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Pat R. Levitt, PhD

TitleProfessor of Pediatrics
InstitutionUniversity of Southern California
DepartmentCell and Neurobiology
AddressCHL 4650 Sunset Blvd
Off Campus
Los Angeles CA 90027
Phone+1 323 361 7868
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    Other Positions
    TitleW.M. Keck Chair in Neurogenetics

    TitleDirector of The Neuroscience Graduate Program

    TitleDirector of The Developmental Neurogenetics


    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Levitt received his BA in Biological Sciences from the University of Chicago, PhD in Neuroscience at the University of California, San Diego. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Neuroscience at Yale University. Dr. Levitt has held leadership positions at University of Pittsburgh, Vanderbilt University and University of Southern California. Dr. Levitt was elected as a member into the prestigious Institute of Medicine (IOM), part of the National Academy of Sciences. Named a McKnight Foundation Scholar in 2002, Dr. Levitt also was a MERIT awardee from the National Institute of Mental Health and served as a member of the National Advisory Mental Health Council for the National Institute of Mental Health. He is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Chair-elect of the Neuroscience Division of the AAAS, and an elected member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives. He is a Senior Fellow at the Center for the Developing Child at Harvard University, and serves as Scientific Director of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, a policy council that brings the best research from child development and neuroscience to assist policy makers and business leaders in making wise program investment decisions. He is a member of a number of scientific advisory boards for foundations and university programs, served as Senior Editor for Journal of Neuroscience, and currently serves on the editorial boards of eLife, Neuron, Cerebral Cortex, Autism Research, Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Disease Models and Mechanisms. Dr. Levitt’s research focuses on the development of brain architecture that controls learning, emotional and social behavior. His research focuses on genetic and environment factors that increase risk for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. His clinical research studies address autism heterogeneity by studying children with autism who also have co-occurring medical conditions, such as gastrointestinal disorders, with the goal of developing better diagnostic criteria and personalized treatments. He has published over 250 papers.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Predoctoral Training in Interdisciplinary Neurosciences
    NIH/NIMH T32MH111360Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Autonomic Brainstem Development
    NIH/NINDS R21NS086413May 1, 2014 - Apr 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Autism Research Program
    NIH/NIMH P30MH089877Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The MET Signaling System,Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
    NIH/NICHD R21HD065289Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Transcriptional Atlas of Human Brain Development
    NIH/NIMH RC2MH090047Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms of Social Behavior
    NIH/NIMH R01MH080759Sep 1, 2007 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of Reciprocal Neural Circuitry
    NIH/NIDA R01DA022785Sep 1, 2007 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    16th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Developmental Neurobiology
    NIH/NINDS R13NS056849Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biobehavioral Intervention in Developmental Disabilities
    NIH/NIMH T32MH075883Sep 29, 2005 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Function and Structure Adaptations in Forebrain Development
    NIH/NIMH R01MH067842Jul 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Function and Structure Adaptations in Forebrain Development
    NIH/NIMH R56MH067842Jul 1, 2002 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    FETAL COCAINE AND GENE EXPRESSION DEFECTS IN FOREBRAIN
    NIH/NIDA R01DA013792Sep 30, 2000 - Jul 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain Structure &Function after Fetal Cocaine Exposure
    NIH/NIDA R01DA011165Sep 30, 1996 - May 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MINORITY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT RESEARCH APPRENTICE PROGRAM
    NIH/NCRR S03RR003573Mar 12, 1993 - Feb 29, 1996
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    NON-NEURONAL CELLS AND CNS FORMATION AND INJURY
    NIH/NIDA R01DA009555Aug 15, 1991 - Jun 30, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF NON-NEURONAL CELLS IN CNS FORMATION &INJURY
    NIH/NIA R01AG010560Aug 15, 1991 - Jul 31, 1994
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Factors Regulating Limbic System Assembly
    NIH/NIMH R01MH045507Sep 1, 1989 - Apr 30, 2009
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    FACTORS REGULATING LIMBIC SYSTEM ASSEMBLY
    NIH/NIMH R37MH045507Sep 1, 1989 - Aug 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RECOGNITION EVENTS BETWEEN VISUAL AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS
    NIH/NEI R03EY006047Aug 1, 1985 - Jul 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    GENETIC CONTROL OF MONOAMINERGIC AXON GROWTH
    NIH/NINDS R01NS020196Dec 1, 1983 - Sep 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Intellectual and Developmental Disability Research Center
