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    Yang Chai, DMD, PhD, DDS

    TitleProfessor and Associate Dean, Research and Director, Center For Craniofacial Molecular Biology
    SchoolHerman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC
    DepartmentBiomedical Engineering
    AddressCSA 148
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-9062
    Phone+1 323 442 3480

       Overview 
       Overview
      Yang Chai, DMD, PhD, DDS is the chair of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Board of Scientific Counselors.

      Professor Chai, who holds the George and Mary Lou Boone Chair in Craniofacial Biology and is the associate dean of research and director of the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Ostrow School, has been a member of the board since 2008 and will serve a one-year term as chair. A total of nine board members, including the chair, are selected from among the most accomplished and celebrated experts in biomedical, dental and craniofacial science.

      Chai is internationally renowned for his research into the genetics, cellular signaling, and development of cranial and facial structures, including the causes of and potential preventive measures for facial deformities such as cleft palate. Among his many honors, he has received a National Institutes of Health MERIT Award, has been elected as an American Association for the Advancement of Sciences Fellow, has received an International Association for Dental Research Distinguished Scientist Award, and has served on the editorial boards of several scientific journals. He is also an alumnus of the Ostrow School of Dentistry and is an award-winning educator and a practicing dentist at the school.


       Biography 
       Awards and Honors
      NIDCR, NIH2013Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors
      Craniofacial Biology Research Award2011IADR Distinguished Scientist Award
      Journal of Bone and Mineral Research2010 - 2014Editorial Board
      NIH2010 NIH MERIT Award
      2010American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) Elected Fellow
      NIDCR, NIH2008 - 2012Member of the Board of Scientific Counselors
      JBMR2007 - 2014Editorial Board DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
      The Chinese Journal of Dental Research2006 - 2014Editorial Board
      2004 - 2008Regular member of SBDD study section CSR NIH
      2004Chair, Gordon Research Conference on Craniofacial Morphogenesis and Tissue Regeneration
      2006Chair, Gordon Research Conference on Craniofacial Morphogenesis and Tissue Regeneration
      2002 - 2014NIH Ad hoc grant reviewer (OBM-2, ODCS) and Reviewer for the Welcome Trust, UK
      University of Southern California2001 - 2003Award of Excellence in Teaching
      University of Southern California1997James H. Zumberge Faculty Research and Innovation Award
      University of Southern California2007James H. Zumberge Faculty Research and Innovation Award
      University of Southern California1997Annual Excellence in Teaching Award
      1996OKU Scholarship award for outstanding academic performance
      1996Special Recognition by the Dean for outstanding service and contribution to the University of Southe
      University of Southern California, School of Dentistry1995Annual Teaching Award
      University of Southern California, (GPA 4.0)1991PHI KAPPA PHI, All-University Honor Society
      University of Southern California1990Certificate for Outstanding Academic Achievement

       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
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       In The News

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Li J, Parada C, Chai Y. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of tooth root development. Development. 2017 Feb 01; 144(3):374-384..
        View in: PubMed
      2. Tian H, Feng J, Li J, Ho TV, Yuan Y, Liu Y, Brindopke F, Figueiredo JC, Magee W, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) is crucial for craniofacial development in mice and is a candidate gene for human cleft lip and palate. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jan 09..
        View in: PubMed
      3. Park S, Zhao H, Urata M, Chai Y. Sutures possess strong regenerative capacity for calvarial bone injury. Stem Cells Dev. 2016 Oct 20..
        View in: PubMed
      4. Sun Z, Yu W, Navarro MS, Sweat M, Eliason S, Sharp T, Liu H, Seidel K, Zhang L, Moreno M, Lynch T, Holton NE, Rogers L, Neff T, Goodheart MJ, Michon F, Klein OD, Chai Y, Dupuy A, Engelhardt JF, Chen Z, Amendt BA. Sox2 and Lef-1 interact with Pitx2 to regulate incisor development and stem cell renewal. Development. 2016 Sep 22..
