wu N, Ting MC, Cho JY, Dobias SL, Yi SE, Lyons K, Bell JR, Arora K, Warrior R, Maxson R. A phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory module in the Msx2 promoter is sufficient for BMP-dependent transcription in murine and Drosophila embryos. Development. 2004 Oct; 131(20):5153-65. PMID: 15459107.
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    40. Ishii M, Merrill AE, Chan YS, Gitelman I, Rice DP, Sucov HM, Maxson RE. Msx2 and Twist cooperatively control the development of the neural crest-derived skeletogenic mesenchyme of the murine skull vault. Development. 2003 Dec; 130(24):6131-42. PMID: 14597577.
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    41. Wu LY, Li M, Hinton DR, Guo L, Jiang S, Wang JT, Zeng A, Xie JB, Snead M, Shuler C, Maxson RE, Liu YH. Microphthalmia resulting from MSX2-induced apoptosis in the optic vesicle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun; 44(6):2404-12. PMID: 12766037.
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    42. Ma L, Liu J, Wu T, Plikus M, Jiang TX, Bi Q, Liu YH, Müller-Röver S, Peters H, Sundberg JP, Maxson R, Maas RL, Chuong CM. 'Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation. Development. 2003 Jan; 130(2):379-89. PMID: 12466204.
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    43. Jiang X, Choudhary B, Merki E, Chien KR, Maxson RE, Sucov HM. Normal fate and altered function of the cardiac neural crest cell lineage in retinoic acid receptor mutant embryos. Mech Dev. 2002 Sep; 117(1-2):115-22. PMID: 12204252.
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    44. Tan DP, Nonaka K, Nuckolls GH, Liu YH, Maxson RE, Slavkin HC, Shum L. YY1 activates Msx2 gene independent of bone morphogenetic protein signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Mar 01; 30(5):1213-23. PMID: 11861914.
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    45. Kwang SJ, Brugger SM, Lazik A, Merrill AE, Wu LY, Liu YH, Ishii M, Sangiorgi FO, Rauchman M, Sucov HM, Maas RL, Maxson RE. Msx2 is an immediate downstream effector of Pax3 in the development of the murine cardiac neural crest. Development. 2002 Jan; 129(2):527-38. PMID: 11807043.
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    46. Jiang X, Iseki S, Maxson RE, Sucov HM, Morriss-Kay GM. Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault. Dev Biol. 2002 Jan 01; 241(1):106-16. PMID: 11784098.
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    47. Ito Y, Sarkar P, Mi Q, Wu N, Bringas P, Liu Y, Reddy S, Maxson R, Deng C, Chai Y. Overexpression of Smad2 reveals its concerted action with Smad4 in regulating TGF-beta-mediated epidermal homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2001 Aug 01; 236(1):181-94. PMID: 11456453.
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    48. Wu X, Wu J, Huang J, Powell WC, Zhang J, Matusik RJ, Sangiorgi FO, Maxson RE, Sucov HM, Roy-Burman P. Generation of a prostate epithelial cell-specific Cre transgenic mouse model for tissue-specific gene ablation. Mech Dev. 2001 Mar; 101(1-2):61-9. PMID: 11231059.
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    49. Marsh AG, Maxson RE, Manahan DT. High macromolecular synthesis with low metabolic cost in Antarctic sea urchin embryos. Science. 2001 Mar 09; 291(5510):1950-2. PMID: 11239152.
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    50. Wilkie AO, Oldridge M, Tang Z, Maxson RE. Craniosynostosis and related limb anomalies. Novartis Found Symp. 2001; 232:122-33; discussion 133-43. PMID: 11277076.
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    51. Rice DP, Aberg T, Chan Y, Tang Z, Kettunen PJ, Pakarinen L, Maxson RE, Thesleff I. Integration of FGF and TWIST in calvarial bone and suture development. Development. 2000 May; 127(9):1845-55. PMID: 10751173.
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    52. Sun X, Lewandoski M, Meyers EN, Liu YH, Maxson RE, Martin GR. Conditional inactivation of Fgf4 reveals complexity of signalling during limb bud development. Nat Genet. 2000 May; 25(1):83-6. PMID: 10802662.
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    53. Satokata I, Ma L, Ohshima H, Bei M, Woo I, Nishizawa K, Maeda T, Takano Y, Uchiyama M, Heaney S, Peters H, Tang Z, Maxson R, Maas R. Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet. 2000 Apr; 24(4):391-5. PMID: 10742104.
