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    Florence M Hofman, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Pathology
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentPathology
    AddressHMR 2011 Zonal Ave
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-9092
    Phone+1 323 442 1153
    vCardDownload vCard

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      Dr. Hofman's field of expertise is angiogenesis and the blood-brain-barrier in human primary brain tumors and metastatic breast cancer to the brain. Her approach is to functionally characterize the tumor-associated brain endothelial cells because these cells are the target for anti-vascular therapy in cancer. Her laboratory uses both in vitro and in vivo systems to determine the mechanism(s) of chemoresistance. Once it is understood why these cells are resistant to standard of care drugs, they will identify agents which specifically disrupt the tumor vasculature, resulting in eliminating tumor growth.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Chen TC, Yu J, Nouri Nigjeh E, Wang W, Myint PT, Zandi E, Hofman F, Schönthal AH. A perillyl alcohol-conjugated analog of 3-bromopyruvate without cellular uptake dependency on monocarboxylate transporter 1 and with activity in 3-BP-resistant tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 2017 Aug 01; 400:161-174. PMID: 28450161.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Wang W, Cho HY, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Marín Ramos NI, Price R, Hurth K, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC. Intratumoral delivery of bortezomib: impact on survival in an intracranial glioma tumor model. J Neurosurg. 2017 Apr 14; 1-6. PMID: 28409734.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Rosa AI, Grade S, Santos SD, Bernardino L, Chen TC, Relvas J, Hofman F, Agasse F. Heterocellular Contacts with Mouse Brain Endothelial Cells Via Laminin and a6ß1 Integrin Sustain Subventricular Zone (SVZ) Stem/Progenitor Cells Properties. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016; 10:284. PMID: 28018177.
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      4. Kushal S, Wang W, Vaikari VP, Kota R, Chen K, Yeh TS, Jhaveri N, Groshen SL, Olenyuk BZ, Chen TC, Hofman F, Shih JC. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 22; 7(12):13842-53. PMID: 26871599; PMCID: PMC4924682.
      5. Dong H, Zou M, Bhatia A, Jayaprakash P, Hofman F, Ying Q, Chen M, Woodley DT, Li W. Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells Use Secreted Heat Shock Protein-90alpha (Hsp90a) to Survive a Hostile Hypoxic Environment. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 05; 6:20605. PMID: 26846992; PMCID: PMC4742873.
      6. Jhaveri N, Agasse F, Armstrong D, Peng L, Commins D, Wang W, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Vaikari VP, Santiago SV, Santos T, Chen L, Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F. A novel drug conjugate, NEO212, targeting proneural and mesenchymal subtypes of patient-derived glioma cancer stem cells. Cancer Lett. 2016 Feb 28; 371(2):240-50. PMID: 26683773.
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      7. Hu CM, Fang RH, Wang KC, Luk BT, Thamphiwatana S, Dehaini D, Nguyen P, Angsantikul P, Wen CH, Kroll AV, Carpenter C, Ramesh M, Qu V, Patel SH, Zhu J, Shi W, Hofman F, Chen TC, Gao W, Zhang K, Chien S, Zhang L. Nanoparticle biointerfacing by platelet membrane cloaking. Nature. 2015 Oct 01; 526(7571):118-21. PMID: 26374997; PMCID: PMC4871317.
      8. Chen TC, Cho HY, Wang W, Wetzel SJ, Singh A, Nguyen J, Hofman F, Schönthal AH. Chemotherapeutic effect of a novel temozolomide analog on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. J Biomed Sci. 2015 Aug 19; 22:71. PMID: 26282951; PMCID: PMC4539921.
      9. Schijns VE, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman F, Chen TC, Mespouille P, Hantos P, Glorieux P, Bota DA, Stathopoulos A. First clinical results of a personalized immunotherapeutic vaccine against recurrent, incompletely resected, treatment-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, based on combined allo- and auto-immune tumor reactivity. Vaccine. 2015 May 28; 33(23):2690-6. PMID: 25865468.
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      10. Bota DA, Alexandru-Abrams D, Pretto C, Hofman F, Chen TC, Fu B, Carrillo JA, Schijns VE, Stathopoulos A. Use of ERC-1671 Vaccine in a Patient with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme after Progression during Bevacizumab Therapy: First Published Report. Perm J. 2015; 19(2):41-6. PMID: 25785641; PMCID: PMC4403580.
      11. Golden EB, Cho HY, Hofman F, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Chen TC. Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs: a novel class of autophagy inhibitors. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Mar; 38(3):E12. PMID: 25727221.
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      12. Wang W, Sivakumar W, Torres S, Jhaveri N, Vaikari VP, Gong A, Howard A, Golden EB, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC. Effects of convection-enhanced delivery of bevacizumab on survival of glioma-bearing animals. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Mar; 38(3):E8. PMID: 25727230.