    NIH/NICHD P30HD015052Jun 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kast RJ, Wu HH, Levitt P. Developmental Connectivity and Molecular Phenotypes of Unique Cortical Projection Neurons that Express a Synapse-Associated Receptor Tyrosine Kinase. Cereb Cortex. 2017 Nov 28; 1-13. PMID: 29190358.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Heun-Johnson H, Levitt P. Differential impact of Met receptor gene interaction with early-life stress on neuronal morphology and behavior in mice. Neurobiol Stress. 2018 Feb; 8:10-20. PMID: 29255778.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Cameron JL, Eagleson KL, Fox NA, Hensch TK, Levitt P. Social Origins of Developmental Risk for Mental and Physical Illness. J Neurosci. 2017 Nov 08; 37(45):10783-10791. PMID: 29118206.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kamitakahara A, Wu HH, Levitt P. Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. J Comp Neurol. 2017 Dec 15; 525(18):3787-3808. PMID: 28758209.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mitra I, Tsang K, Ladd-Acosta C, Croen LA, Aldinger KA, Hendren RL, Traglia M, Lavillaureix A, Zaitlen N, Oldham MC, Levitt P, Nelson S, Amaral DG, Hertz-Picciotto I, Fallin MD, Weiss LA. Correction: Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism. PLoS Genet. 2017 06; 13(6):e1006831. PMID: 28591140.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Marler S, Ferguson BJ, Lee EB, Peters B, Williams KC, McDonnell E, Macklin EA, Levitt P, Margolis KG, Beversdorf DQ, Veenstra-VanderWeele J. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 06; 47(6):1673-1681. PMID: 28289979.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kendall-Taylor N, Levitt P. Beyond Hat in Hand: Science Advocacy Is Foundational for Policy Decisions. Neuron. 2017 May 17; 94(4):708-712. PMID: 28521125.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Van Segbroeck M, Knoll AT, Levitt P, Narayanan S. MUPET-Mouse Ultrasonic Profile ExTraction: A Signal Processing Tool for Rapid and Unsupervised Analysis of Ultrasonic Vocalizations. Neuron. 2017 May 03; 94(3):465-485.e5. PMID: 28472651.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kast RJ, Wu HH, Williams P, Gaspar P, Levitt P. Specific Connectivity and Unique Molecular Identity of MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Expressing Serotonergic Neurons in the Caudal Dorsal Raphe Nuclei. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2017 05 17; 8(5):1053-1064. PMID: 28375615.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Mitra I, Tsang K, Ladd-Acosta C, Croen LA, Aldinger KA, Hendren RL, Traglia M, Lavillaureix A, Zaitlen N, Oldham MC, Levitt P, Nelson S, Amaral DG, Hertz-Picciotto I, Fallin MD, Weiss LA. Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism. PLoS Genet. 2016 11; 12(11):e1006425. PMID: 27846226.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Eagleson KL, Xie Z, Levitt P. The Pleiotropic MET Receptor Network: Circuit Development and the Neural-Medical Interface of Autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 03 01; 81(5):424-433. PMID: 27837921.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Xie Z, Eagleson KL, Wu HH, Levitt P. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Modulates MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and ß-Catenin Functional Interactions to Enhance Synapse Formation. eNeuro. 2016 Jul-Aug; 3(4). PMID: 27595133; PMCID: PMC5002983.
    13. Plummer JT, Gordon AJ, Levitt P. The Genetic Intersection of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Shared Medical Comorbidities - Relations that Translate from Bench to Bedside. Front Psychiatry. 2016; 7:142. PMID: 27597832; PMCID: PMC4992686.
    14. Shibata S, Miwa T, Wu HH, Levitt P, Ohyama T. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-c-MET Signaling Mediates the Development of Nonsensory Structures of the Mammalian Cochlea and Hearing. J Neurosci. 2016 08 03; 36(31):8200-9. PMID: 27488639; PMCID: PMC4971366 [Available on 02/03/17].
    15. Heun-Johnson H, Levitt P. Early-Life Stress Paradigm Transiently Alters Maternal Behavior, Dam-Pup Interactions, and Offspring Vocalizations in Mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2016; 10:142. PMID: 27458353; PMCID: PMC4932116.
    16. Knoll AT, Halladay LR, Holmes AJ, Levitt P. Quantitative Trait Loci and a Novel Genetic Candidate for Fear Learning. J Neurosci. 2016 06 08; 36(23):6258-68. PMID: 27277803; PMCID: PMC4899527 [Available on 12/08/16].
    17. Wu HH, Choi S, Levitt P. Differential patterning of genes involved in serotonin metabolism and transport in extra-embryonic tissues of the mouse. Placenta. 2016 06; 42:74-83. PMID: 27238716.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Marler S, Ferguson BJ, Lee EB, Peters B, Williams KC, McDonnell E, Macklin EA, Levitt P, Gillespie CH, Anderson GM, Margolis KG, Beversdorf DQ, Veenstra-VanderWeele J. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016 Mar; 46(3):1124-30. PMID: 26527110; PMCID: PMC4852703.
    19. Xie Z, Li J, Baker J, Eagleson KL, Coba MP, Levitt P. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MET Interactome and Neurodevelopmental Disorder Partners at the Developing Synapse. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 12 15; 80(12):933-942. PMID: 27086544.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Eagleson KL, Lane CJ, McFadyen-Ketchum L, Solak S, Wu HH, Levitt P. Distinct intracellular signaling mediates C-MET regulation of dendritic growth and synaptogenesis. Dev Neurobiol. 2016 10; 76(10):1160-81. PMID: 26818605; PMCID: PMC4965336 [Available on 10/01/17].
    21. Zamora I, Williams ME, Higareda M, Wheeler BY, Levitt P. Brief Report: Recruitment and Retention of Minority Children for Autism Research. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016 Feb; 46(2):698-703. PMID: 26404703.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Ye R, Quinlan MA, Iwamoto H, Wu HH, Green NH, Jetter CS, McMahon DG, Veestra-VanderWeele J, Levitt P, Blakely RD. Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters. Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2015; 7:20. PMID: 26793096; PMCID: PMC4707279.