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    54. Wilkie AO, Tang Z, Elanko N, Walsh S, Twigg SR, Hurst JA, Wall SA, Chrzanowska KH, Maxson RE. Functional haploinsufficiency of the human homeobox gene MSX2 causes defects in skull ossification. Nat Genet. 2000 Apr; 24(4):387-90. PMID: 10742103.
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    55. Choi J, Liu RM, Kundu RK, Sangiorgi F, Wu W, Maxson R, Forman HJ. Molecular mechanism of decreased glutathione content in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 04; 275(5):3693-8. PMID: 10652368.
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    56. Sirard C, Kim S, Mirtsos C, Tadich P, Hoodless PA, Itié A, Maxson R, Wrana JL, Mak TW. Targeted disruption in murine cells reveals variable requirement for Smad4 in transforming growth factor beta-related signaling. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21; 275(3):2063-70. PMID: 10636910.
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    57. Liu YH, Snead ML, Maxson RE. Transgenic mouse models of craniofacial disorders. Methods Mol Biol. 2000; 137:499-512. PMID: 10948563.
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    58. Jiang TX, Liu YH, Widelitz RB, Kundu RK, Maxson RE, Chuong CM. Epidermal dysplasia and abnormal hair follicles in transgenic mice overexpressing homeobox gene MSX-2. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Aug; 113(2):230-7. PMID: 10469309.
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    59. Kundu RK, Sangiorgi F, Wu LY, Pattengale PK, Hinton DR, Gill PS, Maxson R. Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus-Tat gene in lymphoid tissues of transgenic mice is associated with B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 1999 Jul 01; 94(1):275-82. PMID: 10381523.
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    60. Dodig M, Tadic T, Kronenberg MS, Dacic S, Liu YH, Maxson R, Rowe DW, Lichtler AC. Ectopic Msx2 overexpression inhibits and Msx2 antisense stimulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation. Dev Biol. 1999 May 15; 209(2):298-307. PMID: 10328922.
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    61. Liu YH, Tang Z, Kundu RK, Wu L, Luo W, Zhu D, Sangiorgi F, Snead ML, Maxson RE. Msx2 gene dosage influences the number of proliferative osteogenic cells in growth centers of the developing murine skull: a possible mechanism for MSX2-mediated craniosynostosis in humans. Dev Biol. 1999 Jan 15; 205(2):260-74. PMID: 9917362.
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    62. Tan H, Ransick A, Wu H, Dobias S, Liu YH, Maxson R. Disruption of primary mesenchyme cell patterning by misregulated ectodermal expression of SpMsx in sea urchin embryos. Dev Biol. 1998 Sep 15; 201(2):230-46. PMID: 9740661.
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    63. Kundu RK, Sangiorgi F, Wu LY, Kurachi K, Anderson WF, Maxson R, Gordon EM. Targeted inactivation of the coagulation factor IX gene causes hemophilia B in mice. Blood. 1998 Jul 01; 92(1):168-74. PMID: 9639513.
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    64. Wu L, Wu H, Ma L, Sangiorgi F, Wu N, Bell JR, Lyons GE, Maxson R. Miz1, a novel zinc finger transcription factor that interacts with Msx2 and enhances its affinity for DNA. Mech Dev. 1997 Jul; 65(1-2):3-17. PMID: 9256341.
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    65. Maxson R, Tan H, Dobias SL, Wu H, Bell JR, Ma L. Expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene: insights into the evolution and function of a gene family that participates in the patterning of the early embryo. Biol Bull. 1997 Feb; 192(1):178. PMID: 11536794.
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    66. Zernik JH, Nowroozi N, Liu YH, Maxson R. Development, maturation, and aging of the alveolar bone. New insights. Dent Clin North Am. 1997 Jan; 41(1):1-15. PMID: 9023059.
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    67. Dobias SL, Ma L, Wu H, Bell JR, Maxson R. The evolution of Msx gene function: expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene. Mech Dev. 1997 Jan; 61(1-2):37-48. PMID: 9076676.
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    68. Dobias SL, Zhao AZ, Tan H, Bell JR, Maxson R. SpHbox7, a new Abd-B class homeobox gene from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: insights into the evolution of hox gene expression and function. Dev Dyn. 1996 Dec; 207(4):450-60. PMID: 8950519.
