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    Tracy C. Grikscheit, MD

    TitleAssociate Professor of Surgery
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentPediatrics
    AddressCHL Mail Stop 72
    Off Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089
    Phone+1 323 361 5901
    Emailtgrikscheit@chla.usc.edu
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      Dr. Grikscheit is a practicing pediatric surgeon and scientist with a laboratory focused on regenerative medicine and tissue engineering at in The Saban Research Institute at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. In the hospital, she cares for children who are born prematurely, and therefore are at increased risk for multiple medical conditions that may lead to intestinal lack or loss. One of these conditions is necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a potentially life-threatening intestinal problem. For the most severe cases of NEC, the only solution is surgical removal of the small intestine. However, this option leaves the baby dependent on intravenous feeding and the child is also at risk for liver damage from subsequent intravenous nutrition. Another option is small bowel transplantation, but graft and patient survival rates are still too low.

      Dr. Grikscheit, a member of The Saban Research Institute's Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine program, envisions a better solution. The small intestine is an exquisitely regenerative organ. It is an elegant model to better understand organ-specific stem cells and the regenerative cells can be harnessed to make new gastrointestinal tissue for eventual clinical applications. Understanding how to generate tissue-engineered intestines, whether esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon, may also inform us how to expand the list of organs that can be tissue-engineered.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Schlieve CR, Fowler KL, Thornton M, Huang S, Hajjali I, Hou X, Grubbs B, Spence JR, Grikscheit T. Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine. Stem Cell Reports. 2017 Sep 12; 9(3):883-896. PMID: 28803915.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Trecartin A, Grikscheit T. Tissue Engineering Functional Gastrointestinal Regions: The Importance of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Mar 20. PMID: 28320829.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Danopoulos S, Schlieve CR, Grikscheit T, Al Alam D. Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Twists and Turns. Dev Dyn. 2017 Apr; 246(4):344-352. PMID: 28198118.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Schall KA, Thornton ME, Isani M, Holoyda KA, Hou X, Lien CL, Grubbs BH, Grikscheit T. Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017 Jan 25; 18(1):23. PMID: 28118819.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Wieck MM, Schlieve CR, Thornton ME, Fowler KL, Isani M, Grant CN, Hilton AE, Hou X, Grubbs BH, Frey MR, Grikscheit T. Prolonged Absence of Mechanoluminal Stimulation in Human Intestine Alters the Transcriptome and Intestinal Stem Cell Niche. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 May; 3(3):367-388.e1. PMID: 28462379.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Schlieve CR, Grikscheit T. Created of Warm Blood and Nerves: Restoring an Enteric Nervous System in Organoids. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 01 05; 20(1):5-7. PMID: 28061353.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Isani M, Schlieve C, Salisbury T, Khuu T, Debelius JW, Moats RA, Pollack HA, Lien CL, Fowler K, Hou X, Knight R, Grikscheit T. Intestinal adaptation in proximal and distal segments: Two epithelial responses diverge after intestinal separation. Surgery. 2017 Apr; 161(4):1016-1027. PMID: 28011012.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Trecartin A, Danopoulos S, Spurrier R, Knaneh-Monem H, Hiatt M, Driscoll B, Hochstim C, Al-Alam D, Grikscheit T. Establishing Proximal and Distal Regional Identities in Murine and Human Tissue-Engineered Lung and Trachea. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2016 Nov; 22(11):1049-1057. PMID: 27796199.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Isani M, Lien CL, Al Alam D, Grikscheit T. Inhibition of Fgf signaling in short bowel syndrome increases weight loss and epithelial proliferation. Surgery. 2017 Mar; 161(3):694-703. PMID: 27771159.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Mavila N, Trecartin A, Spurrier R, Xiao Y, Hou X, James D, Fu X, Truong B, Wang C, Lipshutz GS, Wang KS, Grikscheit T. Functional Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Liver Is Generated from Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Jan; 6(1):238-248. PMID: 28170183.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Mavila N, Trecartin A, Spurrier R, Xiao Y, Hou X, James D, Fu X, Truong B, Wang C, Lipshutz GS, Wang KS, Grikscheit T. Functional Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Liver Is Generated From Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Aug 30. PMID: 27577096.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Wieck MM, Debelius JW, Spurrier RG, Trecartin A, Knight R, Grikscheit T. The pediatric intestinal mucosal microbiome remains altered after clinical resolution of inflammatory and ischemic disease. Surgery. 2016 Aug; 160(2):350-8. PMID: 27302104.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Schlieve CR, Mojica SG, Holoyda KA, Hou X, Fowler KL, Grikscheit T. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151396. PMID: 26978773; PMCID: PMC4792464.