        View in: PubMed
      5. Feng J, Jing J, Sanchez-Lara PA, Bootwalla MS, Buckley J, Wu N, Yan Y, Chai Y. Generation and characterization of tamoxifen-inducible Pax9-CreER knock-in mice using CrispR/Cas9. Genesis. 2016 Sep; 54(9):490-6.; NIHMSID: NIHMS800050 [Available on 09/01/17].
        View in: PubMed
      6. Zhao J, Lei YM, Chai YQ, Yuan R, Zhuo Y. Novel electrochemiluminescence of perylene derivative and its application to mercury ion detection based on a dual amplification strategy. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016 Dec 15; 86:720-7..
        View in: PubMed
      7. Brinkley JF, Fisher S, Harris MP, Holmes G, Hooper JE, Jabs EW, Jones KL, Kesselman C, Klein OD, Maas RL, Marazita ML, Selleri L, Spritz RA, van Bakel H, Visel A, Williams TJ, Wysocka J. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers. Development. 2016 Jul 15; 143(14):2677-88..
        View in: PubMed
      8. Gao YL, Chai YF, Qi AL, Yao Y, Liu YC, Dong N, Wang LJ, Yao YM. Neuropilin-1highCD4?CD25? Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Primary Negative Immunoregulation in Sepsis. Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:7132158.; PMCID: PMC4863118.
        View in: PubMed
        View in: PubMed Central
      9. Burg ML, Chai Y, Yao CA, Magee W, Figueiredo JC. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Treatment of Isolated Cleft Palate. Front Physiol. 2016; 7:67..
        View in: PubMed
      10. Grimaldi A, Parada C, Chai Y. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0145018..
        View in: PubMed
      11. Parada C, Chai Y. Mandible and Tongue Development. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2015; 115:31-58..
        View in: PubMed
      12. Parada C, Han D, Grimaldi A, Sarrión P, Park SS, Pelikan R, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Disruption of the ERK/MAPK pathway in neural crest cells as a potential cause of Pierre Robin sequence. Development. 2015 Nov 1; 142(21):3734-45..
        View in: PubMed
      13. Liu Y, Feng J, Li J, Zhao H, Ho TV, Chai Y. An Nfic-hedgehog signaling cascade regulates tooth root development. Development. 2015 Oct 1; 142(19):3374-82..
        View in: PubMed
      14. Li J, Feng J, Liu Y, Ho TV, Grimes W, Ho HA, Park S, Wang S, Chai Y. BMP-SHH Signaling Network Controls Epithelial Stem Cell Fate via Regulation of Its Niche in the Developing Tooth. Dev Cell. 2015 Apr 20; 33(2):125-35..
        View in: PubMed
      15. Zhao H, Feng J, Ho TV, Grimes W, Urata M, Chai Y. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Apr; 17(4):386-96..
        View in: PubMed
      16. Kim TH, Bae CH, Lee JY, Lee JC, Ko SO, Chai Y, Cho ES. Temporo-spatial requirement of Smad4 in dentin formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Apr 17; 459(4):706-12..
        View in: PubMed
      17. Ho TV, Iwata J, Ho HA, Grimes WC, Park S, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Integration of comprehensive 3D microCT and signaling analysis reveals differential regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial bone development. Dev Biol. 2015 Apr 15; 400(2):180-90..
        View in: PubMed
      18. Shen WJ, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Yang ZH, Han J, Yuan R. Enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest nanonets catalyzing amplification for procalcitonin detection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Feb 25; 7(7):4127-34..
        View in: PubMed
      19. Han J, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Xiang Y, Yuan R. New type of redox nanoprobe: c60-based nanomaterial and its application in electrochemical immunoassay for doping detection. Anal Chem. 2015 Feb 3; 87(3):1669-75..
        View in: PubMed
      20. Chai Y. Preface. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2015; 115:xix-xxi..
        View in: PubMed
      21. Slavkin HC, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y, Urata M. A model for interprofessional health care: lessons learned from craniofacial teams. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2014 Sep; 42(9):637-44..
        View in: PubMed
      22. Han A, Zhao H, Li J, Pelikan R, Chai Y. ALK5-Mediated Transforming Growth Factor ß Signaling in Neural Crest Cells Controls Craniofacial Muscle Development via Tissue-Tissue Interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Aug 15; 34(16):3120-31..
