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Charles J Gomer, PhD

Title(s)Professor of Pediatrics
Phone+1 323 361 2335
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    Title(s)Vice Chair, Faculty Development (Pediatrics CHLA)

    Title(s)Chair, FAPTC


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    My research program is involved in the areas of radiation biology, photobiology and laser medicine. A large portion of our work focuses on the examination of photodynamic therapy, in which tumor localizing photosensitizers are exposed to laser generated light for the selective generation of reactive oxygen species. PDT is used in the clinical treatment of solid tumors as well as for the treatment of vascular and dermal proliferative disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical, cellular and in-vivo methodologies to examine the biological consequences of exposure to reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress.

    One area of investigation involves the use of the inducible heat shock (hsp) promoter as a molecular switch for the selective activation of heterologous genes. We have shown that photooxidative stress and laser generated hyperthermia are strong transcriptional inducers of the heat shock proteins. We have also shown that photooxidative stress can drive selective and temporal expression of reporter genes ligated to the hsp promoter. Work is now underway to evaluate our hypothesis that targeted gene therapy using recombinant constructs with oxidative stress and heat inducible promoters will provide a novel mechanism for expression of cytotoxins, growth factors, immuno-modulators, suppressor genes and antisense molecules. A second area of investigation involves the analysis of wild type and mutated p53 tumor suppressor gene expression on sensitivity of tumor cells to photooxidative stress. Loss of p53 function has been correlated with decreased sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a variety of human tumors. We are currently evaluating cell photosensitivity, cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis in tumor cell lines exhibiting either wild type p53, mutated p53 or deleted p53 expression. We have also isolated a cell line exhibiting a photooxidative stress resistant phenotype and we are evaluating the molecular determinants responsible for inducing cellular resistant to oxidative stress. A third area of investigation involves the use of photosensitizers and laser generated light for the treatment of the pediatric eye tumor retinoblastoma.

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy for Treating Kaposi's Sarcoma
    NIH/NCI R21CA119907Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy with COX-2 Inhibition
    NIH/NCI R01CA098971Jun 1, 2003 - May 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LASER INDUCED HYPERTHERMIA TO TREAT CHOROIDAL MELANOMA
    NIH/NCI R01CA043087Jun 1, 1987 - May 31, 1991
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CHOROIDAL VESSEL DESTRUCTION TO TREAT OCULAR MELANOMA
    NIH/NCI R01CA044733Jun 1, 1987 - May 31, 1991
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Photodynamic Therapy Affects on the Tumor Microenvironment
    NIH/NCI R01CA031230Mar 1, 1982 - Dec 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HEMATOPORPHYRIN DISTRIBUTION AND PHOTOSENSITIZATION
    NIH/NCI R37CA031230Mar 1, 1982 - Apr 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Perri F, Frattaruolo L, Haworth I, Brindisi M, El-Magboub A, Ferrario A, Gomer C, Aiello F, Adams JD. Corrigendum to "Naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones and their semi-synthetic derivatives modulate PGE2 levels by decreasing COX2 activity and expression" [Heliyon 5 (3) (March 2019) e01366]. Heliyon. 2019 Apr; 5(4):e01513. PMID: 31049429.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Coricello A, El-Magboub A, Luna M, Ferrario A, Haworth IS, Gomer CJ, Aiello F, Adams JD. Rational drug design and synthesis of new a-Santonin derivatives as potential COX-2 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 04 01; 28(6):993-996. PMID: 29501395.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kim JW, Jacobsen B, Zolfaghari E, Ferrario A, Chevez-Barrios P, Berry JL, Lee DK, Rico G, Madi I, Rao N, Stachelek K, Wang LC, Gomer C. Rabbit model of ocular indirect photodynamic therapy using a retinoblastoma xenograft. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 Dec; 255(12):2363-2373. PMID: 28971251.
