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Charalampos Zalavras, MD

Title(s)Professor of Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery
Phone+1 323 409 7346
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    Dr. Charalampos Zalavras is a specialist in the field of orthopaedic trauma at the Los Angeles County & University of Southern California Medical Center. Dr. Zalavras joined the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of USC as faculty in 2001 and is currently Professor of Clinical Orthopaedics and Director of Orthopaedic Resident Research. He has a particular interest in trauma and reconstruction of the upper extremity and in musculoskeletal infection. Dr. Zalavras has published approximately 100 peer-reviewed manuscripts and 20 book chapters focusing in the topics of trauma and infection and his work has been extensively cited with approximately 5,000 citations. Dr. Zalavras has been invited to deliver more than 100 scientific lectures in conferences in the US and all over the world. Dr. Zalavras has received numerous distinguished awards. He was the recipient of the Marshall R. Urist Young Investigator Award by the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons and the Scholar Award by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society and the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. His research work resulted in Award for Best Resident/Fellow Paper in the Annual Meeting of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and in nomination for the Charles S. Neer II Award by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. He was recipient of a Traveling Fellowship Award by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association in 2013. Dr. Zalavras currently serves in the Editorial Board of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Deputy Editor for Infection) and Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma (Section Editor for Infection). Dr. Zalavras has served as president of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society and as member of its executive board. He is member of the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery, the American College of Surgeons, and the European Bone and Joint Infection Society.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Metsemakers WJ, Fragomen AT, Moriarty TF, Morgenstern M, Egol KA, Zalavras C, Obremskey WT, Raschke M, McNally MA. Evidence-based recommendations for Local antimicrobial strategies and Dead space management in Fracture-Related Infection. J Orthop Trauma. 2019 Aug 26. PMID: 31464858.
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    2. Zalavras CG. CORR Insights®: Are Patients Who Undergo THA for Infection at Higher Risk for 30-day Complications? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019 Aug; 477(8):1860-1861. PMID: 31335604.
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    3. Chen AF, Zalavras CG. Editorial Comment: 2018 Musculoskeletal Infection Society Proceedings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019 Jul; 477(7):1574-1576. PMID: 31268422.
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    4. Zalavras CG. CORR Insights®: Surgical Loupes Worn by Orthopaedic Surgeons Are a Reservoir for Microorganisms. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019 Jun; 477(6):1514-1515. PMID: 31094850.
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    5. Sugi MT, Ortega B, Shepherd L, Zalavras C. Syndesmotic Screw Removal in a Clinic Setting Is Safe and Cost-effective. Foot Ankle Spec. 2019 Apr 23; 1938640019843321. PMID: 31014109.
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    6. Puetzler J, Zalavras C, Moriarty TF, Verhofstad MHJ, Kates SL, Raschke MJ, Rosslenbroich S, Metsemakers WJ. Clinical practice in prevention of fracture-related infection: An international survey among 1197 orthopaedic trauma surgeons. Injury. 2019 Jun; 50(6):1208-1215. PMID: 31029369.
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    7. Omid R, Stone MA, Zalavras CG, Marecek GS. Gunshot Wounds to the Upper Extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019 Apr 01; 27(7):e301-e310. PMID: 30897606.
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    8. Zalavras CG, Nelson SB. Editorial Comment: 2017 Musculoskeletal Infection Society Proceedings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2018 10; 476(10):1938-1939. PMID: 30794238.
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    9. Zalavras CG, Marcus RE, Sontich JK. How Can I Get This Bone to Heal? Instr Course Lect. 2018 Feb 15; 67:511-528. PMID: 31411436.
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    10. Patzakis MJ, Levin LS, Zalavras CG, Marcus RE. Principles of Open Fracture Management. Instr Course Lect. 2018 Feb 15; 67:3-18. PMID: 31411397.
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    11. Morgenstern M, Moriarty TF, Kuehl R, Richards RG, McNally MA, Verhofstad MHJ, Borens O, Zalavras C, Raschke M, Kates SL, Metsemakers WJ. International survey among orthopaedic trauma surgeons: Lack of a definition of fracture-related infection. Injury. 2018 Mar; 49(3):491-496. PMID: 29433799.