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      13. Huang TT, Parab S, Burnett R, Diago O, Ostertag D, Hofman F, Espinoza FL, Martin B, Ibañez CE, Kasahara N, Gruber HE, Pertschuk D, Jolly DJ, Robbins JM. Intravenous administration of retroviral replicating vector, Toca 511, demonstrates therapeutic efficacy in orthotopic immune-competent mouse glioma model. Hum Gene Ther. 2015 Feb; 26(2):82-93. PMID: 25419577; PMCID: PMC4326030.
      14. Jhaveri N, Chen TC, Hofman F. Tumor vasculature and glioma stem cells: Contributions to glioma progression. Cancer Lett. 2016 Oct 01; 380(2):545-51. PMID: 25527451.
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      15. Chen TC, Cho HY, Wang W, Nguyen J, Jhaveri N, Rosenstein-Sisson R, Hofman F, Schönthal AH. A novel temozolomide analog, NEO212, with enhanced activity against MGMT-positive melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 2015 Mar 28; 358(2):144-51. PMID: 25524552.
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      16. Golden EB, Cho HY, Jahanian A, Hofman F, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Chen TC. Chloroquine enhances temozolomide cytotoxicity in malignant gliomas by blocking autophagy. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec; 37(6):E12. PMID: 25434381.
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      17. Santos T, Fang X, Chen MT, Wang W, Ferreira R, Jhaveri N, Gundersen M, Zhou C, Pagnini P, Hofman F, Chen TC. Sequential administration of carbon nanotubes and near-infrared radiation for the treatment of gliomas. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:180. PMID: 25077069; PMCID: PMC4097104.
      18. Cho HY, Wang W, Jhaveri N, Lee DJ, Sharma N, Dubeau L, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC. NEO212, temozolomide conjugated to perillyl alcohol, is a novel drug for effective treatment of a broad range of temozolomide-resistant gliomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Aug; 13(8):2004-17. PMID: 24994771.
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      19. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Gong A, Chen TC, Tahara SM, Giannotta SL, Hofman F. Argonaute-2 promotes miR-18a entry in human brain endothelial cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 16; 3(3):e000968. PMID: 24837588; PMCID: PMC4309089.
      20. Chen TC, Cho HY, Wang W, Barath M, Sharma N, Hofman F, Schönthal AH. A novel temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate exhibits superior activity against breast cancer cells in vitro and intracranial triple-negative tumor growth in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 May; 13(5):1181-93. PMID: 24623736.
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      21. Peterson A, Bansal A, Hofman F, Chen TC, Zada G. A systematic review of inhaled intranasal therapy for central nervous system neoplasms: an emerging therapeutic option. J Neurooncol. 2014 Feb; 116(3):437-46. PMID: 24398618.
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      22. Hofman F, Taylor CR. Immunohistochemistry. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2013 Nov 18; 103:Unit 21.4.. PMID: 24510546.
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      23. Ferreira R, Santos T, Amar A, Tahara SM, Chen TC, Giannotta SL, Hofman F. MicroRNA-18a improves human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cell function. Stroke. 2014 Jan; 45(1):293-7. PMID: 24203843.
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      24. Thomas S, Sharma N, Gonzalez R, Pao PW, Hofman F, Chen TC, Louie SG, Pirrung MC, Schönthal AH. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65695. PMID: 23755268; PMCID: PMC3675020.
      25. Cho HY, Wang W, Jhaveri N, Torres S, Tseng J, Leong MN, Lee DJ, Goldkorn A, Xu T, Petasis NA, Louie SG, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC. Perillyl alcohol for the treatment of temozolomide-resistant gliomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Nov; 11(11):2462-72. PMID: 22933703.
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      26. Sharma N, Thomas S, Golden EB, Hofman F, Chen TC, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH, Louie SG. Inhibition of autophagy and induction of breast cancer cell death by mefloquine, an antimalarial agent. Cancer Lett. 2012 Dec 30; 326(2):143-54. PMID: 22863539.
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      27. Thomas S, Sharma N, Golden EB, Cho H, Agarwal P, Gaffney KJ, Petasis NA, Chen TC, Hofman F, Louie SG, Schönthal AH. Preferential killing of triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo when pharmacological aggravators of endoplasmic reticulum stress are combined with autophagy inhibitors. Cancer Lett. 2012 Dec 01; 325(1):63-71. PMID: 22664238.
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      28. Stathopoulos A, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman F, Kruse C, Jadus M, Chen TC, Schijns VE. Development of immune memory to glial brain tumors after tumor regression induced by immunotherapeutic Toll-like receptor 7/8 activation. Oncoimmunology. 2012 May 01; 1(3):298-305. PMID: 22737605.
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      29. Stathopoulos A, Pretto C, Devillers L, Pierre D, Hofman F, Epstein AL, Farghadani H, Kruse CA, Jadus MR, Chen TC, Schijns VE. Exploring the Therapeutic Efficacy of Glioma Vaccines Based on Allo- and Syngeneic Antigens and Distinct Immunological Costimulation Activators. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2012; Suppl 5:004. PMID: 24955288.
