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Elaine Kaptein, MD

Title(s)Professor of Medicine (Part-Time)
Phone+1 323 409 7307
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    University of Saskatchewan 1969  - 1971Student Research Scholarship
    American College of Physicians1981Fellow
    Royal College of Physicians of Canada 1978Fellow
    NIH1980  - 1982General Clinical Research Center Physician Grant
    NIH1984  - 1990Grant R01 DK31431
    Renal Organ System, Course Director2000Teaching Award, Outstanding Year II Course

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    A native of Saskatchewan, Canada, Dr. Kaptein began teaching at the Keck School of Medicine in the Endocrinology Division in 1977. She became a tenured Professor of Medicine in 1990, a position she currently holds. Dr. Kaptein is a distinguished member of the Western Society for Clinical Investigation, American Society of Nephrology, the Endocrine Society and the American Thyroid Association. An accomplished researcher and lecturer, Dr. Kaptein has been invited to speak on the topics of Endocrinology and Nephrology in such cities as Montreal, Milan, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Vienna and Rotterdam, to name a few.

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    THYROID HORMONE KINETICS IN KIDNEY DISEASES
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK031431Dec 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    THYROID HORMONE KINETICS IN KIDNEY DISEASES
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM031431Dec 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kaptein MJ, Kaptein JS, Oo Z, Kaptein EM. Relationship of inferior vena cava collapsibility to ultrafiltration volume achieved in critically ill hemodialysis patients. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2018; 11:195-209. PMID: 30087575.
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    2. Kaptein MJ, Kaptein EM. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists. Int J Nephrol. 2017; 2017:3756857. PMID: 28261499.
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    3. Kaptein EM, Sreeramoju D, Kaptein JS, Kaptein MJ. A systematic literature search and review of sodium concentrations of body fluids?. Clin Nephrol. 2016 10; 86(10):203-28. PMID: 27616761.
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    4. Kaptein EM, LoPresti JS, Kaptein MJ. Is an isolated TSH elevation in chronic nonthyroidal illness "subclinical hypothyroidism"? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov; 99(11):4015-26. PMID: 25166720.
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    5. Kaptein EM, Yi SS, Endres DB, Kaptein JS, Chan LS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency; a risk factor for chronic kidney disease in ambulatory indigent patients. Endocr Pract. 2014 Mar; 20(3):236-43. PMID: 24246347.
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    6. Kaptein EM, Yi SS, Endres DB, Kaptein JS, Chan LS. Vitamin D deficiency in urban indigent patients in Southern California. Endocr Pract. 2013 May-Jun; 19(3):404-13. PMID: 23337149.
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    7. Kurlak LO, Mistry HD, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, Broughton Pipkin F. Thyroid hormones and their placental deiodination in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Placenta. 2013 May; 34(5):395-400. PMID: 23518454.
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    8. Kaptein EM, Chan LS, Kaptein JS. Assessment of maximum weight change and duration of therapeutic effect for non-surgical treatment of obesity using an exponential model. Eat Weight Disord. 2012 Dec; 17(4):e234-43. PMID: 23007276.
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    9. Momenin N, Colletti PM, Kaptein EM. Low pleural fluid-to-serum glucose gradient indicates pleuroperitoneal communication in peritoneal dialysis patients: presentation of two cases and a review of the literature. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Mar; 27(3):1212-9. PMID: 21771760.
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    10. Kaptein EM, Sanchez A, Beale E, Chan LS. Clinical review: Thyroid hormone therapy for postoperative nonthyroidal illnesses: a systematic review and synthesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Oct; 95(10):4526-34. PMID: 20668034.
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    11. Kaptein EM, Beale E, Chan LS. Thyroid hormone therapy for obesity and nonthyroidal illnesses: a systematic review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct; 94(10):3663-75. PMID: 19737920.
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    12. Ferguson DC, Hoenig M, Kaptein EM, Peterson ME. Comments regarding "Subclinical hyperthyroidism in cats: a spontaneous model of subclinical toxic nodular goiter in humans?". Thyroid. 2008 Dec; 18(12):1339-40; author reply 1341. PMID: 19067644.
