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    David L. Skaggs, MD

    TitleProfessor of Orthopaedic Surgery
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentPediatric Orthopaedic Surgery
    AddressCHL 4650 W Sunset Blvd
    Off Campus
    Los Angeles California 90027
    Phone+1 323 361 4658
    Emaildskaggs@chla.usc.edu
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      Other Positions
      TitleDirector of Scoliosis and Spinal Deformity
      DepartmentPediatric Orthopaedic Surgery


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      Dr. Skaggs received his undergraduate degree from Amherst College and his medical degree from Columbia University of Physicians and Surgeons. Dr. Skaggs is on the Board of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, a member of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and the Scoliosis Research Society. Dr. Skaggs is the director of the Scoliosis and Spinal Deformity Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Dr. Skaggs is renowned for his expertise in the treatment of children with spinal deformity, and has been featured on numerous television shows, published over 70 peer-reviewed articles and three textbooks, and has served as a visiting professor at many of the nation’s top medical schools.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      2003American Orthopaedic Assocation American-British-Canadian Travelling Fellowship
      2002Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America Traveling Fellowship
      2000Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America Young Investigator Award
      Columbia University College of Physicians 1994Rosamond Kane Award

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Chan P, Andras LM, Nielsen E, Sousa T, Joiner E, Choi PD, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Comparison of Ponte Osteotomies and 3-Column Osteotomies in the Treatment of Congenital Spinal Deformity. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Aug 02. PMID: 28777277.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Chan P, Skaggs D, Sanders A, Villamor GA, Choi PD, Tolo V, Andras LM. Pain is the Greatest Preoperative Concern for Patients and Parents Prior to Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Mar 03. PMID: 28263228.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Fletcher ND, Andras LM, Lazarus DE, Owen RJ, Geddes BJ, Cao J, Skaggs D, Oswald TS, Bruce RW. Use of a Novel Pathway for Early Discharge Was Associated With a 48% Shorter Length of Stay After Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Mar; 37(2):92-97. PMID: 26214327.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Sousa T, Skaggs D, Chan P, Yamaguchi KT, Borgella J, Lee C, Sawyer J, Moisan A, Flynn JM, Gunderson M, Hresko MT, D'Hemecourt P, Andras LM. Benign Natural History of Spondylolysis in Adolescence With Midterm Follow-Up. Spine Deform. 2017 Mar; 5(2):134-138. PMID: 28259265.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Sanders AE, Andras LM, Sousa T, Kissinger C, Cucchiaro G, Skaggs D. Accelerated Discharge Protocol for Posterior Spinal Fusion Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Decreases Hospital Postoperative Charges 22. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jan 15; 42(2):92-97. PMID: 28072636.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Sanders A, Andras L, Lehman A, Bridges N, Skaggs D. Dermal Discolorations and Burns at Neuromonitoring Electrodes in Pediatric Spine Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jan 01; 42(1):20-24. PMID: 27111761.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Andras LM, Skaggs KF, Badkoobehi H, Choi PD, Skaggs D. Chance Fractures in the Pediatric Population are Often Misdiagnosed. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28027145.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Tilan J, Andras LM, Krieger MD, Skaggs D. Return of motor evoked potentials after knee flexion in the setting of high-grade spondylolisthesis. Eur Spine J. 2017 Mar; 26(3):619-622. PMID: 27858240.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Sanders AE, Andras LM, Choi PD, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Palsy After Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Oct 01; 41(19):E1164-7. PMID: 27010998.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Schur MD, Blumstein GW, Seehausen DA, Ross PA, Andras LM, Skaggs D. Intraoperative Hypothermia is Common, but not Associated With Blood Loss or Transfusion in Pediatric Posterior Spinal Fusion. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Sep 03. PMID: 27603190.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Barrett KK, Lee C, Myung K, Johnston C, Shah SA, Akbarnia BA, Skaggs D. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Sep; 36(6):618-20. PMID: 25944296.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Upasani VV, Parvaresh KC, Pawelek JB, Miller PE, Thompson GH, Skaggs D, Emans JB, Glotzbecker MP. Age at Initiation and Deformity Magnitude Influence Complication Rates of Surgical Treatment With Traditional Growing Rods in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2016 Sep; 4(5):344-350. PMID: 27927491.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Schur MD, Andras LM, Broom AM, Barrett KK, Bowman CA, Luther H, Goldstein RY, Fletcher ND, Millis MB, Runner R, Skaggs D. Continuing Delay in the Diagnosis of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis. J Pediatr. 2016 Oct; 177:250-254. PMID: 27470686.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Iantorno SE, Andras LM, Skaggs D. Variability of Reviewers' Comments in the Peer Review Process for Orthopaedic Research. Spine Deform. 2016 Jul; 4(4):268-271. PMID: 27927515.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Glotzbecker MP, Gomez JA, Miller PE, Troy MJ, Skaggs D, Vitale MG, Flynn JM, Barrett KK, Pace GI, Atuahene BN, Hedequist DJ. Management of Spinal Implants in Acute Pediatric Surgical Site Infections: A Multicenter Study. Spine Deform. 