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      30. Jhaveri N, Cho H, Torres S, Wang W, Schönthal AH, Petasis NA, Louie SG, Hofman F, Chen TC. Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in TMZ-resistant gliomas. Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 22; 312(2):245-52. PMID: 21925789.
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      31. Stapleton CJ, Armstrong DL, Zidovetzki R, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Hofman F. Thrombospondin-1 modulates the angiogenic phenotype of human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2011 May; 68(5):1342-53; discussion 1353. PMID: 21307796.
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      32. Dong D, Stapleton C, Luo B, Xiong S, Ye W, Zhang Y, Jhaveri N, Zhu G, Ye R, Liu Z, Bruhn KW, Craft N, Groshen S, Hofman F, Lee AS. A critical role for GRP78/BiP in the tumor microenvironment for neovascularization during tumor growth and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011 Apr 15; 71(8):2848-57. PMID: 21467168; PMCID: PMC3078191.
      33. Chen TC, Wang W, Golden EB, Thomas S, Sivakumar W, Hofman F, Louie SG, Schönthal AH. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate enhances therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide in orthotopic mouse glioblastoma models. Cancer Lett. 2011 Mar 28; 302(2):100-8. PMID: 21257259.
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      34. Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F, Louie SG, Petasis NA. Preclinical development of novel anti-glioma drugs targeting the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Curr Pharm Des. 2011; 17(23):2428-38. PMID: 21827419.
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      35. Hofman F, Stathopoulos A, Kruse CA, Chen TC, Schijns VE. Immunotherapy of malignant gliomas using autologous and allogeneic tissue cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2010 Jul; 10(6):462-70. PMID: 20879986; PMCID: PMC3999913.
      36. Wang W, Ghandi A, Liebes L, Louie SG, Hofman F, Schönthal AH, Chen TC. Effective conversion of irinotecan to SN-38 after intratumoral drug delivery to an intracranial murine glioma model in vivo. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):689-94. PMID: 20415520.
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      37. Virrey JJ, Liu Z, Cho HY, Kardosh A, Golden EB, Louie SG, Gaffney KJ, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F. Antiangiogenic activities of 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib on the tumor vasculature. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Mar; 9(3):631-41. PMID: 20197398.
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      38. Virrey JJ, Golden EB, Sivakumar W, Wang W, Pen L, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC. Glioma-associated endothelial cells are chemoresistant to temozolomide. J Neurooncol. 2009 Oct; 95(1):13-22. PMID: 19381445.
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      39. Cho HY, Thomas S, Golden EB, Gaffney KJ, Hofman F, Chen TC, Louie SG, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH. Enhanced killing of chemo-resistant breast cancer cells via controlled aggravation of ER stress. Cancer Lett. 2009 Sep 08; 282(1):87-97. PMID: 19345476.
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      40. Zandian M, Belisle R, Mott KR, Nusinowitz S, Hofman F, Ghiasi H. Optic neuritis in different strains of mice by a recombinant HSV-1 expressing murine interleukin-2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul; 50(7):3275-82. PMID: 19234357.
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      41. Jabbour MN, Elder JB, Samuelson CG, Khashabi S, Hofman F, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Aberrant angiogenic characteristics of human brain arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):139-46; discussion 146-8. PMID: 19145162.
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      42. Virrey JJ, Dong D, Stiles C, Patterson JB, Pen L, Ni M, Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F, Lee AS. Stress chaperone GRP78/BiP confers chemoresistance to tumor-associated endothelial cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008 Aug; 6(8):1268-75. PMID: 18708359; PMCID: PMC2593417.
      43. Virrey JJ, Guan S, Li W, Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F. Increased survivin expression confers chemoresistance to tumor-associated endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2008 Aug; 173(2):575-85. PMID: 18599610; PMCID: PMC2475793.
      44. Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F, Louie SG, Petasis NA. Celecoxib analogs that lack COX-2 inhibitory function: preclinical development of novel anticancer drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Feb; 17(2):197-208. PMID: 18230053.
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      45. Kardosh A, Golden EB, Pyrko P, Uddin J, Hofman F, Chen TC, Louie SG, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH. Aggravated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a basis for enhanced glioblastoma cell killing by bortezomib in combination with celecoxib or its non-coxib analogue, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib. Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 01; 68(3):843-51. PMID: 18245486.
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      46. Dong D, Ni M, Li J, Xiong S, Ye W, Virrey JJ, Mao C, Ye R, Wang M, Pen L, Dubeau L, Groshen S, Hofman F, Lee AS. Critical role of the stress chaperone GRP78/BiP in tumor proliferation, survival, and tumor angiogenesis in transgene-induced mammary tumor development. Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15; 68(2):498-505. PMID: 18199545.