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    13. Boelen A, Kwakkel J, Alkemade A, Renckens R, Kaptein E, Kuiper G, Wiersinga WM, Visser TJ. Induction of type 3 deiodinase activity in inflammatory cells of mice with chronic local inflammation. Endocrinology. 2005 Dec; 146(12):5128-34. PMID: 16150911.
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    14. Kaptein EM, Wilcox RB, Nelson JC. Assessing thyroid hormone status in a patient with thyroid disease and renal failure: from theory to practice. Thyroid. 2004 May; 14(5):397-400. PMID: 15186619.
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    15. Van Beeren HC, Jong WM, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM. Dronerarone acts as a selective inhibitor of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine binding to thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Endocrinology. 2003 Feb; 144(2):552-8. PMID: 12538616.
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    16. Richard K, Hume R, Kaptein E, Stanley EL, Visser TJ, Coughtrie MW. Sulfation of thyroid hormone and dopamine during human development: ontogeny of phenol sulfotransferases and arylsulfatase in liver, lung, and brain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun; 86(6):2734-42. PMID: 11397879.
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    17. Kaptein EM, Levenson H, Siegel ME, Gadallah M, Akmal M. Radioiodine dosimetry in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep; 85(9):3058-64. PMID: 10999786.
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    18. Findlay KA, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, Burchell B. Characterization of the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase-catalyzing thyroid hormone glucuronidation in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Aug; 85(8):2879-83. PMID: 10946897.
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    19. Sanders JP, Van der Geyten S, Kaptein E, Darras VM, Kühn ER, Leonard JL, Visser TJ. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Endocrinology. 1999 Aug; 140(8):3666-73. PMID: 10433225.
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    20. Kester MH, Kaptein E, Roest TJ, van Dijk CH, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Coughtrie MW, Visser TJ. Characterization of human iodothyronine sulfotransferases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr; 84(4):1357-64. PMID: 10199779.
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    21. Di Fiori JL, Rodrigue D, Kaptein EM, Ralls PW. Diagnostic sonography of HIV-associated nephropathy: new observations and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998 Sep; 171(3):713-6. PMID: 9725302.
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    22. Richard K, Hume R, Kaptein E, Sanders JP, van Toor H, De Herder WW, den Hollander JC, Krenning EP, Visser TJ. Ontogeny of iodothyronine deiodinases in human liver. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug; 83(8):2868-74. PMID: 9709961.
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    23. Sanders JP, Van der Geyten S, Kaptein E, Darras VM, Kühn ER, Leonard JL, Visser TJ. Characterization of a propylthiouracil-insensitive type I iodothyronine deiodinase. Endocrinology. 1997 Dec; 138(12):5153-60. PMID: 9389495.
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    24. Van der Geyten S, Sanders JP, Kaptein E, Darras VM, Kühn ER, Leonard JL, Visser TJ. Expression of chicken hepatic type I and type III iodothyronine deiodinases during embryonic development. Endocrinology. 1997 Dec; 138(12):5144-52. PMID: 9389494.
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    25. Kaptein E, van Haasteren GA, Linkels E, de Greef WJ, Visser TJ. Characterization of iodothyronine sulfotransferase activity in rat liver. Endocrinology. 1997 Dec; 138(12):5136-43. PMID: 9389493.
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    26. Schröder-van der Elst JP, van der Heide D, DiStefano JJ, van der Bent C, Kaptein E, Visser TJ. Effects of 5,5'-diphenylhydantoin on the metabolic pathway of thyroid hormone in rats. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Mar; 136(3):324-9. PMID: 9100559.
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    27. Kaptein EM. Hormone-specific alterations of T4, T3, and reverse T3 metabolism with recent ethanol abstinence in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997 Feb; 272(2 Pt 1):E191-200. PMID: 9124322.
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    28. Toyoda N, Kaptein E, Berry MJ, Harney JW, Larsen PR, Visser TJ. Structure-activity relationships for thyroid hormone deiodination by mammalian type I iodothyronine deiodinases. Endocrinology. 1997 Jan; 138(1):213-9. PMID: 8977406.