    23. Son AI, Hashimoto-Torii K, Rakic P, Levitt P, Torii M. EphA4 has distinct functionality from EphA7 in the corticothalamic system during mouse brain development. J Comp Neurol. 2016 Jul 01; 524(10):2080-92. PMID: 26587807; PMCID: PMC4860152 [Available on 07/01/17].
    24. Thompson BL, Levitt P. Complete or partial reduction of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase in distinct circuits differentially impacts mouse behavior. J Neurodev Disord. 2015; 7:35. PMID: 26523156; PMCID: PMC4628780.
    25. Wood RI, Knoll AT, Levitt P. Social housing conditions and oxytocin and vasopressin receptors contribute to ethanol conditioned social preference in female mice. Physiol Behav. 2015 Nov 01; 151:469-77. PMID: 26282397; PMCID: PMC4587335 [Available on 11/01/16].
    26. Taylor AM, Castonguay A, Ghogha A, Vayssiere P, Pradhan AA, Xue L, Mehrabani S, Wu J, Levitt P, Olmstead MC, De Koninck Y, Evans CJ, Cahill CM. Neuroimmune Regulation of GABAergic Neurons Within the Ventral Tegmental Area During Withdrawal from Chronic Morphine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Mar; 41(4):949-59. PMID: 26202104; PMCID: PMC4748420.
    27. Aldinger KA, Lane CJ, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Levitt P. Patterns of Risk for Multiple Co-Occurring Medical Conditions Replicate Across Distinct Cohorts of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res. 2015 Dec; 8(6):771-81. PMID: 26011086; PMCID: PMC4736680.
    28. Levitt P, Veenstra-VanderWeele J. Neurodevelopment and the origins of brain disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jan; 40(1):1-3. PMID: 25482168; PMCID: PMC4262917.
    29. Qiu S, Lu Z, Levitt P. MET receptor tyrosine kinase controls dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and glutamatergic synapse maturation in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2014 Dec 03; 34(49):16166-79. PMID: 25471559; PMCID: PMC4252539.
    30. Bone D, Lee CC, Black MP, Williams ME, Lee S, Levitt P, Narayanan S. The psychologist as an interlocutor in autism spectrum disorder assessment: insights from a study of spontaneous prosody. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2014 Aug; 57(4):1162-77. PMID: 24686340; PMCID: PMC4326041.
    31. Peters B, Williams KC, Gorrindo P, Rosenberg D, Lee EB, Levitt P, Veenstra-VanderWeele J. Rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with mixed bowel symptoms in autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jun; 44(6):1425-32. PMID: 24293040; PMCID: PMC4024363.
    32. Miller JA, Ding SL, Sunkin SM, Smith KA, Ng L, Szafer A, Ebbert A, Riley ZL, Royall JJ, Aiona K, Arnold JM, Bennet C, Bertagnolli D, Brouner K, Butler S, Caldejon S, Carey A, Cuhaciyan C, Dalley RA, Dee N, Dolbeare TA, Facer BA, Feng D, Fliss TP, Gee G, Goldy J, Gourley L, Gregor BW, Gu G, Howard RE, Jochim JM, Kuan CL, Lau C, Lee CK, Lee F, Lemon TA, Lesnar P, McMurray B, Mastan N, Mosqueda N, Naluai-Cecchini T, Ngo NK, Nyhus J, Oldre A, Olson E, Parente J, Parker PD, Parry SE, Stevens A, Pletikos M, Reding M, Roll K, Sandman D, Sarreal M, Shapouri S, Shapovalova NV, Shen EH, Sjoquist N, Slaughterbeck CR, Smith M, Sodt AJ, Williams D, Zöllei L, Fischl B, Gerstein MB, Geschwind DH, Glass IA, Hawrylycz MJ, Hevner RF, Huang H, Jones AR, Knowles JA, Levitt P, Phillips JW, Sestan N, Wohnoutka P, Dang C, Bernard A, Hohmann JG, Lein ES. Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain. Nature. 2014 Apr 10; 508(7495):199-206. PMID: 24695229; PMCID: PMC4105188.
    33. Hammock EA, Levitt P. Oxytocin receptor ligand binding in embryonic tissue and postnatal brain development of the C57BL/6J mouse. Front Behav Neurosci. 2013; 7:195. PMID: 24376405; PMCID: PMC3858721.
    34. Eagleson KL, Milner TA, Xie Z, Levitt P. Synaptic and extrasynaptic location of the receptor tyrosine kinase met during postnatal development in the mouse neocortex and hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Oct 01; 521(14):3241-59. PMID: 23787772; PMCID: PMC3942873.
    35. Gorrindo P, Lane CJ, Lee EB, McLaughlin B, Levitt P. Enrichment of elevated plasma F2t-isoprostane levels in individuals with autism who are stratified by presence of gastrointestinal dysfunction. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68444. PMID: 23844202.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Aldinger KA, Plummer JT, Levitt P. Comparative DNA methylation among females with neurodevelopmental disorders and seizures identifies TAC1 as a MeCP2 target gene. J Neurodev Disord. 2013 Jun 11; 5(1):15. PMID: 23759142; PMCID: PMC3700820.