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    69. Ma L, Golden S, Wu L, Maxson R. The molecular basis of Boston-type craniosynostosis: the Pro148-->His mutation in the N-terminal arm of the MSX2 homeodomain stabilizes DNA binding without altering nucleotide sequence preferences. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Dec; 5(12):1915-20. PMID: 8968743.
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    70. Lazik A, Liu Y, Bringas P, Sangiorgi F, Maxson R. A sensitive method for analyzing beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression in tissue sections of mouse embryos. Trends Genet. 1996 Nov; 12(11):445-7. PMID: 8973145.
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    71. Phippard DJ, Weber-Hall SJ, Sharpe PT, Naylor MS, Jayatalake H, Maas R, Woo I, Roberts-Clark D, Francis-West PH, Liu YH, Maxson R, Hill RE, Dale TC. Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. Development. 1996 Sep; 122(9):2729-37. PMID: 8787747.
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    72. Liu YH, Ma L, Kundu R, Ignelzi M, Sangiorgi F, Wu L, Luo W, Snead ML, Maxson R. Function of the Msx2 gene in the morphogenesis of the skull. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Jun 08; 785:48-58. PMID: 8702183.
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    73. Ma L, Swalla BJ, Zhou J, Dobias SL, Bell JR, Chen J, Maxson RE, Jeffery WR. Expression of an Msx homeobox gene in ascidians: insights into the archetypal chordate expression pattern. Dev Dyn. 1996 Mar; 205(3):308-18. PMID: 8850566.
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    74. Snead ML, Paine ML, Chen LS, Luo BY, Zhou DH, Lei YP, Liu YH, Maxson RE. The murine amelogenin promoter: developmentally regulated expression in transgenic animals. Connect Tissue Res. 1996; 35(1-4):41-7. PMID: 9084642.
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    75. Liu YH, Kundu R, Wu L, Luo W, Ignelzi MA, Snead ML, Maxson RE. Premature suture closure and ectopic cranial bone in mice expressing Msx2 transgenes in the developing skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 20; 92(13):6137-41. PMID: 7597092.
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    76. Ignelzi MA, Liu YH, Maxson RE, Snead ML. Genetically engineered mice: tools to understand craniofacial development. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1995; 6(3):181-201. PMID: 8785260.
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    77. Liu YH, Ma L, Wu LY, Luo W, Kundu R, Sangiorgi F, Snead ML, Maxson R. Regulation of the Msx2 homeobox gene during mouse embryogenesis: a transgene with 439 bp of 5' flanking sequence is expressed exclusively in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limb. Mech Dev. 1994 Dec; 48(3):187-97. PMID: 7893602.
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    78. Maxson R, Tan H. Promoter analysis meets pattern formation: transcriptional regulatory genes in sea urchin embryogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994 Oct; 4(5):678-84. PMID: 7849507.
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    79. Char BR, Tan H, Maxson R. A POU gene required for early cleavage and protein accumulation in the sea urchin embryo. Development. 1994 Jul; 120(7):1929-35. PMID: 7924998.
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    80. Char BR, Bell JR, Dovala J, Coffman JA, Harrington MG, Becerra JC, Davidson EH, Calzone FJ, Maxson R. SpOct, a gene encoding the major octamer-binding protein in sea urchin embryos: expression profile, evolutionary relationships, and DNA binding of expressed protein. Dev Biol. 1993 Aug; 158(2):350-63. PMID: 8344456.
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    81. Chen J, Maxson R, Jones PA. Direct induction of DNA hypermethylation in sea urchin embryos by microinjection of 5-methyl dCTP stimulates early histone gene expression and leads to developmental arrest. Dev Biol. 1993 Jan; 155(1):75-86. PMID: 8416846.
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    82. Bell J, Char BR, Maxson R. An octamer element is required for the expression of the alpha H2B histone gene during the early development of the sea urchin. Dev Biol. 1992 Apr; 150(2):363-71. PMID: 1551480.
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    83. Zhao AZ, Vansant G, Bell J, Humphreys T, Maxson R. Activation of the L1 late H2B histone gene in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos by Antennapedia-class homeoprotein. Mech Dev. 1991 Mar; 34(1):21-8. PMID: 1680374.