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    29. Visser TJ, van Haasteren GA, Linkels E, Kaptein E, van Toor H, de Greef WJ. Gender-specific changes in thyroid hormone-glucuronidating enzymes in rat liver during short-term fasting and long-term food restriction. Eur J Endocrinol. 1996 Oct; 135(4):489-97. PMID: 8921833.
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    30. van Haasteren GA, Linkels E, van Toor H, Klootwijk W, Kaptein E, de Jong FH, Reymond MJ, Visser TJ, de Greef WJ. Effects of long-term food reduction on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in male and female rats. J Endocrinol. 1996 Aug; 150(2):169-78. PMID: 8869583.
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    31. Kaptein EM. Thyroid hormone metabolism and thyroid diseases in chronic renal failure. Endocr Rev. 1996 Feb; 17(1):45-63. PMID: 8641223.
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    32. Schröder-van der Elst JP, van der Heide D, van der Bent C, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, DiStefano JJ. Effects of 5, 5'-diphenylhydantoin on the thyroid status in rats. Eur J Endocrinol. 1996 Feb; 134(2):221-4. PMID: 8630523.
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    33. van Haasteren GA, van der Meer MJ, Hermus AR, Linkels E, Klootwijk W, Kaptein E, van Toor H, Sweep CG, Visser TJ, de Greef WJ. Different effects of continuous infusion of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 on the hypothalamic-hypophysial-thyroid axis. Endocrinology. 1994 Oct; 135(4):1336-45. PMID: 7925094.
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    34. Moreno M, Kaptein E, Goglia F, Visser TJ. Rapid glucuronidation of tri- and tetraiodothyroacetic acid to ester glucuronides in human liver and to ether glucuronides in rat liver. Endocrinology. 1994 Sep; 135(3):1004-9. PMID: 8070342.
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    35. Kaptein EM, Hays MT, Ferguson DC. Thyroid hormone metabolism. A comparative evaluation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1994 May; 24(3):431-66. PMID: 8053105.
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    36. Janssen KP, Van Der Heide D, Visser TJ, Kaptein E, Beynen AC. Thyroid function and deiodinase activities in rats with marginal iodine deficiency. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994 Mar; 40(3):237-46. PMID: 7517161.
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    37. Visser TJ, Kaptein E, van Toor H, van Raaij JA, van den Berg KJ, Joe CT, van Engelen JG, Brouwer A. Glucuronidation of thyroid hormone in rat liver: effects of in vivo treatment with microsomal enzyme inducers and in vitro assay conditions. Endocrinology. 1993 Nov; 133(5):2177-86. PMID: 8404669.
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    38. Kaptein EM. Clinical application of free thyroxine determinations. Clin Lab Med. 1993 Sep; 13(3):653-72. PMID: 8222580.
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    39. Visser TJ, Kaptein E, Gijzel AL, de Herder WW, Ebner T, Burchell B. Glucuronidation of thyroid hormone by human bilirubin and phenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase isoenzymes. FEBS Lett. 1993 Jun 21; 324(3):358-60. PMID: 8405382.
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    40. van Raaij JA, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, van den Berg KJ. Increased glucuronidation of thyroid hormone in hexachlorobenzene-treated rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Feb 09; 45(3):627-31. PMID: 8442763.
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    41. Tang WW, Kaptein EM, Feinstein EI, Massry SG. Hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the AIDS-related complex. Am J Med. 1993 Feb; 94(2):169-74. PMID: 8430712.
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    42. Visser TJ, Kaptein E, van Raaij JA, Joe CT, Ebner T, Burchell B. Multiple UDP-glucuronyltransferases for the glucuronidation of thyroid hormone with preference for 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3). FEBS Lett. 1993 Jan 02; 315(1):65-8. PMID: 8416813.
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    43. Wade MR, Chen YJ, Soliman M, Kaptein E, Massry SG, Rahimtoola SH, Chandraratna PA. Myocardial texture and cardiac calcification in uremia. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1993; 19(1):21-4. PMID: 8345830.