        View in: PubMed
      23. Zhao H, Feng J, Seidel K, Shi S, Klein O, Sharpe P, Chai Y. Secretion of shh by a neurovascular bundle niche supports mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis in the adult mouse incisor. Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Feb 6; 14(2):160-73..
        View in: PubMed
      24. Iwata J, Suzuki A, Yokota T, Ho TV, Pelikan R, Urata M, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. TGFß regulates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions through WNT signaling activity to control muscle development in the soft palate. Development. 2014 Feb; 141(4):909-17..
        View in: PubMed
      25. Zhang S, Tang C, Zhao Q, Li J, Yang L, Qie L, Fan X, Li L, Zhang N, Zhao M, Liu X, Chai Y, Zhang X, Wang H, Li Y, Li W, Zhi H, Jia G, Diao X. Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv]. BMC Genomics. 2014; 15(1):78..
        View in: PubMed
      26. Zhuo Y, Liao N, Chai YQ, Gui GF, Zhao M, Han J, Xiang Y, Yuan R. Ultrasensitive apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 immunosensing based on self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence of a Ru(II) complex. Anal Chem. 2014 Jan 21; 86(2):1053-60..
        View in: PubMed
      27. Iwata J, Suzuki A, Pelikan RC, Ho TV, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Modulation of lipid metabolic defects rescues cleft palate in Tgfbr2 mutant mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jan 1; 23(1):182-93..
        View in: PubMed
      28. Iwata J, Suzuki A, Pelikan RC, Ho TV, Chai Y. Noncanonical transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling in cranial neural crest cells causes tongue muscle developmental defects. J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 11; 288(41):29760-70..
        View in: PubMed
      29. Parada C, Li J, Iwata J, Suzuki A, Chai Y. CTGF mediates Smad-dependent transforming growth factor ß signaling to regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation during palate development. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Sep; 33(17):3482-93..
        View in: PubMed
      30. Xie WB, Li Z, Shi N, Guo X, Tang J, Ju W, Han J, Liu T, Bottinger EP, Chai Y, Jose PA, Chen SY. Smad2 and myocardin-related transcription factor B cooperatively regulate vascular smooth muscle differentiation from neural crest cells. Circ Res. 2013 Sep 27; 113(8):e76-86..
        View in: PubMed
      31. Mima J, Koshino A, Oka K, Uchida H, Hieda Y, Nohara K, Kogo M, Chai Y, Sakai T. Regulation of the epithelial adhesion molecule CEACAM1 is important for palate formation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61653..
        View in: PubMed
      32. Gui G, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Liao N, Zhao M, Han J, Zhu Q, Yuan R, Xiang Y. Supersandwich-type electrochemiluminescenct aptasensor based on Ru(phen)3(2+) functionalized hollow gold nanoparticles as signal-amplifying tags. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Sep 15; 47:524-9..
        View in: PubMed
      33. Pelikan RC, Iwata J, Suzuki A, Chai Y, Hacia JG. Identification of candidate downstream targets of TGFß signaling during palate development by genome-wide transcript profiling. J Cell Biochem. 2013 Apr; 114(4):796-807..
        View in: PubMed
      34. Song Z, Liu C, Iwata J, Gu S, Suzuki A, Sun C, He W, Shu R, Li L, Chai Y, Chen Y. Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development. J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12; 288(15):10440-50..
        View in: PubMed
      35. Liao N, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Xiang Y, Han J, Yuan R. Reagentless electrochemiluminescent detection of protein biomarker using graphene-based magnetic nanoprobes and poly-L-lysine as co-reactant. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Jul 15; 45:189-94..
        View in: PubMed
      36. Iwata J, Suzuki A, Pelikan RC, Ho TV, Sanchez-Lara PA, Urata M, Dixon MJ, Chai Y. Smad4-Irf6 genetic interaction and TGFß-mediated IRF6 signaling cascade are crucial for palatal fusion in mice. Development. 2013 Mar; 140(6):1220-30..