2016 Jul; 4(4):277-282. PMID: 27927517.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Andras LM, Joiner ER, Skaggs K, Harris LR, Broom AM, Williams A, Skaggs D. Removal of Infected Posterior Spinal Implants: Be Prepared to Transfuse. Spine Deform. 2016 Jul; 4(4):283-287. PMID: 27927518.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Matsumoto H, Williams B, Park HY, Yoshimachi JY, Roye BD, Roye DP, Akbarnia BA, Emans J, Skaggs D, Smith JT, Vitale MG. The Final 24-Item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaires (EOSQ-24): Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Jun 13. PMID: 27299779.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Ponrartana S, Fisher CL, Aggabao PC, Chavez TA, Broom AM, Wren TA, Skaggs D, Gilsanz V. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Sep; 46(10):1424-9. PMID: 27183842.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Sanders A, Andras L, Sousa T, Kissinger C, Cucchiaro G, Skaggs D. Accelerated Discharge Protocol for Posterior Spinal Fusion (PSF) Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Decreases Hospital Post-operative Charges 22. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Apr 26. PMID: 27128392.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Wright ML, Skaggs D, Matsumoto H, Woon RP, Trocle A, Flynn JM, Vitale MG. Does the Type of Metal Instrumentation Affect the Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery? Spine Deform. 2016 May; 4(3):206-210. PMID: 27927504.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Brooks JT, Jain A, Sanchez-Perez-Grueso F, Skaggs D, Thompson GH, Akbarnia BA, Sponseller PD. Outcomes of Pelvic Fixation in Growing Rod Constructs: An Analysis of Patients With a Minimum of 4 Years of Follow-up. Spine Deform. 2016 May; 4(3):211-216. PMID: 27927505.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Ryan DD, Lightdale-Miric NR, Joiner ER, Wren TA, Spragg L, Heffernan MJ, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Variability of the Anterior Humeral Line in Normal Pediatric Elbows. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Mar; 36(2):e14-6. PMID: 26035494.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Skaggs D, Seehausen DA, Yamaguchi KT, Hah RJ, Wright ML, Bumpass DB, Kim HJ, Andras LM, Vitale MG, Lenke LG. Assessment of Lowest Instrumented Vertebra Tilt on Radiographic Measurements in Lenke "C" Modifier Curves Undergoing Selective Thoracic Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2016 Mar; 4(2):125-130. PMID: 27927544.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Shabtai L, Andras LM, Portman M, Harris LR, Choi PD, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Sacral Alar Iliac (SAI) Screws Fail 75% Less Frequently Than Iliac Screws in Neuromuscular Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Jan 11. PMID: 26756987.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Yang S, Andras LM, Redding GJ, Skaggs D. Early-Onset Scoliosis: A Review of History, Current Treatment, and Future Directions. Pediatrics. 2016 Jan; 137(1). PMID: 26644484.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Smith JT, Johnston C, Skaggs D, Flynn J, Vitale M. A New Classification System to Report Complications in Growing Spine Surgery: A Multicenter Consensus Study. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Dec; 35(8):798-803. PMID: 25575362.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Barrett KK, Andras LM, Tolo VT, Choi PD, Skaggs D. Measurement Variability in the Evaluation of the Proximal Junction in Distraction-based Growing Rods Patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Sep; 35(6):624-7. PMID: 25379823.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Lewis ND, Keshen SG, Lenke LG, Zywiel MG, Skaggs D, Dear TE, Strantzas S, Lewis SJ. The Deformity Angular Ratio: Does It Correlate With High-Risk Cases for Potential Spinal Cord Monitoring Alerts in Pediatric 3-Column Thoracic Spinal Deformity Corrective Surgery? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Aug 01; 40(15):E879-85. PMID: 26222664.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Badkoobehi H, Choi PD, Bae DS, Skaggs D. Management of the pulseless pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Jun 03; 97(11):937-43. PMID: 26041856.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Andras LM, Joiner ER, McCarthy RE, McCullough L, Luhmann SJ, Sponseller PD, Emans JB, Barrett KK, Skaggs D. Growing Rods Versus Shilla Growth Guidance: Better Cobb Angle Correction and T1-S1 Length Increase But More Surgeries. Spine Deform. 2015 May; 3(3):246-252. PMID: 27927466.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Myung KS, Lee C, Skaggs D. Early pelvic fixation failure in neuromuscular scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Apr-May; 35(3):258-65. PMID: 24992353.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Seehausen DA, Skaggs D, Andras LM, Javidan Y. Safety and Efficacy of Power-Assisted Pedicle Tract Preparation and Screw Placement. Spine Deform. 2015 Mar; 3(2):159-165. PMID: 27927307.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Woon RP, Andras LM, Barrett KK, Skaggs D. Cobalt Chrome Spinal Constructs Trigger Airport Security Screening in 24% of Pediatric Patients. Spine Deform. 2015 Mar; 3(2):188-191. PMID: 27927311.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Blumstein GW, Andras LM, Seehausen DA, Harris L, Ross PA, Skaggs D. Fever is common postoperatively following posterior spinal fusion: infection is an uncommon cause. J Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 166(3):751-5. PMID: 25575423.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Goldstein RY, Joiner ER, Skaggs D. Insurance status does not predict curve magnitude in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at first presentation to an orthopaedic surgeon. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Jan; 35(1):39-42. PMID: 24978118.