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      47. Pyrko P, Schönthal AH, Hofman F, Chen TC, Lee AS. The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78/BiP as a novel target for increasing chemosensitivity in malignant gliomas. Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 15; 67(20):9809-16. PMID: 17942911.
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      48. Kardosh A, Soriano N, Pyrko P, Liu YT, Jabbour M, Hofman F, Schönthal AH. Reduced survivin expression and tumor cell survival during chronic hypoxia and further cytotoxic enhancement by the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. J Biomed Sci. 2007 Sep; 14(5):647-62. PMID: 17440835.
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      49. Chen HC, Hofman F, Kung JT, Lin YD, Wu-Hsieh BA. Both virus and tumor necrosis factor alpha are critical for endothelium damage in a mouse model of dengue virus-induced hemorrhage. J Virol. 2007 Jun; 81(11):5518-26. PMID: 17360740; PMCID: PMC1900309.
      50. Gupta V, Su YS, Samuelson CG, Liebes LF, Chamberlain MC, Hofman F, Schönthal AH, Chen TC. Irinotecan: a potential new chemotherapeutic agent for atypical or malignant meningiomas. J Neurosurg. 2007 Mar; 106(3):455-62. PMID: 17367069.
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      51. Dietlin TA, Hofman F, Lund BT, Gilmore W, Stohlman SA, van der Veen RC. Mycobacteria-induced Gr-1+ subsets from distinct myeloid lineages have opposite effects on T cell expansion. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 May; 81(5):1205-12. PMID: 17307863.
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      52. Charalambous C, Virrey J, Kardosh A, Jabbour MN, Qazi-Abdullah L, Pen L, Zidovetzki R, Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman F. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence. Exp Cell Res. 2007 Apr 01; 313(6):1192-202. PMID: 17291495.
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      53. Pyrko P, Soriano N, Kardosh A, Liu YT, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Hofman F, Chen CS, Chen TC, Schönthal AH. Downregulation of survivin expression and concomitant induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and its non-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory analog, dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer. 2006 May 18; 5:19. PMID: 16707021; PMCID: PMC1479836.
      54. Gupta V, Su YS, Wang W, Kardosh A, Liebes LF, Hofman F, Schönthal AH, Chen TC. Enhancement of glioblastoma cell killing by combination treatment with temozolomide and tamoxifen or hypericin. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E20. PMID: 16709026.
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      55. Gupta V, Wang W, Sosnowski BA, Hofman F, Chen TC. Fibroblast growth factor-2-retargeted adenoviral vector for selective transduction of primary glioblastoma multiforme endothelial cells. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E26. PMID: 16709032.
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      56. Charalambous C, Chen TC, Hofman F. Characteristics of tumor-associated endothelial cells derived from glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Apr 15; 20(4):E22. PMID: 16709028.
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      57. Milan J, Charalambous C, Elhag R, Chen TC, Li W, Guan S, Hofman F, Zidovetzki R. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in endothelin-1-induced brain endothelial cell migration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Jul; 291(1):C155-64. PMID: 16452160.
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      58. Charalambous C, Pen LB, Su YS, Milan J, Chen TC, Hofman F. Interleukin-8 differentially regulates migration of tumor-associated and normal human brain endothelial cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 15; 65(22):10347-54. PMID: 16288024.
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      59. Kardosh A, Soriano N, Liu YT, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Hofman F, Chen TC, Schönthal AH. Multitarget inhibition of drug-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines by dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), a non-COX-2 inhibitory analog of celecoxib. Blood. 2005 Dec 15; 106(13):4330-8. PMID: 16123214.
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      60. Wu Z, Guo H, Chow N, Sallstrom J, Bell RD, Deane R, Brooks AI, Kanagala S, Rubio A, Sagare A, Liu D, Li F, Armstrong D, Gasiewicz T, Zidovetzki R, Song X, Hofman F, Zlokovic BV. Role of the MEOX2 homeobox gene in neurovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer disease. Nat Med. 2005 Sep; 11(9):959-65. PMID: 16116430.
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      61. Dietlin TA, Hofman F, Gilmore W, Stohlman SA, van der Veen RC. T cell expansion is regulated by activated Gr-1+ splenocytes. Cell Immunol. 2005 May; 235(1):39-45. PMID: 16083869.
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      62. Kardosh A, Wang W, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Hofman F, Chen TC, Schönthal AH. Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), a derivative of celecoxib that lacks cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory function, potently mimics the anti-tumor effects of celecoxib on Burkitt's lymphoma in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 May; 4(5):571-82. PMID: 15846081.
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      63. Osorio Y, La Point SF, Nusinowitz S, Hofman F, Ghiasi H. CD8+-dependent CNS demyelination following ocular infection of mice with a recombinant HSV-1 expressing murine IL-2. Exp Neurol. 2005 May; 193(1):1-18. PMID: 15817260.