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    4. Ferrario A, Luna M, Rucker N, Wong S, Lederman A, Kim J, Gomer C. Targeting Survivin Enhances Chemosensitivity in Retinoblastoma Cells and Orthotopic Tumors. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153011. PMID: 27050416.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Gomer CJ. Induction of prosurvival molecules during treatment: rethinking therapy options for photodynamic therapy. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2012 Oct 01; 10 Suppl 2:S35-9. PMID: 23055213.
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    6. Ferrario A, Luna M, Rucker N, Wong S, Gomer CJ. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of the green tea constituent epigallocatechin gallate increase photodynamic therapy responsiveness. Lasers Surg Med. 2011 Sep; 43(7):644-50. PMID: 22057492.
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    7. Ferrario A, Lim S, Xu F, Luna M, Gaffney KJ, Petasis NA, Schönthal AH, Gomer CJ. Enhancement of photodynamic therapy by 2,5-dimethyl celecoxib, a non-cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor analog of celecoxib. Cancer Lett. 2011 May 01; 304(1):33-40. PMID: 21339042.
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    8. Luna M, Ferrario A, Wong S, Gomer CJ. Identification of MAP kinase pathways involved in COX-2 expression following photofrin photodynamic therapy. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 635:47-63. PMID: 20552339.
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    9. Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Targeting the tumor microenvironment using photodynamic therapy combined with inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 or vascular endothelial growth factor. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 635:121-32. PMID: 20552344.
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    10. Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Targeting the 90 kDa heat shock protein improves photodynamic therapy. Cancer Lett. 2010 Mar 28; 289(2):188-94. PMID: 19733005.
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    11. Luna M, Wong S, Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by photofrin photodynamic therapy involves the p38 MAPK pathway. Photochem Photobiol. 2008 Mar-Apr; 84(2):509-14. PMID: 18282182.
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    12. Bozkulak O, Wong S, Luna M, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Gulsoy M, Gomer CJ. Multiple components of photodynamic therapy can phosphorylate Akt. Photochem Photobiol. 2007 Sep-Oct; 83(5):1029-33. PMID: 17880496.
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    13. Ferrario A, Rucker N, Wong S, Luna M, Gomer CJ. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, is induced by photodynamic therapy and is a target for improving treatment response. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15; 67(10):4989-95. PMID: 17510430.
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    14. Gomer CJ, Ferrario A, Luna M, Rucker N, Wong S. Photodynamic therapy: combined modality approaches targeting the tumor microenvironment. Lasers Surg Med. 2006 Jun; 38(5):516-21. PMID: 16607618.
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    15. Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Avastin enhances photodynamic therapy treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in a mouse tumor model. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2006; 25(1-2):251-9. PMID: 16566722.
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    16. Ferrario A, Fisher AM, Rucker N, Gomer CJ. Celecoxib and NS-398 enhance photodynamic therapy by increasing in vitro apoptosis and decreasing in vivo inflammatory and angiogenic factors. Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 15; 65(20):9473-8. PMID: 16230411.
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    17. Dong D, Dubeau L, Bading J, Nguyen K, Luna M, Yu H, Gazit-Bornstein G, Gordon EM, Gomer C, Hall FL, Gambhir SS, Lee AS. Spontaneous and controllable activation of suicide gene expression driven by the stress-inducible grp78 promoter resulting in eradication of sizable human tumors. Hum Gene Ther. 2004 Jun; 15(6):553-61. PMID: 15212714.
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    18. Ferrario A, Chantrain CF, von Tiehl K, Buckley S, Rucker N, Shalinsky DR, Shimada H, DeClerck YA, Gomer CJ. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor prinomastat enhances photodynamic therapy responsiveness in a mouse tumor model. Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 01; 64(7):2328-32. PMID: 15059880.
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    19. Wong S, Luna M, Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. CHOP activation by photodynamic therapy increases treatment induced photosensitization. Lasers Surg Med. 2004; 35(5):336-41. PMID: 15611953.
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    20. Ferrario A, Von Tiehl K, Wong S, Luna M, Gomer CJ. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor treatment enhances photodynamic therapy-mediated tumor response. Cancer Res. 2002 Jul 15; 62(14):3956-61. PMID: 12124326.