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    12. Zalavras CG, Papasoulis E. Intra-articular fractures of the distal humerus-a review of the current practice. Int Orthop. 2018 11; 42(11):2653-2662. PMID: 29404666.
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    13. Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, McNally MA, Moriarty TF, McFadyen I, Scarborough M, Athanasou NA, Ochsner PE, Kuehl R, Raschke M, Borens O, Xie Z, Velkes S, Hungerer S, Kates SL, Zalavras C, Giannoudis PV, Richards RG, Verhofstad MHJ. Fracture-related infection: A consensus on definition from an international expert group. Injury. 2018 Mar; 49(3):505-510. PMID: 28867644.
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    14. Zalavras CG, Springer BD. Editorial Comment: 2016 Musculoskeletal Infection Society Proceedings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017 07; 475(7):1796-1797. PMID: 28444583.
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    15. Zalavras CG. Prevention of Infection in Open Fractures. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2017 06; 31(2):339-352. PMID: 28292542.
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    16. Metsemakers WJ, Kortram K, Morgenstern M, Moriarty TF, Meex I, Kuehl R, Nijs S, Richards RG, Raschke M, Borens O, Kates SL, Zalavras C, Giannoudis PV, Verhofstad MHJ. Definition of infection after fracture fixation: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate current practice. Injury. 2018 Mar; 49(3):497-504. PMID: 28245906.
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    17. Zalavras CG, Schmitt SK. Editorial Comment: Proceedings of the 2015 Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 Jul; 474(7):1581-2. PMID: 27020423.
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    18. Zalavras CG. CORR Insights(®): Cathodic Voltage-controlled Electrical Stimulation Plus Prolonged Vancomycin Reduce Bacterial Burden of a Titanium Implant-associated Infection in a Rodent Model. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 07; 474(7):1676-8. PMID: 26883658.
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    19. Zalavras CG. Invited Commentary. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Oct; 29(10):e395. PMID: 26397781.
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    20. Zalavras CG. CORR Insights(®): Regional Intraosseous Administration of Prophylactic Antibiotics is More Effective Than Systemic Administration in a Mouse Model of TKA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Nov; 473(11):3585-7. PMID: 26293224.
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    21. Zalavras C, Marculescu C. Editorial Comment: Symposium: 2014 Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Jul; 473(7):2227-8. PMID: 25910776.
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    22. van der Jagt D, Mokete L, Pietrzak J, Zalavras CG, Lieberman JR. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015 Feb; 23(2):69-70. PMID: 25624358.
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    23. Mavrodontidis A, Lykissas M, Koulouvaris P, Pafilas D, Kontogeorgakos V, Zalavras C. Percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: a functional evaluation study with a minimum 10-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2015; 49(6):661-7. PMID: 26511694.
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    24. Zalavras CG. Editorial comment: 2013Musculoskeletal Infection Society meeting. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Nov; 472(11):3273-4. PMID: 25123246.
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    25. Zalavras CG, Lieberman JR. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2014 Jul; 22(7):455-64. PMID: 24966252.
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    26. Zalavras CG. CORR Insights®: Sonication of antibiotic spacers predicts failure during two-stage revision for prosthetic knee and hip infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Jul; 472(7):2215-6. PMID: 24777724.