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Seehausen DA, Kay RM, Ryan DD, Skaggs D. Foam padding in casts accommodates soft tissue swelling and provides circumferential strength after fixation of supracondylar humerus fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Jan; 35(1):24-7. PMID: 25489945.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Yamaguchi KT, Salem JB, Myung KS, Romero AN, Skaggs D. Spinal Deformity in Russell-Silver Syndrome. Spine Deform. 2015 Jan; 3(1):95-97. PMID: 27927458.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Ramirez RN, Ryan DD, Williams J, Wren TA, Ibrahim D, Weiss JM, Kay RM, Lightdale-Miric N, Skaggs D. A line drawn along the radial shaft misses the capitellum in 16% of radiographs of normal elbows. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Dec; 34(8):763-7. PMID: 24787305.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Barrett KK, Skaggs D, Sawyer JR, Andras L, Moisan A, Goodbody C, Flynn JM. Supracondylar humeral fractures with isolated anterior interosseous nerve injuries: is urgent treatment necessary? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Nov 05; 96(21):1793-7. PMID: 25378506.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Paloski MD, Sponseller PD, Akbarnia BA, Thompson GH, Skaggs D, Pawelek JB, Nguyen PT, Odum SM. Is There an Optimal Time to Distract Dual Growing Rods? Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):467-470. PMID: 27927407.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Myung KS, Skaggs D, Johnston CE, Akbarnia BA. The Use of Pedicle Screws in Children 10 Years of Age and Younger With Growing Rods. Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):471-474. PMID: 27927408.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Yamaguchi KT, Skaggs D, Mansour S, Myung KS, Yazici M, Johnston C, Thompson G, Sponseller P, Akbarnia BA, Vitale MG. Are Rib Versus Spine Anchors Protective Against Breakage of Growing Rods? Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):489-492. PMID: 27927411.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Akbarnia BA, Pawelek JB, Cheung KM, Demirkiran G, Elsebaie H, Emans JB, Johnston CE, Mundis GM, Noordeen H, Skaggs D, Sponseller PD, Thompson GH, Yaszay B, Yazici M. Traditional Growing Rods Versus Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods for the Surgical Treatment of Early-Onset Scoliosis: A Case-Matched 2-Year Study. Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):493-497. PMID: 27927412.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Goldstein RY, Sunde CD, Assaad P, Grimm J, Skaggs D, Andras L. Location of the vertebral artery at C1 in children: how far out laterally can one safely dissect? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Sep 17; 96(18):1552-6. PMID: 25232079.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Vitale MG, Skaggs D, Pace GI, Wright ML, Matsumoto H, Anderson RC, Brockmeyer DL, Dormans JP, Emans JB, Erickson MA, Flynn JM, Glotzbecker MP, Ibrahim KN, Lewis SJ, Luhmann SJ, Mendiratta A, Richards BS, Sanders JO, Shah SA, Smith JT, Song KM, Sponseller PD, Sucato DJ, Roye DP, Lenke LG. Best Practices in Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Spine Deformity Surgery: Development of an Intraoperative Checklist to Optimize Response. Spine Deform. 2014 Sep; 2(5):333-339. PMID: 27927330.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Williams BA, Matsumoto H, McCalla DJ, Akbarnia BA, Blakemore LC, Betz RR, Flynn JM, Johnston CE, McCarthy RE, Roye DP, Skaggs D, Smith JT, Snyder BD, Sponseller PD, Sturm PF, Thompson GH, Yazici M, Vitale MG. Development and initial validation of the Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Aug 20; 96(16):1359-67. PMID: 25143496.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Kabirian N, Akbarnia BA, Pawelek JB, Alam M, Mundis GM, Acacio R, Thompson GH, Marks DS, Gardner A, Sponseller PD, Skaggs D. Deep Surgical Site Infection Following 2344 Growing-Rod Procedures for Early-Onset Scoliosis: Risk Factors and Clinical Consequences. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Aug 06; 96(15):e128. PMID: 25100781.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Joiner ER, Skaggs D, Arkader A, Andras LM, Lightdale-Miric NR, Pace JL, Ryan DD. Iatrogenic nerve injuries in the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures: are we really just missing nerve injuries on preoperative examination? J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Jun; 34(4):388-92. PMID: 24598579.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Andras L, Louie K, Skaggs D. Weak or Absent Ankle Dorsiflexion: The Most Sensitive Indicator of Motor Deficits Following Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine Deform. 2014 May; 2(3):198-202. PMID: 27927418.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Myung KS, Skaggs D, Thompson GH, Emans JB, Akbarnia BA. Nutritional improvement following growing rod surgery in children with early onset scoliosis. J Child Orthop. 2014 May; 8(3):251-6. PMID: 24760379; PMCID: PMC4142888.
      51. Heffernan MJ, Seehausen DA, Andras LM, Skaggs D. Comparison of outcomes after posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis: does the surgical first assistant's level of training matter? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 15; 39(8):648-55. PMID: 24480953.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Skaggs D, Akbarnia BA, Flynn JM, Myung KS, Sponseller PD, Vitale MG. A classification of growth friendly spine implants. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Apr-May; 34(3):260-74. PMID: 23995146.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Milewski MD, Skaggs D, Bishop GA, Pace JL, Ibrahim DA, Wren TA, Barzdukas A. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Mar; 34(2):129-33. PMID: 25028798.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Joiner ER, Andras LM, Skaggs D. Screening for hip dysplasia in congenital muscular torticollis: is physical exam enough? J Child Orthop. 2014 Mar; 8(2):115-9. PMID: 24578172; PMCID: PMC3965766.