        View in: PubMed
      37. Huang XF, Chai Y. Molecular regulatory mechanism of tooth root development. Int J Oral Sci. 2012 Dec; 4(4):177-81..
        View in: PubMed
      38. Parada C, Chai Y. Roles of BMP Signaling Pathway in Lip and Palate Development. Front Oral Biol. 2012; 16:60-70..
        View in: PubMed
      39. Stephens H, Jensen B, Carpiaux W, Sedghizadeh P, Chai Y. A collaborative approach to advance student research at the University of Southern California. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2012 May; 40(5):433-6, 438-9..
        View in: PubMed
      40. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia JG, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGFß-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012 May; 139(9):1640-50..
        View in: PubMed
      41. Iwata J, Hacia JG, Suzuki A, Sanchez-Lara PA, Urata M, Chai Y. Modulation of noncanonical TGF-ß signaling prevents cleft palate in Tgfbr2 mutant mice. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar 1; 122(3):873-85..
        View in: PubMed
      42. Iwata J, Tung L, Urata M, Hacia JG, Pelikan R, Suzuki A, Ramenzoni L, Chaudhry O, Parada C, Sanchez-Lara PA, Chai Y. Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9)-Pituitary Homeobox 2 (PITX2) Pathway Mediates Transforming Growth Factor ß (TGFß) Signaling to Regulate Cell Proliferation in Palatal Mesenchyme during Mouse Palatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 20; 287(4):2353-63..
        View in: PubMed
      43. Han J, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Yuan YL, Yuan R. Novel electrochemical catalysis as signal amplified strategy for label-free detection of neuron-specific enolase. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012 Jan 15; 31(1):399-405..
        View in: PubMed
      44. Hung Y, Huang X, Chai Y. Molecular regulatory mechanism of root development. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2011 May; 39(5):321-4..
        View in: PubMed
      45. Li J, Huang X, Xu X, Mayo J, Bringas P, Jiang R, Wang S, Chai Y. SMAD4-mediated WNT signaling controls the fate of cranial neural crest cells during tooth morphogenesis. Development. 2011 May; 138(10):1977-89..
        View in: PubMed
      46. Hochheiser H, Aronow BJ, Artinger K, Beaty TH, Brinkley JF, Chai Y, Clouthier D, Cunningham ML, Dixon M, Donahue LR, Fraser SE, Hallgrimsson B, Iwata J, Klein O, Marazita ML, Murray JC, Murray S, de Villena FP, Postlethwait J, Potter S, Shapiro L, Spritz R, Visel A, Weinberg SM, Trainor PA. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research. Dev Biol. 2011 Jul 15; 355(2):175-82..
        View in: PubMed
      47. Han J, Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Mao L, Yuan YL, Yuan R. Highly conducting gold nanoparticles-graphene nanohybrid films for ultrasensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Talanta. 2011 Jul 15; 85(1):130-5..
        View in: PubMed
      48. Zhao H, Li S, Han D, Kaartinen V, Chai Y. Alk5-mediated transforming growth factor ß signaling acts upstream of fibroblast growth factor 10 to regulate the proliferation and maintenance of dental epithelial stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 May; 31(10):2079-89..
        View in: PubMed
      49. Zhuo Y, Chai YQ, Yuan R, Mao L, Yuan YL, Han J. Glucose oxidase and ferrocene labels immobilized at Au/TiO2 nanocomposites with high load amount and activity for sensitive immunoelectrochemical measurement of ProGRP biomarker. Biosens Bioelectron. 2011 May 15; 26(9):3838-44..
        View in: PubMed
      50. Chung IH, Han J, Iwata J, Chai Y. Msx1 and Dlx5 function synergistically to regulate frontal bone development. Genesis. 2010 Nov; 48(11):645-55..
        View in: PubMed
      51. Jinno H, Morozova O, Jones KL, Biernaskie JA, Paris M, Hosokawa R, Rudnicki MA, Chai Y, Rossi F, Marra MA, Miller FD. Convergent genesis of an adult neural crest-like dermal stem cell from distinct developmental origins. Stem Cells. 2010 Nov; 28(11):2027-40..
        View in: PubMed
      52. He F, Xiong W, Wang Y, Matsui M, Yu X, Chai Y, Klingensmith J, Chen Y. Modulation of BMP signaling by Noggin is required for the maintenance of palatal epithelial integrity during palatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010 Nov 1; 347(1):109-21..