    37. Wu HH, Levitt P. Prenatal expression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase in the fetal mouse dorsal raphe nuclei and the visceral motor/sensory brainstem. Dev Neurosci. 2013; 35(1):1-16. PMID: 23548689; PMCID: PMC3746026.
    38. Torii M, Rakic P, Levitt P. Role of EphA/ephrin--a signaling in the development of topographic maps in mouse corticothalamic projections. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Feb 15; 521(3):626-37. PMID: 22821544; PMCID: PMC3511615.
    39. Hammock EA, Law CS, Levitt P. Vasopressin eliminates the expression of familiar odor bias in neonatal female mice through V1aR. Horm Behav. 2013 Feb; 63(2):352-60. PMID: 23261858; PMCID: PMC4285782.
    40. Rudie JD, Hernandez LM, Brown JA, Beck-Pancer D, Colich NL, Gorrindo P, Thompson PM, Geschwind DH, Bookheimer SY, Levitt P, Dapretto M. Autism-associated promoter variant in MET impacts functional and structural brain networks. Neuron. 2012 Sep 06; 75(5):904-15. PMID: 22958829; PMCID: PMC3454529.
    41. Qiu S, Luo S, Evgrafov O, Li R, Schroth GP, Levitt P, Knowles JA, Wang K. Single-neuron RNA-Seq: technical feasibility and reproducibility. Front Genet. 2012; 3:124. PMID: 22934102; PMCID: PMC3407998.
    42. Qiu S, Aldinger KA, Levitt P. Modeling of autism genetic variations in mice: focusing on synaptic and microcircuit dysfunctions. Dev Neurosci. 2012; 34(2-3):88-100. PMID: 22572629.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Torii M, Hackett TA, Rakic P, Levitt P, Polley DB. EphA signaling impacts development of topographic connectivity in auditory corticofugal systems. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Apr; 23(4):775-85. PMID: 22490549; PMCID: PMC3593572.
    44. Gorrindo P, Williams KC, Lee EB, Walker LS, McGrew SG, Levitt P. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism: parental report, clinical evaluation, and associated factors. Autism Res. 2012 Apr; 5(2):101-8. PMID: 22511450; PMCID: PMC3335766.
    45. Bonnin A, Zhang L, Blakely RD, Levitt P. The SSRI citalopram affects fetal thalamic axon responsiveness to netrin-1 in vitro independently of SERT antagonism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jul; 37(8):1879-84. PMID: 22414815; PMCID: PMC3376320.
    46. Bonnin A, Levitt P. Placental source for 5-HT that tunes fetal brain development. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jan; 37(1):299-300. PMID: 22157865; PMCID: PMC3238076.
    47. State MW, Levitt P. The conundrums of understanding genetic risks for autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Oct 30; 14(12):1499-506. PMID: 22037497; PMCID: PMC3940335.
    48. Aldinger KA, Plummer JT, Qiu S, Levitt P. SnapShot: genetics of autism. Neuron. 2011 Oct 20; 72(2):418-8.e1. PMID: 22017998.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Mukamel Z, Konopka G, Wexler E, Osborn GE, Dong H, Bergman MY, Levitt P, Geschwind DH. Regulation of MET by FOXP2, genes implicated in higher cognitive dysfunction and autism risk. J Neurosci. 2011 Aug 10; 31(32):11437-42. PMID: 21832174; PMCID: PMC3667610.
    50. Levitt P. Serotonin and the autisms: a red flag or a red herring? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Nov; 68(11):1093-4. PMID: 21730327.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Reeb-Sutherland BC, Fifer WP, Byrd DL, Hammock EA, Levitt P, Fox NA. One-month-old human infants learn about the social world while they sleep. Dev Sci. 2011 Sep; 14(5):1134-41. PMID: 21884328; PMCID: PMC3177152.
    52. Judson MC, Eagleson KL, Levitt P. A new synaptic player leading to autism risk: Met receptor tyrosine kinase. J Neurodev Disord. 2011 Sep; 3(3):282-92. PMID: 21509596; PMCID: PMC3261279.
    53. Bonnin A, Goeden N, Chen K, Wilson ML, King J, Shih JC, Blakely RD, Deneris ES, Levitt P. A transient placental source of serotonin for the fetal forebrain. Nature. 2011 Apr 21; 472(7343):347-50. PMID: 21512572; PMCID: PMC3084180.
    54. Qiu S, Anderson CT, Levitt P, Shepherd GM. Circuit-specific intracortical hyperconnectivity in mice with deletion of the autism-associated Met receptor tyrosine kinase. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13; 31(15):5855-64. PMID: 21490227; PMCID: PMC3086026.
    55. Hammock EA, Levitt P. Developmental expression mapping of a gene implicated in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, A2bp1 (Fox1). Dev Neurosci. 2011; 33(1):64-74. PMID: 21346316; PMCID: PMC3080782.
    56. Campbell DB, Datta D, Jones ST, Batey Lee E, Sutcliffe JS, Hammock EA, Levitt P. Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder. J Neurodev Disord. 2011 Jun; 3(2):101-12. PMID: 21484202; PMCID: PMC3113442.