      55. Skaggs D, Lee C, Myung KS. Neuromonitoring Changes Are Common and Reversible With Temporary Internal Distraction for Severe Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2014 Jan; 2(1):61-69. PMID: 27927444.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Myung KS, Glassman DM, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Simple steps to minimize spine infections in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Jan; 34(1):29-33. PMID: 23812142.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Joiner ER, Andras LM, Skaggs D. Mechanisms and risk factors of brachial plexus injury in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis with distraction-based growing implants. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Nov 06; 95(21):e161. PMID: 24196473.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Iobst C, Arango D, Segal D, Skaggs D. National access to care for children with fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Sep; 33(6):587-91. PMID: 23812144.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Ibrahim DA, Choi PD, Skaggs D. Bilateral proximal femur and femoral head regrowth following proximal femoral resection in a child with spastic cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2013 Sep; 22(5):437-9. PMID: 23907179.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Skaggs D, Flynn JM, Vitale M. The pediatric polytrauma patient: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2013 Jul; 21(7):383. PMID: 23818024.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Ibrahim DA, Skaggs D, Choi PD. Abduction bracing after Pavlik harness failure: an effective alternative to closed reduction and spica casting? J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Jul-Aug; 33(5):536-9. PMID: 23752152.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Vitale MG, Riedel MD, Glotzbecker MP, Matsumoto H, Roye DP, Akbarnia BA, Anderson RC, Brockmeyer DL, Emans JB, Erickson M, Flynn JM, Lenke LG, Lewis SJ, Luhmann SJ, McLeod LM, Newton PO, Nyquist AC, Richards BS, Shah SA, Skaggs D, Smith JT, Sponseller PD, Sucato DJ, Zeller RD, Saiman L. Building consensus: development of a Best Practice Guideline (BPG) for surgical site infection (SSI) prevention in high-risk pediatric spine surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Jul-Aug; 33(5):471-8. PMID: 23752142.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Corona J, Miller DJ, Downs J, Akbarnia BA, Betz RR, Blakemore LC, Campbell RM, Flynn JM, Johnston CE, McCarthy RE, Roye DP, Skaggs D, Smith JT, Snyder BD, Sponseller PD, Sturm PF, Thompson GH, Yazici M, Vitale MG. Evaluating the extent of clinical uncertainty among treatment options for patients with early-onset scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 May 15; 95(10):e67. PMID: 23677368.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Mackenzie WG, Matsumoto H, Williams BA, Corona J, Lee C, Cody SR, Covington L, Saiman L, Flynn JM, Skaggs D, Roye DP, Vitale MG. Surgical site infection following spinal instrumentation for scoliosis: a multicenter analysis of rates, risk factors, and pathogens. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 May 01; 95(9):800-6, S1-2. PMID: 23636186.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Ibrahim DA, Myung KS, Skaggs D. Ten percent of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have variations in the number of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 May 01; 95(9):828-33. PMID: 23636190.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Shan LQ, Skaggs D, Lee C, Kissinger C, Myung KS. Intensive care unit versus hospital floor: a comparative study of postoperative management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Apr 03; 95(7):e40. PMID: 23553303.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Lee C, Myung KS, Skaggs D. Some Connectors in Distraction-based Growing Rods Fail More Than Others. Spine Deform. 2013 Mar; 1(2):148-156. PMID: 27927432.
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      68. Skaggs KF, Myung KS, Brasher AE, Skaggs D. Improvement of Kyphoscoliosis in a 9-Year-Old Using Growth Modulation With a Posterior Tether: A Case Report. Spine Deform. 2013 Jan; 1(1):79-83. PMID: 27927327.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Skaggs KF, Brasher AE, Johnston CE, Purvis JM, Smith JT, Myung KS, Skaggs D. Upper thoracic pedicle screw loss of fixation causing spinal cord injury: a review of the literature and multicenter case series. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Jan; 33(1):75-9. PMID: 23232384.
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      70. Franklin CC, Skaggs D. Approach to the pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture with neurovascular compromise. Instr Course Lect. 2013; 62:429-33. PMID: 23395047.
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      71. Yamaguchi KT, Myung KS, Alonso MA, Skaggs D. Clay-shoveler's fracture equivalent in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Dec 15; 37(26):E1672-5. PMID: 22990368.
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      72. Andras L, Yamaguchi KT, Skaggs D, Tolo VT. Surgical technique for balancing posterior spinal fusions to the pelvis using the T square of Tolo. J Pediatr Orthop. 2012 Dec; 32(8):e63-6. PMID: 23147633.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Pace JL, Kocher MS, Skaggs D. Evidence-based review: management of open pediatric fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2012 Sep; 32 Suppl 2:S123-7. PMID: 22890450.
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      74. Yamaguchi KT, Skaggs D, Acevedo DC, Myung KS, Choi P, Andras L. Spondylolysis is frequently missed by MRI in adolescents with back pain. J Child Orthop. 2012 Jul; 6(3):237-40. PMID: 23814624; PMCID: PMC3400003.
      75. Skaggs D, Avramis I, Myung K, Weiss J. Sacral facet fractures in elite athletes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Apr 15; 37(8):E514-7. PMID: 21971126.