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    27. Neuhaus V, Bot AG, Guitton TG, Ring DC, Abdel-Ghany MI, Abrams J, Abzug JM, Adolfsson LE, Balfour GW, Bamberger HB, Barquet A, Baskies M, Batson WA, Baxamusa T, Bayne GJ, Begue T, Behrman M, Beingessner D, Biert J, Bishop J, Alves MB, Boyer M, Brilej D, Brink PR, Brunton LM, Buckley R, Cagnone JC, Calfee RP, Campinhos LA, Cassidy C, Catalano L, Chivers K, Choudhari P, Cimerman M, Conflitti JM, Costanzo RM, Crist BD, Cross BJ, Dantuluri P, Darowish M, de Bedout R, DeCoster T, Dennison DG, DeNoble PH, DeSilva G, Dienstknecht T, Duncan SF, Duralde XA, Durchholz H, Egol K, Ekholm C, Elias N, Erickson JM, Esparza JD, Fernandes CH, Fischer TJ, Fischmeister M, Forigua Jaime E, Getz CL, Gilbert RS, Giordano V, Glaser DL, Gosens T, Grafe MW, Filho JE, Gray RR, Gulotta LV, Gummerson NW, Hammerberg EM, Harvey E, Haverlag R, Henry PD, Hobby JL, Hofmeister EP, Hughes T, Itamura J, Jebson P, Jenkinson R, Jeray K, Jones CM, Jones J, Jubel A, Kaar SG, Kabir K, Kaplan FT, Kennedy SA, Kessler MW, Kimball HL, Kloen P, Klostermann C, Kohut G, Kraan GA, Kristan A, Loebenberg MI, Malone KJ, Marsh L, Martineau PA, McAuliffe J, McGraw I, Mehta S, Merchant M, Metzger C, Meylaerts SA, Miller AN, Wolf JM, Murachovsky J, Murthi A, Nancollas M, Nolan BM, Omara T, Omid R, Ortiz JA, Overbeck JP, Castillo AP, Pesantez R, Polatsch D, Porcellini G, Prayson M, Quell M, Ragsdell MM, Reid JG, Reuver JM, Richard MJ, Richardson M, Rizzo M, Rowinski S, Rubio J, Guerrero CG, Satora W, Schandelmaier P, Scheer JH, Schmidt A, Schubkegel TA, Schulte LM, Schumer ED, Sears BW, Shafritz AB, Shortt NL, Siff T, Silva DM, Smith RM, Spruijt S, Stein JA, Pemovska ES, Streubel PN, Swigart C, Swiontkowski M, Thomas G, Tolo ET, Turina M, Tyllianakis M, van den Bekerom MP, van der Heide H, van de Sande MA, van Eerten PV, Verbeek DO, Hoffmann DV, Vochteloo AJ, Wagenmakers R, Wall CJ, Wallensten R, Wascher DC, Weiss L, Wiater JM, Wills BP, Wint J, Wright T, Young JP, Zalavras C, Zura RD, Zyto K. Scapula fractures: interobserver reliability of classification and treatment. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Mar; 28(3):124-9. PMID: 23629469.
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    28. Alijanipour P, Karam J, Llinás A, Vince KG, Zalavras C, Austin M, Garrigues G, Heller S, Huddleston J, Klatt B, Krebs V, Lohmann C, McPherson EJ, Molloy R, Oliashirazi A, Schwaber M, Sheehan E, Smith E, Sterling R, Stocks G, Vaidya S. Operative environment. J Orthop Res. 2014 Jan; 32 Suppl 1:S60-80. PMID: 24464899.
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    29. Alijanipour P, Karam J, Llinás A, Vince KG, Zalavras C, Austin M, Garrigues G, Heller S, Huddleston J, Klatt B, Krebs V, Lohmann C, McPherson EJ, Molloy R, Oliashirazi A, Schwaber M, Sheehan E, Smith E, Sterling R, Stocks G, Vaidya S. Operative environment. J Arthroplasty. 2014 Feb; 29(2 Suppl):49-64. PMID: 24342274.
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    30. Papasoulis E, Patzakis MJ, Zalavras CG. Antibiotics in the treatment of low-velocity gunshot-induced fractures: a systematic literature review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013 Dec; 471(12):3937-44. PMID: 23463285.
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    31. Parvizi J, Zmistowski B, Berbari EF, Bauer TW, Springer BD, Della Valle CJ, Garvin KL, Mont MA, Wongworawat MD, Zalavras CG. New definition for periprosthetic joint infection: from the Workgroup of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 Nov; 469(11):2992-4. PMID: 21938532.
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    32. Zalavras CG, Wongworawat MD. Papers presented at the 2010 [corrected] meeting of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society: editorial comment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 Nov; 469(11):2989-90. PMID: 21853367.
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    33. Zalavras CG, Vercillo MT, Jun BJ, Otarodifard K, Itamura JM, Lee TQ. Biomechanical evaluation of parallel versus orthogonal plate fixation of intra-articular distal humerus fractures. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Jan; 20(1):12-20. PMID: 21134662.