        View in: PubMed
      53. Huang X, Xu X, Bringas P, Hung YP, Chai Y. Smad4-Shh-Nfic signaling cascade-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal interaction is crucial in regulating tooth root development. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 May; 25(5):1167-78..
        View in: PubMed
      54. Lu L, Wang J, Zhang F, Chai Y, Brand D, Wang X, Horwitz DA, Shi W, Zheng SG. Role of SMAD and non-SMAD signals in the development of Th17 and regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2010 Apr 15; 184(8):4295-306..
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hosokawa R, Oka K, Yamaza T, Iwata J, Urata M, Xu X, Bringas P, Nonaka K, Chai Y. TGF-beta mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010 May 1; 341(1):186-95..
        View in: PubMed
      56. Chai Y. Towards a molecular understanding of cleft palate. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Feb 18; 42(1):9-13..
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      57. Huang XF, Chai Y. TGF-ß signalling and tooth development. Chin J Dent Res. 2010; 13(1):7-15..
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      58. Iwata J, Hosokawa R, Sanchez-Lara PA, Urata M, Slavkin H, Chai Y. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates basal transcriptional regulatory machinery to control cell proliferation and differentiation in cranial neural crest-derived osteoprogenitor cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 Feb 12; 285(7):4975-82..
        View in: PubMed
      59. Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas RL, Rubenstein JL, Chai Y. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice. Development. 2009 Dec; 136(24):4225-33..
        View in: PubMed
      60. Huang X, Bringas P, Slavkin HC, Chai Y. Fate of HERS during tooth root development. Dev Biol. 2009 Oct 1; 334(1):22-30..
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      61. Hosokawa R, Deng X, Takamori K, Xu X, Urata M, Bringas P, Chai Y. Epithelial-specific requirement of FGFR2 signaling during tooth and palate development. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2009 Jun 15; 312B(4):343-50..
        View in: PubMed
      62. Noh T, Gabet Y, Cogan J, Shi Y, Tank A, Sasaki T, Criswell B, Dixon A, Lee C, Tam J, Kohler T, Segev E, Kockeritz L, Woodgett J, Müller R, Chai Y, Smith E, Bab I, Frenkel B. Lef1 haploinsufficient mice display a low turnover and low bone mass phenotype in a gender- and age-specific manner. PLoS One. 2009; 4(5):e5438..
        View in: PubMed
      63. Chung IH, Yamaza T, Zhao H, Choung PH, Shi S, Chai Y. Stem cell property of postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and their utility in alveolar bone regeneration and tooth development. Stem Cells. 2009 Apr; 27(4):866-77..
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      64. Shi S, Chai Y, Slavkin H. Emerging opportunities for the next generation of dental implants? Dent Today. 2009 Mar; 28(3):98-9..
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      65. Zhang Z, Lan Y, Chai Y, Jiang R. Antagonistic actions of Msx1 and Osr2 pattern mammalian teeth into a single row. Science. 2009 Feb 27; 323(5918):1232-4..
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      66. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Deng C, Chai Y. Ectodermal Smad4 and p38 MAPK are functionally redundant in mediating TGF-beta/BMP signaling during tooth and palate development. Dev Cell. 2008 Aug; 15(2):322-9..
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      67. Yamamoto S, Fukumoto E, Yoshizaki K, Iwamoto T, Yamada A, Tanaka K, Suzuki H, Aizawa S, Arakaki M, Yuasa K, Oka K, Chai Y, Nonaka K, Fukumoto S. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor regulates salivary gland morphogenesis via fibroblast growth factor expression. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 22; 283(34):23139-49..
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      68. Anthwal N, Chai Y, Tucker AS. The role of transforming growth factor-beta signalling in the patterning of the proximal processes of the murine dentary. Dev Dyn. 2008 Jun; 237(6):1604-13..
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      69. Xing Y, Li C, Hu L, Tiozzo C, Li M, Chai Y, Bellusci S, Anderson S, Minoo P. Mechanisms of TGFbeta inhibition of LUNG endodermal morphogenesis: the role of TbetaRII, Smads, Nkx2.1 and Pten. Dev Biol. 2008 Aug 15; 320(2):340-50..