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    44. Kaptein EM, Moore GE, Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine distribution and metabolism in thyroxine-replaced athyreotic dogs and normal humans. Am J Physiol. 1993 Jan; 264(1 Pt 1):E90-100. PMID: 8430792.
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    45. Kaptein EM, Moore GE, Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Effects of prednisone on thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine metabolism in normal dogs. Endocrinology. 1992 Mar; 130(3):1669-79. PMID: 1537315.
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    46. el-Shahawy MA, Gadallah MF, Teitelbaum GP, Kaptein E, Akmal M. Compression of the left brachiocephalic vein by the innominate artery resulting in massive arm edema in a hemodialysis patient. Am J Nephrol. 1992; 12(1-2):108-10. PMID: 1415354.
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    47. Visser TJ, Kaptein E, Harpur ES. Differential expression and ciprofibrate induction of hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferases for thyroxine and triiodothyronine in Fischer rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Jul 05; 42(2):444-6. PMID: 1907145.
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    48. Kaptein EM, Hoopes MT, Parise M, Massry SG. rT3 metabolism in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal GFR compared with normal subjects. Am J Physiol. 1991 Apr; 260(4 Pt 1):E641-50. PMID: 2018127.
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    49. Kaptein EM, Hoopes MT, Ferguson DC, Satyadi EC, Akmal M. Comparison of reverse triiodothyronine distribution and metabolism in normal dogs and humans. Endocrinology. 1990 Apr; 126(4):2003-14. PMID: 2318154.
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    50. Tang WW, Kaptein EM. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. West J Med. 1989 Dec; 151(6):627-31. PMID: 2618039.
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    51. Kaptein EM, Hoopes MT, Pattabhiraman R, Akmal M, Massry SG. Separation of iodothyronines from iodinated metabolites in serum from reverse T3 tracer kinetic studies in man and dog: a comparison of two methods. Horm Metab Res. 1989 Dec; 21(12):678-81. PMID: 2613183.
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    52. LoPresti JS, Eigen A, Kaptein E, Anderson KP, Spencer CA, Nicoloff JT. Alterations in 3,3'5'-triiodothyronine metabolism in response to propylthiouracil, dexamethasone, and thyroxine administration in man. J Clin Invest. 1989 Nov; 84(5):1650-6. PMID: 2808705; PMCID: PMC304032.
    53. Rooda SJ, Otten MH, van Loon MA, Kaptein E, Visser TJ. Metabolism of triiodothyronine in rat hepatocytes. Endocrinology. 1989 Oct; 125(4):2187-97. PMID: 2791985.
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    54. Eelkman Rooda SJ, Kaptein E, Visser TJ. Serum triiodothyronine sulfate in man measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Sep; 69(3):552-6. PMID: 2760169.
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    55. Rooda SJ, Kaptein E, Rutgers M, Visser TJ. Increased plasma 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine sulfate in rats with inhibited type I iodothyronine deiodinase activity, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Endocrinology. 1989 Feb; 124(2):740-5. PMID: 2912698.
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    56. Kaptein EM, Egodage PM, Hoopes MT, Burger AG. Amiodarone alters thyroxine transfer and distribution in humans. Metabolism. 1988 Dec; 37(12):1107-13. PMID: 3193898.
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    57. Visser TJ, Kaptein E, Terpstra OT, Krenning EP. Deiodination of thyroid hormone by human liver. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Jul; 67(1):17-24. PMID: 3379132.
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    58. Kaptein EM, Quion-Verde H, Chooljian CJ, Tang WW, Friedman PE, Rodriquez HJ, Massry SG. The thyroid in end-stage renal disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 1988 May; 67(3):187-97. PMID: 3259281.
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    59. Silberman H, Eisenberg D, Ryan J, Shofler R, Niland J, Kaptein E, Nicoloff J, Spencer C. The relation of thyroid indices in the critically ill patient to prognosis and nutritional factors. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1988 Mar; 166(3):223-8. PMID: 3344451.