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      64. Charalambous C, Hofman F, Chen TC. Functional and phenotypic differences between glioblastoma multiforme-derived and normal human brain endothelial cells. J Neurosurg. 2005 Apr; 102(4):699-705. PMID: 15871513.
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      65. van der Veen RC, Dietlin TA, Karapetian A, Holland SM, Hofman F. Extra-cellular superoxide promotes T cell expansion through inactivation of nitric oxide. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Aug; 153(1-2):183-9. PMID: 15265676.
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      66. Osorio Y, Cai S, Hofman F, Brown DJ, Ghiasi H. Involvement of CD8+ T-cells in exacerbation of corneal scarring in mice. Curr Eye Res. 2004 Aug-Sep; 29(2-3):145-51. PMID: 15512961.
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      67. van der Veen RC, Dietlin TA, Hofman F. Tissue expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase requires IFN-gamma production by infiltrating splenic T cells: more evidence for immunosuppression by nitric oxide. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Dec; 145(1-2):86-90. PMID: 14644034.
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      68. Wu Z, Hofman F, Zlokovic BV. A simple method for isolation and characterization of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Neurosci Methods. 2003 Nov 30; 130(1):53-63. PMID: 14583404.
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      69. Deane R, Du Yan S, Submamaryan RK, LaRue B, Jovanovic S, Hogg E, Welch D, Manness L, Lin C, Yu J, Zhu H, Ghiso J, Frangione B, Stern A, Schmidt AM, Armstrong DL, Arnold B, Liliensiek B, Nawroth P, Hofman F, Kindy M, Stern D, Zlokovic B. RAGE mediates amyloid-beta peptide transport across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation in brain. Nat Med. 2003 Jul; 9(7):907-13. PMID: 12808450.
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      70. Giri R, Selvaraj S, Miller CA, Hofman F, Yan SD, Stern D, Zlokovic BV, Kalra VK. Effect of endothelial cell polarity on beta-amyloid-induced migration of monocytes across normal and AD endothelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Sep; 283(3):C895-904. PMID: 12176746.
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      71. Hofman F. Immunohistochemistry. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2002 Aug; Chapter 21:Unit 21.4. PMID: 18432882.
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      72. Chen TC, Wadsten P, Su S, Rawlinson N, Hofman F, Hill CK, Schönthal AH. The type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram induces expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), resulting in growth inhibition, increased differentiation, and subsequent apoptosis of malignant A-172 glioma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002 May-Jun; 1(3):268-76. PMID: 12432276.
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      73. Parr TB, Hofman F, Kiener PA, Stohl W. Cell cycle phase-specific survival of CD95 ligand-challenged Jurkat cells: upregulation of heat-shock response. Cell Immunol. 2001 Jul 10; 211(1):21-9. PMID: 11585384.
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      74. Chen P, Shibata M, Zidovetzki R, Fisher M, Zlokovic BV, Hofman F. Endothelin-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 modulation in ischemia and human brain-derived endothelial cell cultures. J Neuroimmunol. 2001 May 01; 116(1):62-73. PMID: 11311331.
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      75. van der Veen RC, Dietlin TA, Pen L, Gray JD, Hofman F. Antigen presentation to Th1 but not Th2 cells by macrophages results in nitric oxide production and inhibition of T cell proliferation: interferon-gamma is essential but insufficient. Cell Immunol. 2000 Dec 15; 206(2):125-35. PMID: 11161444.
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      76. Ghiasi H, Hofman F, Wallner K, Cai S, Perng G, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL. Corneal macrophage infiltrates following ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 challenge vary in BALB/c mice vaccinated with different vaccines. Vaccine. 2000 Dec 8; 19(9-10):1266-73. PMID: 11137266.
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      77. van der Veen RC, Dietlin TA, Hofman F, Pen L, Segal BH, Holland SM. Superoxide prevents nitric oxide-mediated suppression of helper T lymphocytes: decreased autoimmune encephalomyelitis in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase knockout mice. J Immunol. 2000 May 15; 164(10):5177-83. PMID: 10799876.
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      78. Perng GC, Jones C, Ciacci-Zanella J, Stone M, Henderson G, Yukht A, Slanina SM, Hofman F, Ghiasi H, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL. Virus-induced neuronal apoptosis blocked by the herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript. Science. 2000 Feb 25; 287(5457):1500-3. PMID: 10688801.
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      79. Zidovetzki R, Chen P, Chen M, Hofman F. Endothelin-1-induced interleukin-8 production in human brain-derived endothelial cells is mediated by the protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase pathways. Blood. 1999 Aug 15; 94(4):1291-9. PMID: 10438717.
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      80. Zidovetzki R, Wang JL, Kim JA, Chen P, Fisher M, Hofman F. Endothelin-1 enhances plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production by human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C-dependent pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999 Jul; 19(7):1768-75. PMID: 10397697.