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    34. Zalavras CG, Sirkin M. Treatment of long bone intramedullary infection using the RIA for removal of infected tissue: indications, method and clinical results. Injury. 2010 Nov; 41 Suppl 2:S43-7. PMID: 21144927.
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    35. Allison DC, Holtom PD, Patzakis MJ, Zalavras CG. Microbiology of bone and joint infections in injecting drug abusers. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Aug; 468(8):2107-12. PMID: 20174899.
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    36. Stine IA, Lee B, Zalavras CG, Hatch G, Itamura JM. Management of chronic shoulder infections utilizing a fixed articulating antibiotic-loaded spacer. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010 Jul; 19(5):739-48. PMID: 20137977.
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    37. Dinh P, Hutchinson BK, Zalavras C, Stevanovic MV. Reconstruction of osteomyelitis defects. Semin Plast Surg. 2009 May; 23(2):108-18. PMID: 20567733.
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    38. Zalavras CG, Rigopoulos N, Ahlmann E, Patzakis MJ. Hip disarticulation for severe lower extremity infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Jul; 467(7):1721-6. PMID: 19277805.
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    39. Zalavras CG, Rigopoulos N, Lee J, Learch T, Patzakis MJ. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in hematogenous osteomyelitis of the hip in adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Jul; 467(7):1688-92. PMID: 19255815.
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    40. Zalavras CG, Christensen T, Rigopoulos N, Holtom P, Patzakis MJ. Infection following operative treatment of ankle fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Jul; 467(7):1715-20. PMID: 19225850.
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    41. Zionts LE, Woodson CJ, Manjra N, Zalavras C. Time of return of elbow motion after percutaneous pinning of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Aug; 467(8):2007-10. PMID: 19198963.
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    42. Papadakis SA, Zalavras C, Mirzayan R, Shepherd L. Undetected iatrogenic lesions of the anterior femoral shaft during intramedullary nailing: a cadaveric study. J Orthop Surg Res. 2008 Jul 17; 3:30. PMID: 18637197.
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    43. Holtom PD, Borges L, Zalavras CG. Hematogenous septic ankle arthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Jun; 466(6):1388-91. PMID: 18421539.
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    44. Zalavras CG, Rigopoulos N, Poultsides L, Patzakis MJ. Increased oxacillin resistance in thigh pyomyositis in diabetic patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Jun; 466(6):1405-9. PMID: 18327628.
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    45. Itamura JM, Roidis NT, Chong AK, Vaishnav S, Papadakis SA, Zalavras C. Computed tomography study of radial head morphology. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008 Mar-Apr; 17(2):347-54. PMID: 18249141.
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    46. Zalavras CG, Marcus RE, Levin LS, Patzakis MJ. Management of open fractures and subsequent complications. Instr Course Lect. 2008; 57:51-63. PMID: 18399570.
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    47. Zalavras CG, McAllister ET, Singh A, Itamura JM. Operative treatment of intra-articular distal humerus fractures. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007 Dec; 36(12 Suppl 2):8-12. PMID: 18264557.
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    48. Ogawa BK, Thordarson DB, Zalavras C. Peroneal tendon subluxation repair with an indirect fibular groove deepening technique. Foot Ankle Int. 2007 Nov; 28(11):1194-7. PMID: 18021591.
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    49. Themistocleous G, Zalavras C, Stine I, Zachos V, Itamura J. Prolonged implantation of an antibiotic cement spacer for management of shoulder sepsis in compromised patients. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007 Nov-Dec; 16(6):701-5. PMID: 17931905.
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    50. Zalavras CG, Femino D, Triche R, Zionts L, Stevanovic M. Reconstruction of large skeletal defects due to osteomyelitis with the vascularized fibular graft in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Oct; 89(10):2233-40. PMID: 17908901.
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    51. Vercillo M, Patzakis MJ, Holtom P, Zalavras CG. Linezolid in the treatment of implant-related chronic osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Aug; 461:40-3. PMID: 17514011.