    57. Eagleson KL, Campbell DB, Thompson BL, Bergman MY, Levitt P. The autism risk genes MET and PLAUR differentially impact cortical development. Autism Res. 2011 Feb; 4(1):68-83. PMID: 21328570; PMCID: PMC3644181.
    58. Hammock EA, Eagleson KL, Barlow S, Earls LR, Miller DM, Levitt P. Homologs of genes expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurons are also found in the developing mouse forebrain. Neural Dev. 2010 Dec 01; 5:32. PMID: 21122108; PMCID: PMC3006369.
    59. Judson MC, Amaral DG, Levitt P. Conserved subcortical and divergent cortical expression of proteins encoded by orthologs of the autism risk gene MET. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Jul; 21(7):1613-26. PMID: 21127014; PMCID: PMC3116738.
    60. Judson MC, Eagleson KL, Wang L, Levitt P. Evidence of cell-nonautonomous changes in dendrite and dendritic spine morphology in the met-signaling-deficient mouse forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Nov 01; 518(21):4463-78. PMID: 20853516; PMCID: PMC2952412.
    61. Sheng L, Ding X, Ferguson M, McCallister M, Rhoades R, Maguire M, Ramesh A, Aschner M, Campbell D, Levitt P, Hood DB. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure leads to behavioral deficits and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase, MET. Toxicol Sci. 2010 Dec; 118(2):625-34. PMID: 20889680; PMCID: PMC2984527.
    62. Shonkoff JP, Levitt P. Neuroscience and the future of early childhood policy: moving from why to what and how. Neuron. 2010 Sep 09; 67(5):689-91. PMID: 20826301.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Thompson BL, Levitt P. The clinical-basic interface in defining pathogenesis in disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. Neuron. 2010 Sep 09; 67(5):702-12. PMID: 20826303; PMCID: PMC2940830.
    64. Ruiz de Azua I, Scarselli M, Rosemond E, Gautam D, Jou W, Gavrilova O, Ebert PJ, Levitt P, Wess J. RGS4 is a negative regulator of insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 27; 107(17):7999-8004. PMID: 20385802; PMCID: PMC2867926.
    65. Qiu S, Champagne DL, Peters M, Catania EH, Weeber EJ, Levitt P, Pimenta AF. Loss of limbic system-associated membrane protein leads to reduced hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor expression, impaired synaptic plasticity, and spatial memory deficit. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Jul 15; 68(2):197-204. PMID: 20385375; PMCID: PMC2900390.
    66. Campbell DB, Warren D, Sutcliffe JS, Lee EB, Levitt P. Association of MET with social and communication phenotypes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Mar 05; 153B(2):438-446. PMID: 19548256.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Thompson BL, Levitt P. Now you see it, now you don't--closing in on allostasis and developmental basis of psychiatric disorders. Neuron. 2010 Feb 25; 65(4):437-9. PMID: 20188647.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Thompson BL, Stanwood GD, Levitt P. Specificity of prenatal cocaine exposure effects on cortical interneurons is independent from dopamine D1 receptor co-localization. J Chem Neuroanat. 2010 Jul; 39(4):228-34. PMID: 20080176; PMCID: PMC2850967.
    69. Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ, Furuta GT, Levy J, Vandewater J, Whitaker AH, Atkins D, Bauman ML, Beaudet AL, Carr EG, Gershon MD, Hyman SL, Jirapinyo P, Jyonouchi H, Kooros K, Kushak R, Levitt P, Levy SE, Lewis JD, Murray KF, Natowicz MR, Sabra A, Wershil BK, Weston SC, Zeltzer L, Winter H. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan; 125 Suppl 1:S1-18. PMID: 20048083.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Torii M, Hashimoto-Torii K, Levitt P, Rakic P. Integration of neuronal clones in the radial cortical columns by EphA and ephrin-A signalling. Nature. 2009 Sep 24; 461(7263):524-8. PMID: 19759535; PMCID: PMC2874978.
    71. Winden KD, Oldham MC, Mirnics K, Ebert PJ, Swan CH, Levitt P, Rubenstein JL, Horvath S, Geschwind DH. The organization of the transcriptional network in specific neuronal classes. Mol Syst Biol. 2009; 5:291. PMID: 19638972; PMCID: PMC2724976.
    72. Judson MC, Bergman MY, Campbell DB, Eagleson KL, Levitt P. Dynamic gene and protein expression patterns of the autism-associated met receptor tyrosine kinase in the developing mouse forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 2009 Apr 10; 513(5):511-31. PMID: 19226509; PMCID: PMC2647986.
    73. Levitt P, Campbell DB. The genetic and neurobiologic compass points toward common signaling dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorders. J Clin Invest. 2009 Apr; 119(4):747-54. PMID: 19339766; PMCID: PMC2662567.
    74. Thompson BL, Levitt P, Stanwood GD. Prenatal exposure to drugs: effects on brain development and implications for policy and education. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 10(4):303-12. PMID: 19277053; PMCID: PMC2777887.
    75. Campbell DB, Buie TM, Winter H, Bauman M, Sutcliffe JS, Perrin JM, Levitt P. Distinct genetic risk based on association of MET in families with co-occurring autism and gastrointestinal conditions. Pediatrics. 2009 Mar; 123(3):1018-24. PMID: 19255034.