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      81. Ghiasi H, Perng GC, Hofman F, Cai S, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL, Pemg GC. Specific and nonspecific immune stimulation of MHC-II-deficient mice results in chronic HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia following ocular challenge. Virology. 1999 Jun 5; 258(2):208-16. PMID: 10366558.
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      82. Ghiasi H, Hofman F, Cai S, Perng GC, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL. Vaccination with different HSV-1 glycoproteins induces different patterns of ocular cytokine responses following HSV-1 challenge of vaccinated mice. Vaccine. 1999 Jun 4; 17(20-21):2576-82. PMID: 10418905.
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      83. Zidovetzki R, Chen P, Fisher M, Hofman F, Faraci FM. Nicotine increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production by human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C-associated pathway. Stroke. 1999 Mar; 30(3):651-5. PMID: 10066866.
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      84. Hofman F, Chen P, Incardona F, Zidovetzki R, Hinton DR. HIV-1 tat protein induces the production of interleukin-8 by human brain-derived endothelial cells. J Neuroimmunol. 1999 Feb 01; 94(1-2):28-39. PMID: 10376933.
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      85. Ghiasi H, Wechsler SL, Cai S, Nesburn AB, Hofman F. The role of neutralizing antibody and T-helper subtypes in protection and pathogenesis of vaccinated mice following ocular HSV-1 challenge. Immunology. 1998 Nov; 95(3):352-9. PMID: 9824497.
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      86. Hofman F, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R, Incardona F, Fisher M, Zidovetzki R. Endothelin-1 induces production of the neutrophil chemotactic factor interleukin-8 by human brain-derived endothelial cells. Blood. 1998 Nov 1; 92(9):3064-72. PMID: 9787140.
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      87. Chen TC, Hinton DR, Zidovetzki R, Hofman F. Up-regulation of the cAMP/PKA pathway inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation, and leads to apoptosis in malignant gliomas. Lab Invest. 1998 Feb; 78(2):165-74. PMID: 9484714.
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      88. Lavine SD, Hofman F, Zlokovic BV. Circulating antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects rat brain from reperfusion injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998 Jan; 18(1):52-8. PMID: 9428305.
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      89. van der Veen RC, Hinton DR, Incardonna F, Hofman F. Extensive peroxynitrite activity during progressive stages of central nervous system inflammation. J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Jul; 77(1):1-7. PMID: 9209262.
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      90. Chen TC, Hinton DR, Sippy BD, Hofman F. Soluble TNF-alpha receptors are constitutively shed and downregulate adhesion molecule expression in malignant gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 May; 56(5):541-50. PMID: 9143267.
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      91. Chen TC, Hinton DR, Yong VW, Hofman F. TGF-B2 and soluble p55 TNFR modulate VCAM-1 expression in glioma cells and brain derived endothelial cells. J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Mar; 73(1-2):155-61. PMID: 9058771.
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      92. Sippy BD, Hofman F, Wright AD, He S, Ryan SJ, Hinton DR. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors are present in human vitreous and shed by retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 1996 Sep; 63(3):311-7. PMID: 8943704.
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      93. Lin Y, Zhang M, Hofman F, Gong J, Barnes PF. Absence of a prominent Th2 cytokine response in human tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1996 Apr; 64(4):1351-6. PMID: 8606100.
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      94. Sippy BD, Hofman F, Wright AD, Wang JL, Gopalakrishna R, Gundimeda U, He S, Ryan SJ, Hinton DR. Induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by tumor necrosis factor-alpha through the 55-kDa receptor is dependent on protein kinase C in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Mar; 37(4):597-606. PMID: 8595959.
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      95. Sippy BD, Hofman F, Wallach D, Hinton DR. Increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors in the brains of patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Dec 15; 10(5):511-21. PMID: 8548330.
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      96. Stohlman SA, Hinton DR, Cua D, Dimacali E, Sensintaffar J, Hofman F, Tahara SM, Yao Q. Tumor necrosis factor expression during mouse hepatitis virus-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 1995 Sep; 69(9):5898-903. PMID: 7637037; PMCID: PMC189470.
      97. Sippy BD, Hofman F, He S, Osusky R, Sheu SJ, Walker SM, Ryan SJ, Hinton DR. SV40-immortalized and primary cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells share similar patterns of cytokine-receptor expression and cytokine responsiveness. Curr Eye Res. 1995 Jun; 14(6):495-503. PMID: 7545567.
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      98. Ghiasi H, Wechsler SL, Kaiwar R, Nesburn AB, Hofman F. Local expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-2 correlates with protection against corneal scarring after ocular challenge of vaccinated mice with herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol. 1995 Jan; 69(1):334-40. PMID: 7983727.
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      99. Kureshi SA, Hofman F, Schneider JH, Chin LS, Apuzzo ML, Hinton DR. Cytokine expression in radiation-induced delayed cerebral injury. Neurosurgery. 1994 Nov; 35(5):822-9; discussion 829-30. PMID: 7838329.