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      70. Oka K, Oka S, Hosokawa R, Bringas P, Brockhoff HC, Nonaka K, Chai Y. TGF-beta mediated Dlx5 signaling plays a crucial role in osteo-chondroprogenitor cell lineage determination during mandible development. Dev Biol. 2008 Sep 15; 321(2):303-9..
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      71. Zhao H, Oka K, Bringas P, Kaartinen V, Chai Y. TGF-beta type I receptor Alk5 regulates tooth initiation and mandible patterning in a type II receptor-independent manner. Dev Biol. 2008 Aug 1; 320(1):19-29..
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      72. De Langhe SP, Carraro G, Tefft D, Li C, Xu X, Chai Y, Minoo P, Hajihosseini MK, Drouin J, Kaartinen V, Bellusci S. Formation and differentiation of multiple mesenchymal lineages during lung development is regulated by beta-catenin signaling. PLoS One. 2008; 3(1):e1516..
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      73. Zehnaly A, Hosokawa R, Urata M, Chai Y. TGF-beta signaling and aplasia cutis congenita: proposed animal model. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007 Dec; 35(12):865-9..
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      74. Ko SO, Chung IH, Xu X, Oka S, Zhao H, Cho ES, Deng C, Chai Y. Smad4 is required to regulate the fate of cranial neural crest cells. Dev Biol. 2007 Dec 1; 312(1):435-47..
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      75. Hosokawa R, Urata M, Han J, Zehnaly A, Bringas P, Nonaka K, Chai Y. TGF-beta mediated Msx2 expression controls occipital somites-derived caudal region of skull development. Dev Biol. 2007 Oct 1; 310(1):140-53..
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      76. Pemberton TJ, Li FY, Oka S, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Hsu YH, Bringas P, Chai Y, Snead ML, Mehrian-Shai R, Patel PI. Identification of novel genes expressed during mouse tooth development by microarray gene expression analysis. Dev Dyn. 2007 Aug; 236(8):2245-57..
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      77. Han J, Ishii M, Bringas P, Maas RL, Maxson RE, Chai Y. Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev. 2007 Sep-Oct; 124(9-10):729-45..
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      78. Oka S, Oka K, Xu X, Sasaki T, Bringas P, Chai Y. Cell autonomous requirement for TGF-beta signaling during odontoblast differentiation and dentin matrix formation. Mech Dev. 2007 Jul; 124(6):409-15..
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      79. Driskell RR, Goodheart M, Neff T, Liu X, Luo M, Moothart C, Sigmund CD, Hosokawa R, Chai Y, Engelhardt JF. Wnt3a regulates Lef-1 expression during airway submucosal gland morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007 May 1; 305(1):90-102..
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      80. Oka K, Oka S, Sasaki T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Nonaka K, Chai Y. The role of TGF-beta signaling in regulating chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1; 303(1):391-404..
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      81. Chai Y, Maxson RE. Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006 Sep; 235(9):2353-75..
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      82. Dudas M, Kim J, Li WY, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, Chai Y, Kaartinen V. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006 Aug 15; 296(2):298-314..
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      83. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Urata MM, Chai Y. Cell autonomous requirement for Tgfbr2 in the disappearance of medial edge epithelium during palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006 Sep 1; 297(1):238-48..
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      84. Zhao H, Bringas P, Chai Y. An in vitro model for characterizing the post-migratory cranial neural crest cells of the first branchial arch. Dev Dyn. 2006 May; 235(5):1433-40..
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      85. Sasaki T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chou S, Urata MM, Slavkin H, Chai Y. TGFbeta-mediated FGF signaling is crucial for regulating cranial neural crest cell proliferation during frontal bone development. Development. 2006 Jan; 133(2):371-81..
        View in: PubMed
      86. Choudhary B, Ito Y, Makita T, Sasaki T, Chai Y, Sucov HM. Cardiovascular malformations with normal smooth muscle differentiation in neural crest-specific type II TGFbeta receptor (Tgfbr2) mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2006 Jan 15; 289(2):420-9..