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      76. Pierce TR, Mehlman CT, Tamai J, Skaggs D. Access to care for the adolescent anterior cruciate ligament patient with Medicaid versus private insurance. J Pediatr Orthop. 2012 Apr-May; 32(3):245-8. PMID: 22411328.
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      77. Hoernschemeyer DG, Skaggs D, Sucher M. Use of mineral oil aids scoliosis correction by decreasing implant friction. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2012 Jan; 41(1):41-3. PMID: 22389895.
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      78. Arkader A, Warner WC, Tolo VT, Sponseller PD, Skaggs D. Pediatric Chance fractures: a multicenter perspective. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Oct-Nov; 31(7):741-4. PMID: 21926870.
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      79. Kay RM, Leathers M, Directo MP, Myung K, Skaggs D. Perioperative ketorolac use in children undergoing lower extremity osteotomies. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Oct-Nov; 31(7):783-6. PMID: 21926877.
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      80. Yang JS, Sponseller PD, Thompson GH, Akbarnia BA, Emans JB, Yazici M, Skaggs D, Shah SA, Salari P, Poe-Kochert C. Growing rod fractures: risk factors and opportunities for prevention. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Sep 15; 36(20):1639-44. PMID: 21738096.
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      81. Sabatini CS, Skaggs KF, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Orthopedic surgeons are less likely to see children now for fracture care compared with 10 years ago. J Pediatr. 2012 Mar; 160(3):505-7. PMID: 21920543.
        View in: PubMed
      82. McElroy MJ, Shaner AC, Crawford TO, Thompson GH, Kadakia RV, Akbarnia BA, Skaggs D, Emans JB, Sponseller PD. Growing rods for scoliosis in spinal muscular atrophy: structural effects, complications, and hospital stays. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jul 15; 36(16):1305-11. PMID: 21730818.
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      83. Skaggs D, Glassman D, Weiss JM, Kay RM. A new surgical technique for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture malunions in children. J Child Orthop. 2011 Aug; 5(4):305-12. PMID: 22852037; PMCID: PMC3234893.
      84. Sankar WN, Skaggs D, Yazici M, Johnston CE, Shah SA, Javidan P, Kadakia RV, Day TF, Akbarnia BA. Lengthening of dual growing rods and the law of diminishing returns. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 May 01; 36(10):806-9. PMID: 21336236.
        View in: PubMed
      85. Elsebai HB, Yazici M, Thompson GH, Emans JB, Skaggs D, Crawford AH, Karlin LI, McCarthy RE, Poe-Kochert C, Kostial P, Akbarnia BA. Safety and efficacy of growing rod technique for pediatric congenital spinal deformities. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Jan-Feb; 31(1):1-5. PMID: 21150722.
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      86. Sankar WN, Acevedo DC, Skaggs D. Comparison of complications among growing spinal implants. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Nov 01; 35(23):2091-6. PMID: 20562733.
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      87. Bess S, Akbarnia BA, Thompson GH, Sponseller PD, Shah SA, El Sebaie H, Boachie-Adjei O, Karlin LI, Canale S, Poe-Kochert C, Skaggs D. Complications of growing-rod treatment for early-onset scoliosis: analysis of one hundred and forty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Nov 03; 92(15):2533-43. PMID: 20889912.
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      88. Kay RM, Directo MP, Leathers M, Myung K, Skaggs D. Complications of ketorolac use in children undergoing operative fracture care. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Oct-Nov; 30(7):655-8. PMID: 20864848.
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      89. Iobst C, King W, Baitner A, Tidwell M, Swirsky S, Skaggs D. Access to care for children with fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Apr-May; 30(3):244-7. PMID: 20357590.
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      90. Yang JS, McElroy MJ, Akbarnia BA, Salari P, Oliveira D, Thompson GH, Emans JB, Yazici M, Skaggs D, Shah SA, Kostial PN, Sponseller PD. Growing rods for spinal deformity: characterizing consensus and variation in current use. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Apr-May; 30(3):264-70. PMID: 20357593.
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      91. Choi PD, Melikian R, Skaggs D. Risk factors for vascular repair and compartment syndrome in the pulseless supracondylar humerus fracture in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Jan-Feb; 30(1):50-6. PMID: 20032742.
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      92. Weiss JM, Kay RM, Waters P, Yang S, Skaggs D. Distal humerus osteotomy for supracondylar fracture malunion in children: a study of perioperative complications. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2010 Jan; 39(1):22-5. PMID: 20305836.
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      93. Skaggs D, Sankar WN, Albrektson J, Wren TA, Campbell RM. Weight gain following vertical expandable prosthetic titanium ribs surgery in children with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Nov 01; 34(23):2530-3. PMID: 19927103.
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      94. Karlen JW, Skaggs D, Ramachandran M, Kay RM. The Dega osteotomy: a versatile osteotomy in the treatment of developmental and neuromuscular hip pathology. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Oct-Nov; 29(7):676-82. PMID: 20104144.
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      95. Weiss JM, Graves S, Yang S, Mendelsohn E, Kay RM, Skaggs D. A new classification system predictive of complications in surgically treated pediatric humeral lateral condyle fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Sep; 29(6):602-5. PMID: 19700990.