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    21. Luna MC, Chen X, Wong S, Tsui J, Rucker N, Lee AS, Gomer CJ. Enhanced photodynamic therapy efficacy with inducible suicide gene therapy controlled by the grp promoter. Cancer Res. 2002 Mar 01; 62(5):1458-61. PMID: 11888920.
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    22. Keshelava N, Zuo JJ, Chen P, Waidyaratne SN, Luna MC, Gomer CJ, Triche TJ, Reynolds CP. Loss of p53 function confers high-level multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2001 Aug 15; 61(16):6185-93. PMID: 11507071.
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    23. Ferrario A, von Tiehl KF, Rucker N, Schwarz MA, Gill PS, Gomer CJ. Antiangiogenic treatment enhances photodynamic therapy responsiveness in a mouse mammary carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2000 Aug 01; 60(15):4066-9. PMID: 10945611.
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    24. Luna MC, Ferrario A, Wong S, Fisher AM, Gomer CJ. Photodynamic therapy-mediated oxidative stress as a molecular switch for the temporal expression of genes ligated to the human heat shock promoter. Cancer Res. 2000 Mar 15; 60(6):1637-44. PMID: 10749134.
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    25. Fisher AM, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Zhang S, Gomer CJ. Photodynamic therapy sensitivity is not altered in human tumor cells after abrogation of p53 function. Cancer Res. 1999 Jan 15; 59(2):331-5. PMID: 9927042.
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    26. Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Henderson BW, Jori G, Kessel D, Korbelik M, Moan J, Peng Q. Photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Jun 17; 90(12):889-905. PMID: 9637138.
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    27. Fisher AM, Rucker N, Wong S, Gomer CJ. Differential photosensitivity in wild-type and mutant p53 human colon carcinoma cell lines. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1998 Feb; 42(2):104-7. PMID: 9540217.
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    28. Fisher AM, Danenberg K, Banerjee D, Bertino JR, Danenberg P, Gomer CJ. Increased photosensitivity in HL60 cells expressing wild-type p53. Photochem Photobiol. 1997 Aug; 66(2):265-70. PMID: 9277147.
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    29. Gomer CJ, Luna MC, Ferrario A. Identification of genes associated with resistance to photodynamic therapy-mediated oxidative stress. Methods Mol Biol. 1997; 85:263-76. PMID: 9276330.
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    30. Murphree AL, Villablanca JG, Deegan WF, Sato JK, Malogolowkin M, Fisher A, Parker R, Reed E, Gomer CJ. Chemotherapy plus local treatment in the management of intraocular retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Nov; 114(11):1348-56. PMID: 8906025.
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    31. Gomer CJ, Luna M, Ferrario A, Wong S, Fisher AM, Rucker N. Cellular targets and molecular responses associated with photodynamic therapy. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1996 Oct; 14(5):315-21. PMID: 9612198.
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    32. Gomer CJ, Ryter SW, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Wong S, Fisher AM. Photodynamic therapy-mediated oxidative stress can induce expression of heat shock proteins. Cancer Res. 1996 May 15; 56(10):2355-60. PMID: 8625311.
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    33. Luna MC, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Gomer CJ. Decreased expression and function of alpha-2 macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in photodynamic therapy-resistant mouse tumor cells. Cancer Res. 1995 May 01; 55(9):1820-3. PMID: 7728745.
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    34. Kessel D, Woodburn K, Gomer CJ, Jagerovic N, Smith KM. Photosensitization with derivatives of chlorin p6. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1995 Apr; 28(1):13-8. PMID: 7791001.
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    35. Fisher AM, Murphree AL, Gomer CJ. Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy. Lasers Surg Med. 1995; 17(1):2-31. PMID: 7564853.
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    36. Luna MC, Wong S, Gomer CJ. Photodynamic therapy mediated induction of early response genes. Cancer Res. 1994 Mar 01; 54(5):1374-80. PMID: 8118827.