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    76. Campbell DB, Li C, Sutcliffe JS, Persico AM, Levitt P. Genetic evidence implicating multiple genes in the MET receptor tyrosine kinase pathway in autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res. 2008 Jun; 1(3):159-68. PMID: 19360663; PMCID: PMC2678909.
    77. Peuckert C, Wacker E, Rapus J, Levitt P, Bolz J. Adaptive changes in gene expression patterns in the somatosensory cortex after deletion of ephrinA5. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Sep; 39(1):21-31. PMID: 18619851.
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    78. Campbell DB, Levitt P. Future of individualized psychiatric treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2008 May; 9(5):493-5. PMID: 18466095.
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    79. Krystal JH, Carter CS, Geschwind D, Manji HK, March JS, Nestler EJ, Zubieta JK, Charney DS, Goldman D, Gur RE, Lieberman JA, Roy-Byrne P, Rubinow DR, Anderson SA, Barondes S, Berman KF, Blair J, Braff DL, Brown ES, Calabrese JR, Carlezon WA, Cook EH, Davidson RJ, Davis M, Desimone R, Drevets WC, Duman RS, Essock SM, Faraone SV, Freedman R, Friston KJ, Gelernter J, Geller B, Gill M, Gould E, Grace AA, Grillon C, Gueorguieva R, Hariri AR, Innis RB, Jones EG, Kleinman JE, Koob GF, Krystal AD, Leibenluft E, Levinson DF, Levitt P, Lewis DA, Liberzon I, Lipska BK, Marder SR, Markou A, Mason GF, McDougle CJ, McEwen BS, McMahon FJ, Meaney MJ, Meltzer HY, Merikangas KR, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mirnics K, Monteggia LM, Neumeister A, O'Brien CP, Owen MJ, Pine DS, Rapoport JL, Rauch SL, Robbins TW, Rosenbaum JF, Rosenberg DR, Ross CA, Rush AJ, Sackeim HA, Sanacora G, Schatzberg AF, Shaham Y, Siever LJ, Sunderland T, Tecott LH, Thase ME, Todd RD, Weissman MM, Yehuda R, Yoshikawa T, Young EA, McCandless R. It is time to take a stand for medical research and against terrorism targeting medical scientists. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 15; 63(8):725-7. PMID: 18371494.
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    80. Connors SL, Levitt P, Matthews SG, Slotkin TA, Johnston MV, Kinney HC, Johnson WG, Dailey RM, Zimmerman AW. Fetal mechanisms in neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Mar; 38(3):163-76. PMID: 18279750.
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    81. Campbell DB, Lange LA, Skelly T, Lieberman J, Levitt P, Sullivan PF. Association of RGS2 and RGS5 variants with schizophrenia symptom severity. Schizophr Res. 2008 Apr; 101(1-3):67-75. PMID: 18262772.
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    82. Catania EH, Pimenta A, Levitt P. Genetic deletion of Lsamp causes exaggerated behavioral activation in novel environments. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Apr 09; 188(2):380-90. PMID: 18199495; PMCID: PMC2275759.
    83. D'Arceuil H, Liu C, Levitt P, Thompson B, Kosofsky B, de Crespigny A. Three-dimensional high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the developing rabbit brain. Dev Neurosci. 2008; 30(4):262-75. PMID: 17962716.
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    84. Campbell DB, D'Oronzio R, Garbett K, Ebert PJ, Mirnics K, Levitt P, Persico AM. Disruption of cerebral cortex MET signaling in autism spectrum disorder. Ann Neurol. 2007 Sep; 62(3):243-50. PMID: 17696172.
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    85. Harrington PB, Laurent C, Levinson DF, Levitt P, Markey SP. Bootstrap classification and point-based feature selection from age-staged mouse cerebellum tissues of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra using a fuzzy rule-building expert system. Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Sep 19; 599(2):219-31. PMID: 17870284.
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    86. Campbell DB, Ebert PJ, Skelly T, Stroup TS, Lieberman J, Levitt P, Sullivan PF. Ethnic stratification of the association of RGS4 variants with antipsychotic treatment response in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 01; 63(1):32-41. PMID: 17588543.
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    87. Arion D, Unger T, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K. Molecular evidence for increased expression of genes related to immune and chaperone function in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Oct 01; 62(7):711-21. PMID: 17568569; PMCID: PMC2080683.
    88. Chowdari KV, Bamne M, Wood J, Talkowski ME, Mirnics K, Levitt P, Lewis DA, Nimgaonkar VL. Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional analysis of RGS4 polymorphisms in relation to schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2008 Jan; 34(1):118-26. PMID: 17515439; PMCID: PMC2632380.
    89. Koshibu K, Levitt P. Gene x environment effects: stress and memory dysfunctions caused by stress and gonadal factor irregularities during puberty in control and TGF-alpha hypomorphic mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Feb; 33(3):557-65. PMID: 17473839.
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    90. Bonnin A, Torii M, Wang L, Rakic P, Levitt P. Serotonin modulates the response of embryonic thalamocortical axons to netrin-1. Nat Neurosci. 2007 May; 10(5):588-97. PMID: 17450135.