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      96. Sankar WN, Skaggs D, Emans JB, Marks DS, Dormans JP, Thompson GH, Shah SA, Sponseller PD, Akbarnia BA. Neurologic risk in growing rod spine surgery in early onset scoliosis: is neuromonitoring necessary for all cases? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Aug 15; 34(18):1952-5. PMID: 19680103.
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      97. Sponseller PD, Yang JS, Thompson GH, McCarthy RE, Emans JB, Skaggs D, Asher MA, Yazici M, Poe-Kochert C, Kostial P, Akbarnia BA. Pelvic fixation of growing rods: comparison of constructs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jul 15; 34(16):1706-10. PMID: 19770612.
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      98. Skaggs D, Choi PD, Rice C, Emans J, Song KM, Smith JT, Campbell RM. Efficacy of intraoperative neurologic monitoring in surgery involving a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib for early-onset spinal deformity. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jul; 91(7):1657-63. PMID: 19571088.
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      99. Ogawa BK, Skaggs D, Kay RM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the lumbar spine. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2009 May; 38(5):E89-92. PMID: 19585001.
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      100. Limpaphayom N, Skaggs D, McComb G, Krieger M, Tolo VT. Complications of halo use in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Apr 15; 34(8):779-84. PMID: 19337133.
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      101. Wren TA, Chen AY, Wang VJ, Claudius IA, Skaggs D. Prior treatment of fracture patients in a tertiary pediatric emergency department: informal referrals from other emergency departments. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Mar; 29(2):137-41. PMID: 19352238.
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      102. Sankar WN, Weiss J, Skaggs D. Orthopaedic conditions in the newborn. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009 Feb; 17(2):112-22. PMID: 19202124.
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      103. Weiss JM, Choi P, Ghatan C, Skaggs D, Kay RM. Complications with flexible nailing of femur fractures more than double with child obesity and weight >50 kg. J Child Orthop. 2009 Feb; 3(1):53-8. PMID: 19308613; PMCID: PMC2656847.
      104. Skaggs D, Bushman G, Grunander T, Wong PC, Sankar WN, Tolo VT. Shortening of growing-rod spinal instrumentation reverses cardiac failure in child with Marfan syndrome and scoliosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Dec; 90(12):2745-50. PMID: 19047721.
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      105. Kasimian S, Skaggs D, Sankar WN, Farlo J, Goodarzi M, Tolo VT. Aprotinin in pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis surgery. Eur Spine J. 2008 Dec; 17(12):1671-5. PMID: 18820953; PMCID: PMC2587686.
      106. Roach JW, Skaggs D, Sponseller PD, Macleod LM. Is research presented at the scoliosis research society annual meeting influenced by industry funding? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Sep 15; 33(20):2208-12. PMID: 18725871.
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      107. Sankar WN, Chen J, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Incidence of occult fracture in children with acute ankle injuries. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jul-Aug; 28(5):500-1. PMID: 18580361.
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      108. Skaggs D, Lerman LD, Albrektson J, Lerman M, Stewart DG, Tolo VT. Use of a noninvasive halo in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Jul 01; 33(15):1650-4. PMID: 18594457.
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      109. Omid R, Choi PD, Skaggs D. Supracondylar humeral fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 May; 90(5):1121-32. PMID: 18451407.
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      110. Skaggs D, Sankar WN, Albrektson J, Vaishnav S, Choi PD, Kay RM. How safe is the operative treatment of Gartland type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures in children? J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Mar; 28(2):139-41. PMID: 18388704.
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      111. Vitale MG, Matsumoto H, Roye DP, Gomez JA, Betz RR, Emans JB, Skaggs D, Smith JT, Song KM, Campbell RM. Health-related quality of life in children with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Mar; 28(2):239-43. PMID: 18388722.
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      112. Sankar WN, Albrektson J, Lerman L, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs. J Child Orthop. 2007 Dec; 1(6):345-9. PMID: 19308530; PMCID: PMC2656747.
      113. Ho C, Skaggs D, Weiss JM, Tolo VT. Management of infection after instrumented posterior spine fusion in pediatric scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Nov 15; 32(24):2739-44. PMID: 18007254.
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      114. Albrektson J, Kay RM, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Abduction pillow immobilization following hip surgery: a welcome alternative for selected patients. J Child Orthop. 2007 Nov; 1(5):299-305. PMID: 19308524; PMCID: PMC2656736.
      115. Buchowski JM, Skaggs D, Sponseller PD. Temporary internal distraction as an aid to correction of severe scoliosis. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Sep; 89 Suppl 2 Pt.2:297-309. PMID: 17768223.
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      116. Choi PD, Rose RK, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Compartment syndrome of the thigh in an infant: a case report. J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Sep; 21(8):587-90. PMID: 17805028.
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      117. Weiss JM, Skaggs D, Tanner J, Tolo V. Cell Saver: is it beneficial in scoliosis surgery? J Child Orthop. 2007 Oct; 1(4):221-7. PMID: 19308514; PMCID: PMC2656732.
      118. Sankar WN, Hebela NM, Skaggs D, Flynn JM. Loss of pin fixation in displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children: causes and prevention. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Apr; 89(4):713-7. PMID: 17403791.
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      119. Ramachandran M, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Treatment of hip dislocation in Kabuki syndrome: a report of three hips in two patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Jan-Feb; 27(1):37-40. PMID: 17195795.