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      100. Hofman F, Dohadwala MM, Wright AD, Hinton DR, Walker SM. Exogenous tat protein activates central nervous system-derived endothelial cells. J Neuroimmunol. 1994 Oct; 54(1-2):19-28. PMID: 7523444.
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      101. Chakrabarti R, Hofman F, Pandey R, Mathes LE, Roy-Burman P. Recombination between feline exogenous and endogenous retroviral sequences generates tropism for cerebral endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 1994 Feb; 144(2):348-58. PMID: 8311118.
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      102. Mircheff AK, Gierow JP, Wood RL, Akashi RH, Hofman F. Hypothesis for autoantigen presentation and T cell activation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1994; 350:651-4. PMID: 8030550.
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      103. Hofman F, Wright AD, Dohadwala MM, Wong-Staal F, Walker SM. Exogenous tat protein activates human endothelial cells. Blood. 1993 Nov 1; 82(9):2774-80. PMID: 7693046.
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      104. Chen TC, Hinton DR, Apuzzo ML, Hofman F. Differential effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on proliferation, cell surface antigen expression, and cytokine interactions in malignant gliomas. Neurosurgery. 1993 Jan; 32(1):85-94. PMID: 8093640.
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      105. Wu-Hsieh BA, Lee GS, Franco M, Hofman F. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct; 60(10):4230-8. PMID: 1398934.
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      106. Schneider J, Hofman F, Apuzzo ML, Hinton DR. Cytokines and immunoregulatory molecules in malignant glial neoplasms. J Neurosurg. 1992 Aug; 77(2):265-73. PMID: 1625016.
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      107. Hofman F, Hinton DR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the retina in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 May; 33(6):1829-35. PMID: 1582785.
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      108. Merrill JE, Kono DH, Clayton J, Ando DG, Hinton DR, Hofman F. Inflammatory leukocytes and cytokines in the peptide-induced disease of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL and B10.PL mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 15; 89(2):574-8. PMID: 1370583; PMCID: PMC48281.
      109. Wong VL, Hofman F, Ishii H, Fisher M. Regional distribution of thrombomodulin in human brain. Brain Res. 1991 Aug 9; 556(1):1-5. PMID: 1657303.
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      110. Mircheff AK, Gierow JP, Lee LM, Lambert RW, Akashi RH, Hofman F. Class II antigen expression by lacrimal epithelial cells. An updated working hypothesis for antigen presentation by epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Jul; 32(8):2302-10. PMID: 1830042.
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      111. Hofman F, Hinton DR, Baemayr J, Weil M, Merrill JE. Lymphokines and immunoregulatory molecules in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1991 Mar; 58(3):331-42. PMID: 1900461.
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      112. Stohl W, Hofman F, Gray JD. Differential CD3/T cell antigen receptor-mediated IL-2 production in jurkat T cells. Dissociation of IL-2 response from total inositol phosphate and calcium responses. J Immunol. 1990 Aug 15; 145(4):1078-87. PMID: 2143206.
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      113. Hofman F, Hinton DR. Cytokine interactions in the central nervous system. Reg Immunol. 1990-1991; 3(5):268-78. PMID: 1716950.
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      114. Hofman F, Hinton DR, Johnson K, Merrill JE. Tumor necrosis factor identified in multiple sclerosis brain. J Exp Med. 1989 Aug 01; 170(2):607-12. PMID: 2754393; PMCID: PMC2189402.
      115. Modlin RL, Pirmez C, Hofman F, Torigian V, Uyemura K, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Brenner MB. Lymphocytes bearing antigen-specific gamma delta T-cell receptors accumulate in human infectious disease lesions. Nature. 1989 Jun 15; 339(6225):544-8. PMID: 2471938.
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      116. Hofman F, Brock M, Taylor CR, Lyons B. IL-4 regulates differentiation and proliferation of human precursor B cells. J Immunol. 1988 Aug 15; 141(4):1185-90. PMID: 3260922.
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      117. Shen JY, Hofman F, Gunter JR, Modlin RL, Rea TH. In situ identification of activated Ta1+ T lymphocytes in human leprosy skin lesions. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1987 Sep; 55(3):494-8. PMID: 2443587.
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      118. Turner RR, Meyer PR, Taylor CR, Gill PS, Hofman F, Nichols P, Rasheed S, Levine AM. Immunohistology of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Evidence for progressive lymph node abnormalities in some patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 1987 Jul; 88(1):10-9. PMID: 3300263.
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      119. Bhoopat L, Taylor CR, Hofman F. The differentiation antigens of macrophages in human fetal liver. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Nov; 41(2):184-92. PMID: 3769222.
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      120. Hofman F, Modlin RL, Bhoopat L, Taylor CR. Distribution of cells bearing the Tac antigen during ontogeny of human lymphoid tissue. J Immunol. 1985 Jun; 134(6):3751-5. PMID: 2985695.