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    91. Stanwood GD, Levitt P. Waved-1 mutant mice are hypersensitive to the locomotor actions of cocaine. Synapse. 2007 Apr; 61(4):259-62. PMID: 17230552.
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    92. Sabatini MJ, Ebert P, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Cameron JL, Mirnics K. Amygdala gene expression correlates of social behavior in monkeys experiencing maternal separation. J Neurosci. 2007 Mar 21; 27(12):3295-304. PMID: 17376990.
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    93. Parlaman JP, Thompson BL, Levitt P, Stanwood GD. Pharmacokinetic profile of cocaine following intravenous administration in the female rabbit. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 01; 563(1-3):124-9. PMID: 17383635; PMCID: PMC1945095.
    94. Geschwind DH, Levitt P. Autism spectrum disorders: developmental disconnection syndromes. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007 Feb; 17(1):103-11. PMID: 17275283.
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    95. Stanwood GD, Levitt P. Prenatal exposure to cocaine produces unique developmental and long-term adaptive changes in dopamine D1 receptor activity and subcellular distribution. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 03; 27(1):152-7. PMID: 17202482.
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    96. Kudo LC, Karsten SL, Chen J, Levitt P, Geschwind DH. Genetic analysis of anterior posterior expression gradients in the developing mammalian forebrain. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Sep; 17(9):2108-22. PMID: 17150988.
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    97. Campbell DB, Sutcliffe JS, Ebert PJ, Militerni R, Bravaccio C, Trillo S, Elia M, Schneider C, Melmed R, Sacco R, Persico AM, Levitt P. A genetic variant that disrupts MET transcription is associated with autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 07; 103(45):16834-9. PMID: 17053076.
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    98. Stanwood GD, Parlaman JP, Levitt P. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the dopamine D1 receptor differentially alters the expression of regulator of G-protein signalling (Rgs) transcripts. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug; 24(3):806-18. PMID: 16930410.
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    99. Levitt P, Ebert P, Mirnics K, Nimgaonkar VL, Lewis DA. Making the case for a candidate vulnerability gene in schizophrenia: Convergent evidence for regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4). Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Sep 15; 60(6):534-7. PMID: 16860780.
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    100. Persico AM, Di Pino G, Levitt P. Multiple receptors mediate the trophic effects of serotonin on ventroposterior thalamic neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 20; 1095(1):17-25. PMID: 16701576.
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    101. Ding J, Guzman JN, Tkatch T, Chen S, Goldberg JA, Ebert PJ, Levitt P, Wilson CJ, Hamm HE, Surmeier DJ. RGS4-dependent attenuation of M4 autoreceptor function in striatal cholinergic interneurons following dopamine depletion. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jun; 9(6):832-42. PMID: 16699510.
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    102. Talkowski ME, Seltman H, Bassett AS, Brzustowicz LM, Chen X, Chowdari KV, Collier DA, Cordeiro Q, Corvin AP, Deshpande SN, Egan MF, Gill M, Kendler KS, Kirov G, Heston LL, Levitt P, Lewis DA, Li T, Mirnics K, Morris DW, Norton N, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Richard C, Semwal P, Sobell JL, St Clair D, Straub RE, Thelma BK, Vallada H, Weinberger DR, Williams NM, Wood J, Zhang F, Devlin B, Nimgaonkar VL. Evaluation of a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia: genotype based meta-analysis of RGS4 polymorphisms from thirteen independent samples. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul 15; 60(2):152-62. PMID: 16631129; PMCID: PMC3133764.
    103. Mirnics K, Levitt P, Lewis DA. Critical appraisal of DNA microarrays in psychiatric genomics. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul 15; 60(2):163-76. PMID: 16616896.
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    104. Torii M, Levitt P. Dissociation of corticothalamic and thalamocortical axon targeting by an EphA7-mediated mechanism. Neuron. 2005 Nov 23; 48(4):563-75. PMID: 16301174.
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    105. Thompson BL, Levitt P, Stanwood GD. Prenatal cocaine exposure specifically alters spontaneous alternation behavior. Behav Brain Res. 2005 Oct 14; 164(1):107-16. PMID: 16054247.
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    106. Card JP, Levitt P, Gluhovsky M, Rinaman L. Early experience modifies the postnatal assembly of autonomic emotional motor circuits in rats. J Neurosci. 2005 Oct 05; 25(40):9102-11. PMID: 16207869.
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    107. Hollingshead D, Korade Z, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K. DNA self-polymers as microarray probes improve assay sensitivity. J Neurosci Methods. 2006 Mar 15; 151(2):216-23. PMID: 16165216.
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    108. Eagleson KL, Bonnin A, Levitt P. Region- and age-specific deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neuron development in the telencephalon of the uPAR(-/-) mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Sep 05; 489(4):449-66. PMID: 16025458.
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    109. Laurent C, Levinson DF, Schwartz SA, Harrington PB, Markey SP, Caprioli RM, Levitt P. Direct profiling of the cerebellum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A methodological study in postnatal and adult mouse. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Sep 01; 81(5):613-21. PMID: 16035104.
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    110. Dennis KE, Levitt P. Regional expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is correlated with dynamic patterns of promoter methylation in the developing mouse forebrain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Oct 31; 140(1-2):1-9. PMID: 16054725.