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    37. Ryter SW, Gomer CJ. Nuclear factor kappa B binding activity in mouse L1210 cells following photofrin II-mediated photosensitization. Photochem Photobiol. 1993 Nov; 58(5):753-6. PMID: 8284329.
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    38. Fisher AM, Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Adriamycin resistance in Chinese hamster fibroblasts following oxidative stress induced by photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol. 1993 Oct; 58(4):581-8. PMID: 8248335.
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    39. Li LJ, Li X, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Liu ES, Wong S, Gomer CJ, Lee AS. Establishment of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line that expresses grp78 antisense transcripts and suppresses A23187 induction of both GRP78 and GRP94. J Cell Physiol. 1992 Dec; 153(3):575-82. PMID: 1332981.
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    40. Ferrario A, Kessel D, Gomer CJ. Metabolic properties and photosensitizing responsiveness of mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 in a mouse tumor model. Cancer Res. 1992 May 15; 52(10):2890-3. PMID: 1581904.
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    41. Gomer CJ, Ferrario A, Rucker N, Wong S, Lee AS. Glucose regulated protein induction and cellular resistance to oxidative stress mediated by porphyrin photosensitization. Cancer Res. 1991 Dec 15; 51(24):6574-9. PMID: 1835901.
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    42. Gomer CJ. Preclinical examination of first and second generation photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol. 1991 Dec; 54(6):1093-107. PMID: 1775531.
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    43. Luna MC, Gomer CJ. Isolation and initial characterization of mouse tumor cells resistant to porphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy. Cancer Res. 1991 Aug 15; 51(16):4243-9. PMID: 1831066.
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    44. Gomer CJ, Luna M, Ferrario A, Rucker N. Increased transcription and translation of heme oxygenase in Chinese hamster fibroblasts following photodynamic stress or Photofrin II incubation. Photochem Photobiol. 1991 Feb; 53(2):275-9. PMID: 1826371.
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    45. Ferrario A, Rucker N, Ryter SW, Doiron DR, Gomer CJ. Direct comparison of in-vitro and in-vivo Photofrin-II mediated photosensitization using a pulsed KTP pumped dye laser and a continuous wave argon ion pumped dye laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1991; 11(5):404-10. PMID: 1840075.
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    46. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Wong S. Porphyrin photosensitivity in cell lines expressing a heat-resistant phenotype. Cancer Res. 1990 Sep 01; 50(17):5365-8. PMID: 2143688.
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    47. Gomer CJ, Ferrario A. Tissue distribution and photosensitizing properties of mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 in a mouse tumor model. Cancer Res. 1990 Jul 01; 50(13):3985-90. PMID: 2354446.
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    48. Ferrario A, Gomer CJ. Systemic toxicity in mice induced by localized porphyrin photodynamic therapy. Cancer Res. 1990 Feb 01; 50(3):539-43. PMID: 2137023.
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    49. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Ferrario A, Wong S. Properties and applications of photodynamic therapy. Radiat Res. 1989 Oct; 120(1):1-18. PMID: 2678224.
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    50. White L, Chan KK, Barrientos A, Gomer CJ, Murpheree AL, Benedict WF. Tissue concentrations of doxorubicin in animal models with engrafted intraocular tumours. In Vivo. 1989 Sep-Oct; 3(5):315-7. PMID: 2519871.
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    51. Svaasand LO, Gomer CJ, Profio AE. Laser-induced hyperthermia of ocular tumors. Appl Opt. 1989 Jun 15; 28(12):2280-7. PMID: 20555512.
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    52. Gomer CJ. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of malignancies. Semin Hematol. 1989 Jan; 26(1):27-34. PMID: 2646722.
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    53. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Murphree AL. Differential cell photosensitivity following porphyrin photodynamic therapy. Cancer Res. 1988 Aug 15; 48(16):4539-42. PMID: 2969280.
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    54. White L, Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, Szirth BC. Ineffective photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a poorly vascularized xenograft model. Br J Cancer. 1988 May; 57(5):455-8. PMID: 3395551.