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    52. Holtom PD, Zalavras CG, Lamp KC, Park N, Friedrich LV. Clinical experience with daptomycin treatment of foot or ankle osteomyelitis: a preliminary study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Aug; 461:35-9. PMID: 17549028.
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    53. Allison DC, Miller T, Holtom P, Patzakis MJ, Zalavras CG. Microbiology of upper extremity soft tissue abscesses in injecting drug abusers. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Aug; 461:9-13. PMID: 17563706.
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    54. Zalavras CG, Singh A, Patzakis MJ. Novel technique for medullary canal débridement in tibia and femur osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Aug; 461:31-4. PMID: 17514012.
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    55. Zalavras C, Thordarson D. Ankle syndesmotic injury. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007 Jun; 15(6):330-9. PMID: 17548882.
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    56. Malizos KN, Zachos V, Dailiana ZH, Zalavras C, Varitimidis S, Hantes M, Karantanas A. Scaphoid nonunions: management with vascularized bone grafts from the distal radius: a clinical and functional outcome study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Apr 15; 119(5):1513-25. PMID: 17415246.
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    57. Zalavras CG, Marcus RE, Levin LS, Patzakis MJ. Management of open fractures and subsequent complications. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Apr; 89(4):884-95. PMID: 17432452.
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    58. Zalavras CG, Dellamaggiora R, Patzakis MJ, Zachos V, Holtom PD. Recalcitrant septic knee arthritis due to adjacent osteomyelitis in adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Oct; 451:38-41. PMID: 16906077.
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    59. Zalavras CG, Dellamaggiora R, Patzakis MJ, Bava E, Holtom PD. Septic arthritis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Oct; 451:46-9. PMID: 16906073.
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    60. Mehta P, Schnall SB, Zalavras CG. Septic arthritis of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Oct; 451:42-5. PMID: 16906071.
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    61. Themistocleous GS, Zalavras CG, Zachos VC, Itamura JM. Biologic resurfacing of the glenoid using a meniscal allograft. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2006 Sep; 10(3):145-9. PMID: 16974218.
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    62. Lee JA, Papadakis SA, Moon C, Zalavras CG. Tibial plateau fractures treated with the less invasive stabilisation system. Int Orthop. 2007 Jun; 31(3):415-8. PMID: 16847644.
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    63. Johnson KW, Zalavras C, Thordarson DB. Surgical management of insertional calcific achilles tendinosis with a central tendon splitting approach. Foot Ankle Int. 2006 Apr; 27(4):245-50. PMID: 16624213.
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    64. Zalavras CG, Gardocki R, Huang E, Stevanovic M, Hedman T, Tibone J. Reconstruction of large rotator cuff tendon defects with porcine small intestinal submucosa in an animal model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 Mar-Apr; 15(2):224-31. PMID: 16517370.
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    65. Zalavras CG, Patzakis MJ, Holtom PD, Sherman R. Management of open fractures. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005 Dec; 19(4):915-29. PMID: 16297739.
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    66. Savage K, Holtom PD, Zalavras CG. Spinal epidural abscess: early clinical outcome in patients treated medically. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Oct; 439:56-60. PMID: 16205139.
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    67. Patzakis MJ, Zalavras CG. Chronic posttraumatic osteomyelitis and infected nonunion of the tibia: current management concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005 Oct; 13(6):417-27. PMID: 16224114.
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    68. Zalavras CG, Gupta N, Patzakis MJ, Holtom PD. Microbiology of osteomyelitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Oct; 439:97-100. PMID: 16205146.
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    69. Zalavras CG, Patzakis MJ, Tibone J, Weisman N, Holtom P. Treatment of persistent infection after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Oct; 439:52-5. PMID: 16205138.
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    70. Zionts LE, Zalavras CG, Gerhardt MB. Closed treatment of displaced diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures in older children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jul-Aug; 25(4):507-12. PMID: 15958905.
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    71. Zalavras C, Velmahos GC, Chan L, Demetriades D, Patzakis MJ. Risk factors for respiratory failure following femoral fractures: the role of multiple intramedullary nailing. Injury. 2005 Jun; 36(6):751-7. PMID: 15910828.