      14. Wieck MM, Spurrier RG, Levin DE, Mojica SG, Hiatt MJ, Reddy R, Hou X, Navarro S, Lee J, Lundin A, Driscoll B, Grikscheit T. Sequestration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induces Late Restrictive Lung Disease. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148323. PMID: 26863115; PMCID: PMC4749176.
      15. Fattahi F, Steinbeck JA, Kriks S, Tchieu J, Zimmer B, Kishinevsky S, Zeltner N, Mica Y, El-Nachef W, Zhao H, de Stanchina E, Gershon MD, Grikscheit T, Chen S, Studer L. Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease. Nature. 2016 Mar 03; 531(7592):105-9. PMID: 26863197; PMCID: PMC4846424.
      16. Wieck MM, El-Nachef WN, Hou X, Spurrier RG, Holoyda KA, Schall KA, Mojica SG, Collins MK, Trecartin A, Cheng Z, Frykman PK, Grikscheit T. Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Colon Exhibit Diverse Neuronal Subtypes and Can Be Populated by Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells When Donor Colon Is Aganglionic. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016 Jan; 22(1-2):53-64. PMID: 26414777; PMCID: PMC4948202 [Available on 01/01/17].
      17. Finkbeiner SR, Freeman JJ, Wieck MM, El-Nachef W, Altheim CH, Tsai YH, Huang S, Dyal R, White ES, Grikscheit T, Teitelbaum DH, Spence JR. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids. Biol Open. 2015 Oct 12; 4(11):1462-72. PMID: 26459240; PMCID: PMC4728347.
      18. Schall KA, Holoyda KA, Grant CN, Levin DE, Torres ER, Maxwell A, Pollack HA, Moats RA, Frey MR, Darehzereshki A, Al Alam D, Lien C, Grikscheit T. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Aug 01; 309(3):G135-45. PMID: 26089336; PMCID: PMC4525108.
      19. Al Alam D, Danopoulos S, Schall K, Sala FG, Almohazey D, Fernandez GE, Georgia S, Frey MR, Ford HR, Grikscheit T, Bellusci S. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G678-90. PMID: 25721301; PMCID: PMC4398841.
      20. Worthley DL, Churchill M, Compton JT, Tailor Y, Rao M, Si Y, Levin D, Schwartz MG, Uygur A, Hayakawa Y, Gross S, Renz BW, Setlik W, Martinez AN, Chen X, Nizami S, Lee HG, Kang HP, Caldwell JM, Asfaha S, Westphalen CB, Graham T, Jin G, Nagar K, Wang H, Kheirbek MA, Kolhe A, Carpenter J, Glaire M, Nair A, Renders S, Manieri N, Muthupalani S, Fox JG, Reichert M, Giraud AS, Schwabe RF, Pradere JP, Walton K, Prakash A, Gumucio D, Rustgi AK, Stappenbeck TS, Friedman RA, Gershon MD, Sims P, Grikscheit T, Lee FY, Karsenty G, Mukherjee S, Wang TC. Gremlin 1 identifies a skeletal stem cell with bone, cartilage, and reticular stromal potential. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):269-84. PMID: 25594183; PMCID: PMC4436082.
      21. Grant CN, Mojica SG, Sala FG, Hill JR, Levin DE, Speer AL, Barthel ER, Shimada H, Zachos NC, Grikscheit T. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G664-77. PMID: 25573173; PMCID: PMC4398842.
      22. Spurrier RG, Speer AL, Hou X, El-Nachef WN, Grikscheit T. Murine and human tissue-engineered esophagus form from sufficient stem/progenitor cells and do not require microdesigned biomaterials. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015 Mar; 21(5-6):906-15. PMID: 25298083; PMCID: PMC4356247.
      23. Belchior GG, Sogayar MC, Grikscheit T. Stem cells and biopharmaceuticals: vital roles in the growth of tissue-engineered small intestine. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):141-9. PMID: 24994528.
        View in: PubMed
      24. El-Nachef W, Grikscheit T. Enteric nervous system cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung disease: beyond tissue-engineered intestine. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 24(3):214-8. PMID: 24870947.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Spurrier RG, Speer AL, Grant CN, Levin DE, Grikscheit T. Vitrification preserves murine and human donor cells for generation of tissue-engineered intestine. J Surg Res. 2014 Aug; 190(2):399-406. PMID: 24857678.
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      26. De Coppi P, Grikscheit T. Regenerative medicine: is this the biggest change in surgery? Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):103-5. PMID: 24994522.