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    55. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Murphree AL. Transformation and mutagenic potential of porphyrin photodynamic therapy in mammalian cells. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 1988 Apr; 53(4):651-9. PMID: 2965114.
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    56. Gomer CJ. What makes a good photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy? J Photochem Photobiol B. 1988 Mar; 1(3):376-8. PMID: 2977402.
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    57. Gomer CJ, Ferrario A, Hayashi N, Rucker N, Szirth BC, Murphree AL. Molecular, cellular, and tissue responses following photodynamic therapy. Lasers Surg Med. 1988; 8(5):450-63. PMID: 2976443.
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    58. Murphree AL, Cote M, Gomer CJ. The evolution of photodynamic therapy techniques in the treatment of intraocular tumors. Photochem Photobiol. 1987 Nov; 46(5):919-23. PMID: 3441513.
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    59. Gomer CJ, Hayashi N, Murphree AL. The influence of sodium pentobarbital anesthesia on in vivo photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol. 1987 Nov; 46(5):843-6. PMID: 3441507.
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    60. Gomer CJ, Ferrario A, Murphree AL. The effect of localized porphyrin photodynamic therapy on the induction of tumour metastasis. Br J Cancer. 1987 Jul; 56(1):27-32. PMID: 2956984.
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    61. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Ferrario A, Murphree AL. Expression of potentially lethal damage in Chinese hamster cells exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy. Cancer Res. 1986 Jul; 46(7):3348-52. PMID: 3011247.
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    62. Gomer CJ, Jester JV, Razum NJ, Szirth BC, Murphree AL. Photodynamic therapy of intraocular tumors: examination of hematoporphyrin derivative distribution and long-term damage in rabbit ocular tissue. Cancer Res. 1985 Aug; 45(8):3718-25. PMID: 4016749.
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    63. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Razum NJ, Murphree AL. In vitro and in vivo light dose rate effects related to hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy. Cancer Res. 1985 May; 45(5):1973-7. PMID: 3986754.
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    64. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Murphree AL. Examination of potentially lethal damage in cells treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and red light. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1985; 193:147-53. PMID: 2937260.
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    65. Gomer CJ, Razum NJ. Acute skin response in albino mice following porphyrin photosensitization under oxic and anoxic conditions. Photochem Photobiol. 1984 Oct; 40(4):435-9. PMID: 6239295.
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    66. Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, Rucker N, Razum NJ, Fountain SW. Action spectrum (620-640 nm) for hematoporphyrin derivative induced cell killing. Photochem Photobiol. 1984 Mar; 39(3):365-8. PMID: 6232630.
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    67. Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, Rucker N, Razum NJ, Fountain SW. Examination of action spectrum, dose rate and mutagenic properties of hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1984; 170:459-69. PMID: 6241691.
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    68. Gomer CJ, Little FM. Documentation of radioactive contaminants in tritium labeled hematoporphyrin derivative. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1984; 170:591-600. PMID: 6241699.
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    69. Little FM, Gomer CJ, Hyman S, Apuzzo ML. Observations in studies of quantitative kinetics of tritium labelled hematoporphyrin derivatives (HpDI and HpDII) in the normal and neoplastic rat brain model. J Neurooncol. 1984; 2(4):361-70. PMID: 6241630.
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    70. Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, White L, Jester JV, Dunn S, Szirth BC, Razum NJ, Murphree AL. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation induced damage to normal and tumor tissue of the pigmented rabbit eye. Curr Eye Res. 1984 Jan; 3(1):229-37. PMID: 6228386.
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    71. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Banerjee A, Benedict WF. Comparison of mutagenicity and induction of sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster cells exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation, ionizing radiation, or ultraviolet radiation. Cancer Res. 1983 Jun; 43(6):2622-7. PMID: 6850580.
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    72. Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, Jester JV, Szirth BC, Murphree AL. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy for the treatment of intraocular tumors: examination of acute normal ocular tissue toxicity. Cancer Res. 1983 Feb; 43(2):721-7. PMID: 6216946.