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    72. Zalavras C, Nikolopoulou G, Essin D, Manjra N, Zionts LE. Pediatric fractures during skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding. Am J Sports Med. 2005 Apr; 33(4):568-73. PMID: 15722288.
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    73. Zalavras CG, Patzakis MJ, Thordarson DB, Shah S, Sherman R, Holtom P. Infected fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis and plafond: achievement of limb salvage with free muscle flaps, bone grafting, and ankle fusion. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Oct; (427):57-62. PMID: 15552137.
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    74. Zalavras CG, Patzakis MJ, Holtom P. Local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of open fractures and osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Oct; (427):86-93. PMID: 15552142.
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    75. Mavrodontidis AN, Zalavras CG, Papadonikolakis A, Soucacos PN. Bilateral absence of the patella in nail-patella syndrome: delayed presentation with anterior knee instability. Arthroscopy. 2004 Oct; 20(8):e89-93. PMID: 15483536.
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    76. Hantes ME, Mavrodontidis AN, Zalavras CG, Karantanas AH, Karachalios T, Malizos KN. Low-intensity transosseous ultrasound accelerates osteotomy healing in a sheep fracture model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Oct; 86(10):2275-82. PMID: 15466739.
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    77. Hurvitz G, Zalavras C, Thordarson DB. Débridement and primary closure of nonhealing foot wounds. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2004 Oct; 33(10):507-9. PMID: 15540851.
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    78. Chow JC, Hantes ME, Houle JB, Zalavras CG. Arthroscopic autogenous osteochondral transplantation for treating knee cartilage defects: a 2- to 5-year follow-up study. Arthroscopy. 2004 Sep; 20(7):681-90. PMID: 15346108.
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    79. Malizos KN, Zalavras CG, Soucacos PN, Beris AE, Urbaniak JR. Free vascularized fibular grafts for reconstruction of skeletal defects. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004 Sep-Oct; 12(5):360-9. PMID: 15469230.
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    80. Zalavras CG, Vartholomatos G, Dokou E, Malizos KN. Genetic background of osteonecrosis: associated with thrombophilic mutations? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 May; (422):251-5. PMID: 15187864.
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    81. Darlis NA, Kotsovolos ES, Zalavras CG, Mavrodondidis AN. Ipsilateral radial shaft, head, and medial epicondyle fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2004 Apr; 18(4):238-40. PMID: 15087969.
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    82. Papadonikolakis A, Mavrodontidis AN, Zalavras C, Hantes M, Soucacos PN. Transscaphoid volar lunate dislocation. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Sep; 85(9):1805-8. PMID: 12954842.
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    83. Zalavras CG, Patzakis MJ. Open fractures: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2003 May-Jun; 11(3):212-9. PMID: 12828451.
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    84. Shepherd LE, Zalavras CG, Jaki K, Shean C, Patzakis MJ. Gunshot femoral shaft fractures: is the current classification system reliable? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 Mar; (408):101-9. PMID: 12616045.
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    85. Zalavras ChG, Giotopoulou S, Dokou E, Mitsis M, Ioannou HV, Tsaousi C, Tzolou A, Kolaitis N, Vartholomatos G. Prevalence of the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation in Northwestern Greece and association with venous thromboembolism. Int Angiol. 2003 Mar; 22(1):55-7. PMID: 12771857.
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    86. Zalavras C, Shah S, Birnbaum MJ, Frenkel B. Role of apoptosis in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2003; 13(2-4):221-35. PMID: 14696969.
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    87. Mora S, Zalavras CG, Wang L, Thordarson DB. The role of pulsatile cold compression in edema resolution following ankle fractures: a randomized clinical trial. Foot Ankle Int. 2002 Nov; 23(11):999-1002. PMID: 12449403.
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    88. Zalavras ChG, Giotopoulou S, Dokou E, Mitsis M, Ioannou HV, Tzolou A, Kolaitis N, Vartholomatos G. Lack of association between the C677T mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and venous thromboembolism in Northwestern Greece. Int Angiol. 2002 Sep; 21(3):268-71. PMID: 12384649.
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