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      121. Forni M, Hofman F, Parker JW, Lukes RJ, Taylor CR. B- and T-lymphocytes in Hodgkin's disease. An immunohistochemical study utilizing heterologous and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer. 1985 Feb 15; 55(4):728-37. PMID: 3155642.
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      122. Modlin RL, Segal GP, Hofman F, Walley MS, Johnson RH, Taylor CR, Rea TH. In situ localization of T lymphocytes in disseminated coccidioidomycosis. J Infect Dis. 1985 Feb; 151(2):314-9. PMID: 3155781.
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      123. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Sharma OP, Gottlieb B, Taylor CR, Rea TH. Demonstration in situ of subsets of T-lymphocytes in sarcoidosis. Am J Dermatopathol. 1984 Oct; 6(5):423-7. PMID: 6239559.
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      124. Hofman F, Lopez D, Husmann L, Meyer PR, Taylor CR. Heterogeneity of macrophage populations in human lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood. Cell Immunol. 1984 Oct 1; 88(1):61-74. PMID: 6478515.
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      125. Hofman F, Danilovs J, Husmann L, Taylor CR. Ontogeny of B cell markers in the human fetal liver. J Immunol. 1984 Sep; 133(3):1197-201. PMID: 6430996.
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      126. von Hanwehr RI, Hofman F, Taylor CR, Apuzzo ML. Mononuclear lymphoid populations infiltrating the microenvironment of primary CNS tumors. Characterization of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies. J Neurosurg. 1984 Jun; 60(6):1138-47. PMID: 6374063.
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      127. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Horwitz DA, Husmann LA, Gillis S, Taylor CR, Rea TH. In situ identification of cells in human leprosy granulomas with monoclonal antibodies to interleukin 2 and its receptor. J Immunol. 1984 Jun; 132(6):3085-90. PMID: 6327818.
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      128. Hofman F, Danilovs JA, Taylor CR. HLA-DR (Ia)-positive dendritic-like cells in human fetal nonlymphoid tissues. Transplantation. 1984 Jun; 37(6):590-4. PMID: 6587648.
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      129. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Meyer PR, Vaccaro SA, Ammann AJ, Conant MA, Rea TH, Taylor CR. Altered distribution of B and T lymphocytes in lymph-nodes from homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet. 1983 Oct 1; 2(8353):768-71. PMID: 6137604.
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      130. Hofman F, Yanagihara E, Byrne B, Billing R, Baird S, Frisman D, Taylor CR. Analysis of B-cell antigens in normal reactive lymphoid tissue using four B-cell monoclonal antibodies. Blood. 1983 Oct; 62(4):775-83. PMID: 6411151.
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      131. Modlin RL, Meyer PR, Hofman F, Mehlmauer M, Levy NB, Lukes RJ, Parker JW, Ammann AJ, Conant MA, Rea TH, Taylor CR. T-lymphocyte subsets in lymph nodes from homosexual men. JAMA. 1983 Sep 9; 250(10):1302-5. PMID: 6224027.
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      132. Taylor CR, Hofman F, Modlin RL, Rea TH. Immunoperoxidase techniques applied to dermatopathology. J Cutan Pathol. 1983 Jun; 10(3):145-63. PMID: 6345613.
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      133. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Kempf RA, Taylor CR, Conant MA, Rea TH. Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men: an immunohistochemical study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983 May; 8(5):620-7. PMID: 6408146.
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      134. Hofman F, Meyer PR, Yanagihara E, Modlin RL, Rea TH, Parker JW, Lukes RJ, Taylor CR. Demonstration of a subpopulation of Ia+ T-helper cells in mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. Am J Dermatopathol. 1983 Apr; 5(2):135-43. PMID: 6224436.
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      135. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Meyer PR, Sharma OP, Taylor CR, Rea TH. In situ demonstration of T lymphocyte subsets in granulomatous inflammation: leprosy, rhinoscleroma and sarcoidosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1983 Mar; 51(3):430-8. PMID: 6221839.
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      136. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Taylor CR, Rea TH. T lymphocyte subsets in the skin lesions of patients with leprosy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983 Feb; 8(2):182-9. PMID: 6219136.
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      137. Modlin RL, Hofman F, Taylor CR, Rea TH. In situ characterization of T lymphocyte subsets in leprosy granulomas. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1982 Sep; 50(3):361-2. PMID: 6982876.
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      138. Hofman F, Billing RJ, Parker JW, Taylor CR. Cytoplasmic as opposed to surface Ia antigens expressed on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Clin Exp Immunol. 1982 Aug; 49(2):355-63. PMID: 6181924.
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      139. Danilovs JA, Hofman F, Taylor CR, Brown J. Expression of HLA-DR antigens in human fetal pancreas tissue. Diabetes. 1982 Aug; 31 Suppl 4:23-9. PMID: 6762306.
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