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    73. Gomer CJ, Szirth BC, Doiron DR, Jester JV, Lingua RW, Mark C, Benedict WF, Murphree AL. Preclinical evaluation of hematoporphyrin derivative for the treatment of intraocular tumors: a preliminary report. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1983; 160:109-14. PMID: 6220567.
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    74. Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Mark C, Benedict WF, Murphree AL. Tissue distribution of 3H-hematoporphyrin derivative in athymic "nude" mice heterotransplanted with human retinoblastoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1982 Jan; 22(1):118-20. PMID: 7056618.
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    75. Murphree AL, Gomer CJ, Doiron DR, Benedict WF. Recent developments in the genetics and treatment of retinoblastoma. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1982; 18(6):681-7. PMID: 7171784.
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    76. Gomer CJ. DNA damage and repair in CHO cells following hematoporphyrin photoradiation. Cancer Lett. 1980 Dec; 11(2):161-7. PMID: 7459844.
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    77. Gomer CJ, Smith DM. Photoinactivation of Chinese hamster cells by hematoporphyrin derivative and red light. Photochem Photobiol. 1980 Sep; 32(3):341-8. PMID: 7433532.
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    78. Gomer CJ, Smith DM. Acute skin phototoxicity in hairless mice following exposure to crude shale oil or natural petroleum oil. Toxicology. 1980; 18(1):75-85. PMID: 7210025.
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    79. Wasserman TH, Phillips TL, Johnson RJ, Gomer CJ, Lawrence GA, Sadee W, Marques RA, Levin VA, VanRaalte G. Initial United States clinical and pharmacologic evaluation of misonidazole (Ro-07-0582), an hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1979 Jun; 5(6):775-86. PMID: 227821.
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    80. Gomer CJ, Johnson RJ. Relationship between misonidazole toxicity and core temperature in C3H mice. Radiat Res. 1979 May; 78(2):329-33. PMID: 451161.
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    81. Gomer CJ, Dougherty TJ. Determination of [3H]- and [14C]hematoporphyrin derivative distribution in malignant and normal tissue. Cancer Res. 1979 Jan; 39(1):146-51. PMID: 761185.
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    82. Gomer CJ, Johnson RJ, Hetzel FW, Lawrence G. The demonstration of in vivo misonidazole tumour toxicity using post radiation hypoxia. Br J Cancer Suppl. 1978 Jun; 3:228-31. PMID: 277234.
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    83. Phillips TL, Wasserman TH, Gomer CJ, Lawrence GA, Levine ML, Sadee W, Penta JS, Rubin DJ. The hypoxic cell sensitizer programme in the United States. Br J Cancer Suppl. 1978 Jun; 3:276-80. PMID: 277245.
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    84. Johnson R, Gomer C, Boyle D. The effect of radiation on tumor blood flow and distribution of labelled methotrexate using an animal model system. Bibl Anat. 1977; (15 Pt 1):281-4. PMID: 597156.
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    85. Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Weishaupt KR. Energetics and efficiency of photoinactivation of murine tumor cells containing hematoporphyrin. Cancer Res. 1976 Jul; 36(7 PT 1):2330-3. PMID: 1277138.
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    86. Johnson R, Gomer C, Pearce J. An investigation of the radiosensitizing effects of Ro-07-0582 on hypoxic skin in primates. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1976 Jul-Aug; 1(7-8):593-9. PMID: 824246.
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    87. Weishaupt KR, Gomer CJ, Dougherty TJ. Identification of singlet oxygen as the cytotoxic agent in photoinactivation of a murine tumor. Cancer Res. 1976 Jul; 36(7 PT 1):2326-9. PMID: 1277137.
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    88. Johnson R, Gomer C, Ambrus J, Pearce J, Boyle D. Letter: An investigation of the pharmacological and radiosensitizing effects of the 2-nitroimidazole Ro-07-0582 in primates. Br J Radiol. 1976 Mar; 49(579):294-5. PMID: 819079.
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