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      120. Skaggs D, Oda JE, Lerman L, McGoldrick E, Rice C, Weiss J, Kay RM. Insurance status and delay in orthotic treatment in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Jan-Feb; 27(1):94-7. PMID: 17195805.
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      121. Storer SK, Skaggs D. Developmental dysplasia of the hip. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Oct 15; 74(8):1310-6. PMID: 17087424.
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      122. Rethlefsen SA, Healy BS, Wren TA, Skaggs D, Kay RM. Causes of intoeing gait in children with cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Oct; 88(10):2175-80. PMID: 17015594.
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      123. Skaggs D. Posterior spinal fusion was not improved by supplemental bone graft in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Oct; 88(10):2313. PMID: 17015614.
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      124. Cluck MW, Skaggs D. Cobalt chromium sublaminar wires for spinal deformity surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Sep 01; 31(19):2209-12. PMID: 16946655.
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      125. Buchowski JM, Bhatnagar R, Skaggs D, Sponseller PD. Temporary internal distraction as an aid to correction of severe scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Sep; 88(9):2035-41. PMID: 16951121.
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      126. Stewart DG, Skaggs D. Consultation with the specialist: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatr Rev. 2006 Aug; 27(8):299-306. PMID: 16882759.
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      127. Claudius I, Skaggs D, Nager A. Poststabilization care for pediatric fractures: a follow-up survey. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006 Aug; 22(8):562-5. PMID: 16912623.
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      128. Ho CA, Skaggs D, Tang CW, Kay RM. Use of flexible intramedullary nails in pediatric femur fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26(4):497-504. PMID: 16791069.
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      129. Skaggs D, Lehmann CL, Rice C, Killelea BK, Bauer RM, Kay RM, Vitale MG. Access to orthopaedic care for children with medicaid versus private insurance: results of a national survey. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 May-Jun; 26(3):400-4. PMID: 16670556.
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      130. Skaggs D, Early SD, D'Ambra P, Tolo VT, Kay RM. Back pain and backpacks in school children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 May-Jun; 26(3):358-63. PMID: 16670549.
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      131. Kay RM, Skaggs D. Pediatric polytrauma management. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 Mar-Apr; 26(2):268-77. PMID: 16557148.
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      132. Vitale MG, Vitale MA, Lehmann CL, Hyman JE, Roye DP, Skaggs D, Schmitz ML, Sponseller PD, Flynn JM. Towards a National Pediatric Musculoskeletal Trauma Outcomes Registry: the Pediatric Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Research Group (POTORG) experience. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 Mar-Apr; 26(2):151-6. PMID: 16557126.
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      133. Storer SK, Skaggs D. Pearls and pitfalls in the evaluation of pediatric congenital and developmental disorders. Instr Course Lect. 2006; 55:615-23. PMID: 16958494.
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      134. Stewart DG, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Open fractures in children. Principles of evaluation and management. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Dec; 87(12):2784-98. PMID: 16322632.
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      135. Vitale MA, Heyworth BE, Skaggs D, Roye DP, Lipton CB, Vitale MG. Comparison of the volume of scoliosis surgery between spine and pediatric orthopaedic fellowship-trained surgeons in New York and California. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Dec; 87(12):2687-92. PMID: 16322618.
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      136. Yuan N, Skaggs D, Dorey F, Keens TG. Preoperative predictors of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation in children following scoliosis repair. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005 Nov; 40(5):414-9. PMID: 16145695.
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      137. Yuan N, Fraire JA, Margetis MM, Skaggs D, Tolo VT, Keens TG. The effect of scoliosis surgery on lung function in the immediate postoperative period. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Oct 01; 30(19):2182-5. PMID: 16205344.
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      138. Vitale MG, Kessler MW, Choe JC, Hwang MW, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Pelvic fractures in children: an exploration of practice patterns and patient outcomes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Sep-Oct; 25(5):581-7. PMID: 16199935.
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      139. Hwang AH, Hwang MM, Xie HW, Hardy BE, Skaggs D. Access to urologic care for children in California: Medicaid versus private insurance. Urology. 2005 Jul; 66(1):170-3. PMID: 15993479.
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      140. Vitale MA, Arons RR, Hyman JE, Skaggs D, Roye DP, Vitale MG. The contribution of hospital volume, payer status, and other factors on the surgical outcomes of scoliosis patients: a review of 3,606 cases in the State of California. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 May-Jun; 25(3):393-9. PMID: 15832162.
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      141. Ryan DD, Rethlefsen SA, Skaggs D, Kay RM. Results of tibial rotational osteotomy without concomitant fibular osteotomy in children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jan-Feb; 25(1):84-8. PMID: 15614066.
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      142. Skaggs D, Friend L, Alman B, Chambers HG, Schmitz M, Leake B, Kay RM, Flynn JM. The effect of surgical delay on acute infection following 554 open fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Jan; 87(1):8-12. PMID: 15634809.
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      143. Kay RM, Rethlefsen SA, Fern-Buneo A, Wren TA, Skaggs D. Botulinum toxin as an adjunct to serial casting treatment in children with cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Nov; 86-A(11):2377-84. PMID: 15523006.