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    84. Zhao AZ, Colin AM, Bell J, Baker M, Char BR, Maxson R. Activation of a late H2B histone gene in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos by an unusual enhancer element located 3' of the gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Dec; 10(12):6730-41. PMID: 2247080.
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    85. Ito M, Sharma A, Lee AS, Maxson R. Cell cycle regulation of H2b histone octamer DNA-binding activity in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Feb; 9(2):869-73. PMID: 2710129.
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    86. Ito M, Bell J, Lyons G, Maxson R. Synthesis and turnover of late H2B histone mRNA in developing embryos of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 1988 Sep; 129(1):147-58. PMID: 3410157.
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    87. Maxson R, Ito M, Balcells S, Thayer M, French M, Lee F, Etkin L. Differential stimulation of sea urchin early and late H2B histone gene expression by a gastrula nuclear extract after injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Mar; 8(3):1236-46. PMID: 3367908.
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    88. Lai ZC, Maxson R, Childs G. Both basal and ontogenic promoter elements affect the timing and level of expression of a sea urchin H1 gene during early embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1988 Feb; 2(2):173-83. PMID: 3360321.
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    89. Colin AM, Catlin TL, Kidson SH, Maxson R. Closely linked early and late histone H2B genes are differentially expressed after microinjection into sea urchin zygotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):507-10. PMID: 2829190.
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    90. Maxson R, Mohun T, Gormezano G, Kedes L. Evolution of late H2A, H2B, and H4 histone genes of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Dec 23; 15(24):10569-82. PMID: 3697096.
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    91. Halsell SR, Ito M, Maxson R. Differential expression of early and late embryonic histone genes in adult tissues of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 1987 Jan; 119(1):268-74. PMID: 3792631.
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    92. Soe LH, Ghosh AK, Maxson RE, Hoover EA, Hardy WD, Roy-Burman P. Nucleotide sequence of the 1.2-kb 3'-region and genotype distribution of two common c-myc alleles of the domestic cat. Gene. 1986; 47(2-3):185-92. PMID: 3557122.
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    93. Angerer L, DeLeon D, Cox K, Maxson R, Kedes L, Kaumeyer J, Weinberg E, Angerer R. Simultaneous expression of early and late histone messenger RNAs in individual cells during development of the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 1985 Nov; 112(1):157-66. PMID: 4054432.
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    94. Liebermann D, Hoffman-Liebermann B, Weinthal J, Childs G, Maxson R, Mauron A, Cohen SN, Kedes L. An unusual transposon with long terminal inverted repeats in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Nature. 1983 Nov 24-30; 306(5941):342-7. PMID: 6316151.
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    95. Maxson R, Mohun T, Gormezano G, Childs G, Kedes L. Distinct organizations and patterns of expression of early and late histone gene sets in the sea urchin. Nature. 1983 Jan 13; 301(5896):120-5. PMID: 6296688.
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    96. Maxson RE, Wilt FH. Accumulation of the early histone messenger RNAs during the development of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 1982 Dec; 94(2):435-40. PMID: 7152113.
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    97. Kedes L, Maxson R. Histone gene organization: paradigm lost. Nature. 1981 Nov 05; 294(5836):11-2. PMID: 7290213.
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    98. Maxson RE, Wilt FH. The rate of synthesis of histone mRNA during the development of sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). Dev Biol. 1981 Apr 30; 83(2):380-6. PMID: 7239020.
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    99. Childs G, Maxson R, Cohn RH, Kedes L. Orphons: dispersed genetic elements derived from tandem repetitive genes of eucaryotes. Cell. 1981 Mar; 23(3):651-63. PMID: 6784929.
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    100. Etkin LD, Maxson RE. The synthesis of authentic sea urchin transcriptional and translational products by sea urchin histone genes injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Dev Biol. 1980 Mar; 75(1):13-25. PMID: 6154619.
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    101. Maxson RE, Egzie JC. Expression of maternal and paternal histone genes during early cleavage stages of the echinoderm hybrid Strongylocentrotus purpuratus x Lytechinus pictus. Dev Biol. 1980 Feb; 74(2):335-42. PMID: 7371979.
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    102. Childs G, Maxson R, Kedes LH. Histone gene expression during sea urchin embryogenesis: isolation and characterization of early and late messenger RNAs of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by gene-specific hybridization and template activity. Dev Biol. 1979 Nov; 73(1):153-73. PMID: 527767.
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