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    111. Stanwood GD, Parlaman JP, Levitt P. Anatomical abnormalities in dopaminoceptive regions of the cerebral cortex of dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Jul 04; 487(3):270-82. PMID: 15892099.
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    112. Levitt P. Developmental neurobiology and clinical disorders: lost in translation? Neuron. 2005 May 05; 46(3):407-12. PMID: 15882640.
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    113. Middleton FA, Peng L, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K. Altered expression of 14-3-3 genes in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 May; 30(5):974-83. PMID: 15726117.
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    114. Koshibu K, Ahrens ET, Levitt P. Postpubertal sex differentiation of forebrain structures and functions depend on transforming growth factor-alpha. J Neurosci. 2005 Apr 13; 25(15):3870-80. PMID: 15829639.
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    115. Pimenta AF, Levitt P. Applications of gene targeting technology to mental retardation and developmental disability research. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2005; 11(4):295-302. PMID: 16240411.
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    116. Levitt P. Disruption of interneuron development. Epilepsia. 2005; 46 Suppl 7:22-8. PMID: 16201992.
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    117. Pongrac JL, Middleton FA, Peng L, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K. Heat shock protein 12A shows reduced expression in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Dec 15; 56(12):943-50. PMID: 15601604.
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    118. Levitt P, Eagleson KL, Powell EM. Regulation of neocortical interneuron development and the implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):400-6. PMID: 15219739.
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    119. Pimenta AF, Levitt P. Characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse limbic system-associated membrane protein (Lsamp) gene. Genomics. 2004 May; 83(5):790-801. PMID: 15081109.
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    120. Bolz J, Uziel D, Mühlfriedel S, Güllmar A, Peuckert C, Zarbalis K, Wurst W, Torii M, Levitt P. Multiple roles of ephrins during the formation of thalamocortical projections: maps and more. J Neurobiol. 2004 Apr; 59(1):82-94. PMID: 15007829.
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    121. Stanwood GD, Levitt P. Drug exposure early in life: functional repercussions of changing neuropharmacology during sensitive periods of brain development. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 4(1):65-71. PMID: 15018841.
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    122. Levitt P. Neuroscience. Sealing cortical cell fate. Science. 2004 Jan 02; 303(5654):48-9. PMID: 14704417.
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    123. Mirnics K, Levitt P, Lewis DA. DNA microarray analysis of postmortem brain tissue. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2004; 60:153-81. PMID: 15474590.
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    124. Dykens EM, Sutcliffe JS, Levitt P. Autism and 15q11-q13 disorders: behavioral, genetic, and pathophysiological issues. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2004; 10(4):284-91. PMID: 15666333.
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    125. Campbell DB, Levitt P. Regionally restricted expression of the transcription factor c-myc intron 1 binding protein during brain development. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Dec 22; 467(4):581-92. PMID: 14624490.
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    126. Eagleson KL, Pimenta AF, Burns MM, Fairfull LD, Cornuet PK, Zhang L, Levitt P. Distinct domains of the limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP) mediate discrete effects on neurite outgrowth. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003 Nov; 24(3):725-40. PMID: 14664821.
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    127. Levitt P. Structural and functional maturation of the developing primate brain. J Pediatr. 2003 Oct; 143(4 Suppl):S35-45. PMID: 14597912.
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    128. Powell EM, Mühlfriedel S, Bolz J, Levitt P. Differential regulation of thalamic and cortical axonal growth by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. Dev Neurosci. 2003 Mar-Aug; 25(2-4):197-206. PMID: 12966217.
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    129. Powell EM, Campbell DB, Stanwood GD, Davis C, Noebels JL, Levitt P. Genetic disruption of cortical interneuron development causes region- and GABA cell type-specific deficits, epilepsy, and behavioral dysfunction. J Neurosci. 2003 Jan 15; 23(2):622-31. PMID: 12533622.
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    130. Uziel D, Mühlfriedel S, Zarbalis K, Wurst W, Levitt P, Bolz J. Miswiring of limbic thalamocortical projections in the absence of ephrin-A5. J Neurosci. 2002 Nov 01; 22(21):9352-7. PMID: 12417660.
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    131. Pongrac J, Middleton FA, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K. Gene expression profiling with DNA microarrays: advancing our understanding of psychiatric disorders. Neurochem Res. 2002 Oct; 27(10):1049-63. PMID: 12462404.
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    132. Chowdari KV, Mirnics K, Semwal P, Wood J, Lawrence E, Bhatia T, Deshpande SN, B K T, Ferrell RE, Middleton FA, Devlin B, Levitt P, Lewis DA, Nimgaonkar VL. Association and linkage analyses of RGS4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet. 2002 Jun 01; 11(12):1373-80. PMID: 12023979.
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    133. Middleton FA, Mirnics K, Pierri JN, Lewis DA, Levitt P. Gene expression profiling reveals alterations of specific metabolic pathways in schizophrenia. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 01; 22(7):2718-29. PMID: 11923437.
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    134. Lewis DA, Levitt P. Schizophrenia as a disorder of neurodevelopment. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002; 25:409-32. PMID: 12052915.
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