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    60. Ralls PW, Barakos JA, Kaptein EM, Friedman PE, Fouladian G, Boswell WD, Halls J, Massry SG. Renal biopsy-related hemorrhage: frequency and comparison of CT and sonography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1987 Nov-Dec; 11(6):1031-4. PMID: 3316324.
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    61. Kaptein EM, Kaptein JS, Chang EI, Egodage PM, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Thyroxine transfer and distribution in critical nonthyroidal illnesses, chronic renal failure, and chronic ethanol abuse. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Oct; 65(4):606-16. PMID: 3116027.
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    62. Tang WW, Kaptein EM, Massry SG. Diagnosis of hypothyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol. 1987; 7(3):192-7. PMID: 3631149.
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    63. Kaptein EM, Quion-Verde H, Swinney RS, Egodage PM, Massry SG. Acute hemodynamic effects of levothyroxine loading in critically ill hypothyroid patients. Arch Intern Med. 1986 Apr; 146(4):662-6. PMID: 3963946.
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    64. Kaptein EM. Thyroid function in renal failure. Contrib Nephrol. 1986; 50:64-72. PMID: 3100133.
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    65. Kaptein EM. Thyroxine kinetics in nonthyroidal illnesses. J Endocrinol Invest. 1986; 9 Suppl 4:37-46. PMID: 3104439.
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    66. Akmal M, Kaptein EM, Bertram J, Massry SG. Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction by metastases from breast cancer. Nephron. 1986; 42(1):23-8. PMID: 3001548.
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    67. Fisler JS, Kaptein EM, Drenick EJ, Nicoloff JT, Yoshimura NN, Swendseid ME. Metabolic and hormonal factors as predictors of nitrogen retention in obese men consuming very low calorie diets. Metabolism. 1985 Feb; 34(2):101-5. PMID: 3969011.
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    68. Kaptein EM, Fisler JS, Duda MJ, Nicoloff JT, Drenick EJ. Relationship between the changes in serum thyroid hormone levels and protein status during prolonged protein supplemented caloric deprivation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1985 Jan; 22(1):1-15. PMID: 3978824.
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    69. Mol JA, Docter R, Kaptein E, Jansen G, Hennemann G, Visser TJ. Inactivation and affinity-labeling of rat liver iodothyronine deiodinase with N-bromoacetyl-3,3',5-triiodothyronine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 Oct 30; 124(2):475-83. PMID: 6497889.
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    70. Kaptein EM, Massry SG, Quion-Verde H, Singer FR, Feinstein EI, Nicoloff JT, Sharp CF. Serum thyroid hormone indexes in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Feb; 144(2):313-5. PMID: 6696568.
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    71. Lum SM, Nicoloff JT, Spencer CA, Kaptein EM. Peripheral tissue mechanism for maintenance of serum triiodothyronine values in a thyroxine-deficient state in man. J Clin Invest. 1984 Feb; 73(2):570-5. PMID: 6699177; PMCID: PMC425050.
    72. Feinstein EI, Quion-Verde H, Kaptein EM, Massry SG. Severe hyperuricemia in patients with volume depletion. Am J Nephrol. 1984; 4(2):77-80. PMID: 6720757.
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    73. Kaptein EM, Quion-Verde H, Massry SG. Hemodynamic effects of thyroid hormone. Contrib Nephrol. 1984; 41:151-9. PMID: 6525835.
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    74. Kaptein EM, Feinstein EI, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Alterations of serum reverse triiodothyronine and thyroxine kinetics in chronic renal failure: role of nutritional status, chronic illness, uremia, and hemodialysis. Kidney Int Suppl. 1983 Dec; 16:S180-6. PMID: 6588250.
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    75. Kaptein EM, Feinstein EI, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Serum reverse triiodothyronine and thyroxine kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jul; 57(1):181-9. PMID: 6853675.
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    76. Lum SM, Kaptein EM, Nicoloff JT. Influence of nonthyroidal illnesses on serum thyroid hormone indices in hyperthyroidism. West J Med. 1983 May; 138(5):670-5. PMID: 6880182.
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    77. Spencer CA, Lum SM, Wilber JF, Kaptein EM, Nicoloff JT. Dynamics of serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone changes in fasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 May; 56(5):883-8. PMID: 6403568.