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      87. Hosokawa R, Urata MM, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chai Y. Functional significance of Smad2 in regulating basal keratinocyte migration during wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Dec; 125(6):1302-9..
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      88. Ishii M, Han J, Yen HY, Sucov HM, Chai Y, Maxson RE. Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development. 2005 Nov; 132(22):4937-50..
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      89. Plikus MV, Zeichner-David M, Mayer JA, Reyna J, Bringas P, Thewissen JG, Snead ML, Chai Y, Chuong CM. Morphoregulation of teeth: modulating the number, size, shape and differentiation by tuning Bmp activity. Evol Dev. 2005 Sep-Oct; 7(5):440-57..
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      90. Sasaki T, Ito Y, Xu X, Han J, Bringas P, Maeda T, Slavkin HC, Grosschedl R, Chai Y. LEF1 is a critical epithelial survival factor during tooth morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005 Feb 1; 278(1):130-43..
        View in: PubMed
      91. Cui XM, Shiomi N, Chen J, Saito T, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chai Y, Shuler CF. Overexpression of Smad2 in Tgf-beta3-null mutant mice rescues cleft palate. Dev Biol. 2005 Feb 1; 278(1):193-202..
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      92. Xu X, Bringas P, Soriano P, Chai Y. PDGFR-alpha signaling is critical for tooth cusp and palate morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005 Jan; 232(1):75-84..
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      93. Jamora C, Lee P, Kocieniewski P, Azhar M, Hosokawa R, Chai Y, Fuchs E. A signaling pathway involving TGF-beta2 and snail in hair follicle morphogenesis. PLoS Biol. 2005 Jan; 3(1):e11..
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      94. Ito Y, Yeo JY, Chytil A, Han J, Bringas P, Nakajima A, Shuler CF, Moses HL, Chai Y. Conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in cranial neural crest causes cleft palate and calvaria defects. Development. 2003 Nov; 130(21):5269-80..
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      95. Han J, Ito Y, Yeo JY, Sucov HM, Maas R, Chai Y. Cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal proliferation is regulated by Msx1-mediated p19(INK4d) expression during odontogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003 Sep 1; 261(1):183-96..
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      96. Cui XM, Chai Y, Chen J, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Shuler CF. TGF-beta3-dependent SMAD2 phosphorylation and inhibition of MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. Dev Dyn. 2003 Jul; 227(3):387-94..
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      97. Zhang Y, Wang S, Song Y, Han J, Chai Y, Chen Y. Timing of odontogenic neural crest cell migration and tooth-forming capability in mice. Dev Dyn. 2003 Apr; 226(4):713-8..
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      98. Chai Y, Slavkin HC. Prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century: a perspective. Microsc Res Tech. 2003 Apr 1; 60(5):469-79..
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      99. Xu X, Jeong L, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chai Y. Developmental expression of Smad1-7 suggests critical function of TGF-beta/BMP signaling in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during tooth morphogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2003 Feb; 47(1):31-9..
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      100. Chai Y, Ito Y, Han J. TGF-beta signaling and its functional significance in regulating the fate of cranial neural crest cells. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003; 14(2):78-88..
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      101. Jitpukdeebodintra S, Chai Y, Snead ML. Developmental patterning of the circumvallate papilla. Int J Dev Biol. 2002 Aug; 46(5):755-63..
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      102. Ito Y, Bringas P, Mogharei A, Zhao J, Deng C, Chai Y. Receptor-regulated and inhibitory Smads are critical in regulating transforming growth factor beta-mediated Meckel's cartilage development. Dev Dyn. 2002 May; 224(1):69-78..
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      103. Jaskoll T, Zhou YM, Chai Y, Makarenkova HP, Collinson JM, West JD, Hajihosseini MK, Lee J, Melnick M. Embryonic submandibular gland morphogenesis: stage-specific protein localization of FGFs, BMPs, Pax6 and Pax9 in normal mice and abnormal SMG phenotypes in FgfR2-IIIc(+/Delta), BMP7(-/-) and Pax6(-/-) mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2002; 170(2-3):83-98..
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