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      144. Yuan N, Skaggs D, Davidson Ward SL, Platzker AC, Keens TG. Preoperative polysomnograms and infant pulmonary function tests do not predict prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation in children following scoliosis repair. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004 Sep; 38(3):256-60. PMID: 15274107.
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      145. Skaggs D, Weiss J, Storer S. Re: Kakushima M, Miyamoto K, Shimizu K. The effect of leg length discrepancy on spinal motion during gait: three-dimensional analysis in healthy volunteers. Spine. 2003;28:2472-2476. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Aug 15; 29(16):1838; author reply 1838-9. PMID: 15303035.
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      146. Kay RM, Rethlefsen S, Reed M, Do KP, Skaggs D, Wren TA. Changes in pelvic rotation after soft tissue and bony surgery in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 May-Jun; 24(3):278-82. PMID: 15105723.
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      147. Gupta N, Kay RM, Leitch K, Femino JD, Tolo VT, Skaggs D. Effect of surgical delay on perioperative complications and need for open reduction in supracondylar humerus fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 May-Jun; 24(3):245-8. PMID: 15105716.
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      148. Skaggs D, Cluck MW, Mostofi A, Flynn JM, Kay RM. Lateral-entry pin fixation in the management of supracondylar fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Apr; 86-A(4):702-7. PMID: 15069133.
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      149. Noonan KJ, Flynn JM, Skaggs D. Report on the 2002 Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America Traveling Fellowship. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 Mar-Apr; 24(2):231-4. PMID: 15076613.
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      150. Ziv ET, Gordon McComb J, Krieger MD, Skaggs D. Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: two cases and a review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Jan 01; 29(1):E15-8. PMID: 14699293.
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      151. Skaggs D. Less access to care for children with Medicaid. Orthopedics. 2003 Dec; 26(12):1184, 1186. PMID: 14690285.
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      152. Early SD, Kay RM, Maguire MF, Skaggs D. Delayed neurologic injury due to bone graft migration into the spinal canal following scoliosis surgery. Orthopedics. 2003 May; 26(5):515-6. PMID: 12755218.
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      153. Kay RM, Rethlefsen SA, Hale JM, Skaggs D, Tolo VT. Comparison of proximal and distal rotational femoral osteotomy in children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 Mar-Apr; 23(2):150-4. PMID: 12604941.
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      154. Flynn JM, Skaggs D, Sponseller PD, Ganley TJ, Kay RM, Leitch KK. The surgical management of pediatric fractures of the lower extremity. Instr Course Lect. 2003; 52:647-59. PMID: 12690889.
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      155. Huang EY, Acosta JM, Gardocki RJ, Danielson PD, Skaggs D, Reynolds RA, Tolo VT, Stein JE. Thoracoscopic anterior spinal release and fusion: evolution of a faster, improved approach. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Dec; 37(12):1732-5. PMID: 12483643.
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      156. Skaggs D, Kay RM, Tolo VT. Fracture stability after pinning of displaced supracondylar distal humerus fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002 Sep-Oct; 22(5):697; author reply 697-8. PMID: 12198477.
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      157. Vitale MG, Guha A, Skaggs D. Orthopaedic manifestations of neurofibromatosis in children: an update. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002 Aug; (401):107-18. PMID: 12151887.
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      158. Kay RM, Rethlefsen SA, Skaggs D, Leet A. Outcome of medial versus combined medial and lateral hamstring lengthening surgery in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002 Mar-Apr; 22(2):169-72. PMID: 11856923.
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      159. Skaggs D, Roy AK, Vitale MG, Pfiefer C, Baird G, Femino D, Kay RM. Quality of evaluation and management of children requiring timely orthopaedic surgery before admission to a tertiary pediatric facility. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002 Mar-Apr; 22(2):265-7. PMID: 11856944.
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      160. Tang CW, Kay RM, Skaggs D. Growth arrest of the distal radius following a metaphyseal fracture: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2002 Jan; 11(1):89-92. PMID: 11866089.
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      161. Skaggs D, Kim SK, Greene NW, Harris D, Miller JH. Differentiation between bone infarction and acute osteomyelitis in children with sickle-cell disease with use of sequential radionuclide bone-marrow and bone scans. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Dec; 83-A(12):1810-3. PMID: 11741059.
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      162. Skaggs D, Clemens SM, Vitale MG, Femino JD, Kay RM. Access to orthopedic care for children with medicaid versus private insurance in California. Pediatrics. 2001 Jun; 107(6):1405-8. PMID: 11389265.
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      163. Skaggs D, Hale JM, Bassett J, Kaminsky C, Kay RM, Tolo VT. Operative treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. The consequences of pin placement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 May; 83-A(5):735-40. PMID: 11379744.
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      164. Skaggs D, Rethlefsen SA, Kay RM, Dennis SW, Reynolds RA, Tolo VT. Variability in gait analysis interpretation. J Pediatr Orthop. 2000 Nov-Dec; 20(6):759-64. PMID: 11097250.
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      165. Skaggs D, Samuelson MA, Hale JM, Kay RM, Tolo VT. Complications of posterior iliac crest bone grafting in spine surgery in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 Sep 15; 25(18):2400-2. PMID: 10984795.
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      166. Skaggs D, Moon CN, Kay RM, Peterson HA. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the acetabulum. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Mar; 82(3):409-14. PMID: 10724233.
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