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    78. Becker TS, Wilkinson E, Muntz EP, Kaptein E, Nicoloff JT. Electron radiography in the evaluation of solitary nodules in the thyroid gland. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1983 Feb; 140(2):398-9. PMID: 6600362.
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    79. Kaptein EM. Quiz of the month: chronic renal failure and hypothyroidism. Am J Nephrol. 1983 Jan-Feb; 3(1):43, 50. PMID: 6837652.
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    80. Kaptein EM. Quiz of the month: nephrotic syndrome and altered thyroid hormone levels. Am J Nephrol. 1983 Jan-Feb; 3(1):43, 50. PMID: 6837653.
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    81. LoPresti JS, Warren DW, Kaptein EM, Croxson MS, Nicoloff JT. Urinary immunoprecipitation method for estimation of thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion in altered thyroid states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Oct; 55(4):666-70. PMID: 7050140.
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    82. Kaptein EM, Weiner JM, Robinson WJ, Wheeler WS, Nicoloff JT. Relationship of altered thyroid hormone indices to survival in nonthyroidal illnesses. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1982 Jun; 16(6):565-74. PMID: 7105428.
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    83. Kaptein EM, Robinson WJ, Grieb DA, Nicoloff JT. Peripheral serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine kinetics in the low thyroxine state of acute nonthyroidal illnesses. A noncompartmental analysis. J Clin Invest. 1982 Mar; 69(3):526-35. PMID: 6801090.
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    84. Alexander CM, Kaptein EM, Lum SM, Spencer CA, Kumar D, Nicoloff JT. Pattern of recovery of thyroid hormone indices associated with treatment of diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Feb; 54(2):362-6. PMID: 6798065.
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    85. Feinstein EI, Kaptein EM, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Thyroid function in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. Am J Nephrol. 1982; 2(2):70-6. PMID: 7180903.
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    86. Kaptein EM, Feinstein EI, Massry SG. Thyroid hormone metabolism in renal diseases. Contrib Nephrol. 1982; 33:122-35. PMID: 6811197.
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    87. Kaptein EM, Grieb DA, Spencer CA, Wheeler WS, Nicoloff JT. Thyroxine metabolism in the low thyroxine state of critical nonthyroidal illnesses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Oct; 53(4):764-71. PMID: 6793608.
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    88. Kaptein EM, MacIntyre SS, Weiner JM, Spencer CA, Nicoloff JT. Free thyroxine estimates in nonthyroidal illness: comparison of eight methods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Jun; 52(6):1073-7. PMID: 6164687.
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    89. Nicoloff JT, Warren DW, Mizuno L, Spencer CA, Kaptein EM. Hepatic thyroxine (T4) uptake as a mechanism for regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) generation in rat liver slices. Life Sci. 1981 Apr 13-20; 28(15-16):1713-8. PMID: 7242256.
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    90. Kaptein EM, Levitan D, Feinstein EI, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Alterations of thyroid hormone indices in acute renal failure and in acute critical illness with and without acute renal failure. Am J Nephrol. 1981; 1(3-4):138-43. PMID: 6817640.
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    91. Haldimann B, Kaptein EM, Singer FR, Nicoloff JT, Massry SG. Intestinal calcium absorption in patients with hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980 Nov; 51(5):995-7. PMID: 7419695.
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    92. Sperling MA, Ganguli S, Voina S, Kaptein E, Nicoloff JT. Modulation by thyroid status of the glucagon receptor-adenyl cyclase system in rat liver plasma membranes. Endocrinology. 1980 Sep; 107(3):684-90. PMID: 6249570.
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    93. Kaptein EM, Kletzky OA, Spencer CA, Nicoloff JT. Effects of prolonged dopamine infusion on anterior pituitary function in normal males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980 Sep; 51(3):488-91. PMID: 6773976.
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    94. Kaptein EM, Spencer CA, Kamiel MB, Nicoloff JT. Prolonged dopamine administration and thyroid hormone economy in normal and critically ill subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980 Aug; 51(2):387-93. PMID: 7400302.
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