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      27. Barthel ER, Pierce JR, Speer AL, Levin DE, Goodhue CJ, Ford HR, Grikscheit T, Upperman JS. Delayed family reunification of pediatric disaster survivors increases mortality and inpatient hospital costs: a simulation study. J Surg Res. 2013 Sep; 184(1):430-7. PMID: 23827792.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Grant CN, Grikscheit T. Tissue engineering: a promising therapeutic approach to necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 May; 22(2):112-6. PMID: 23611615.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Torashima Y, Levin DE, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Sala FG, Hou X, Grikscheit T. Fgf10 overexpression enhances the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016 Feb; 10(2):132-9. PMID: 23468377.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Spurrier RG, Grikscheit T. Tissue engineering the small intestine. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Apr; 11(4):354-8. PMID: 23380001.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Levin DE, Sala FG, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Hou X, Torashima Y, Grikscheit T. A "living bioreactor" for the production of tissue-engineered small intestine. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1001:299-309. PMID: 23494439.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Levin DE, Barthel ER, Speer AL, Sala FG, Hou X, Torashima Y, Grikscheit T. Human tissue-engineered small intestine forms from postnatal progenitor cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Jan; 48(1):129-37. PMID: 23331805.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Giuliani S, Marachelian A, Franklin A, Shimada H, Grikscheit T. Forearm skeletal muscle neuroblastoma in a child: a rare primary location. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Jan; 35(1):61-3. PMID: 23249961.
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      34. Barthel ER, Speer AL, Levin DE, Sala FG, Hou X, Torashima Y, Wigfall CM, Grikscheit T. Tissue engineering of the intestine in a murine model. J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 01; (70):e4279. PMID: 23222891; PMCID: PMC3565850.
      35. Pierce JR, Sharma SS, Hunter CJ, Bhombal S, Fagan B, Corchado Y, Grikscheit T, Bushman GA. Intraoperative hypercyanosis in a patient with pulmonary artery band: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2012 Dec; 24(8):652-5. PMID: 23164642.
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      36. Barthel ER, Levin DE, Speer AL, Sala FG, Torashima Y, Hou X, Grikscheit T. Human tissue-engineered colon forms from postnatal progenitor cells: an in vivo murine model. Regen Med. 2012 Nov; 7(6):807-18. PMID: 23164081.
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      37. Speer AL, Al Alam D, Sala FG, Ford HR, Bellusci S, Grikscheit T. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49127. PMID: 23133671; PMCID: PMC3486796.
      38. Barthel ER, Speer AL, Levin DE, Naik-Mathuria BJ, Grikscheit T. Giant cystic meconium peritonitis presenting in a neonate with classic radiographic eggshell calcifications and treated with an elective surgical approach: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012 Aug 02; 6:229. PMID: 22857611; PMCID: PMC3443658.
      39. Al Alam D, Sala FG, Baptista S, Galzote R, Danopoulos S, Tiozzo C, Gage P, Grikscheit T, Warburton D, Frey MR, Bellusci S. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2012 Sep 15; 369(2):340-8. PMID: 22819677; PMCID: PMC3725282.
      40. Levin DE, Grikscheit T. Tissue-engineering of the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 24(3):365-70. PMID: 22450251.
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      41. Speer AL, Barthel ER, Patel MM, Grikscheit T. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a single-institution 20-year series of pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1217-22. PMID: 22703796.
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      42. Lee FL, Said N, Grikscheit T, Shin CE, Llanes A, Chmait RH. Treatment of congenital pulmonary airway malformation induced hydrops fetalis via percutaneous sclerotherapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2012; 31(4):264-8. PMID: 22354268.
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      43. Levin DE, Dreyfuss JM, Grikscheit T. Tissue-engineered small intestine. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011 Nov; 8(6):673-5. PMID: 22029464.
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      44. Barthel ER, Pierce JR, Goodhue CJ, Ford HR, Grikscheit T, Upperman JS. Availability of a pediatric trauma center in a disaster surge decreases triage time of the pediatric surge population: a population kinetics model. Theor Biol Med Model. 2011 Oct 12; 8:38. PMID: 21992575; PMCID: PMC3224559.
      45. Matthews JA, Sala FG, Speer AL, Warburton D, Grikscheit T. VEGF optimizes the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. Regen Med. 2011 Sep; 6(5):559-67. PMID: 21916592.
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      46. Matthews JA, Sala FG, Speer AL, Li Y, Warburton D, Grikscheit T. Mesenchymal-specific inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) attenuates growth in neonatal mice. J Surg Res. 2012 Jan; 172(1):40-7. PMID: 21696760.
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      47. Sala FG, Matthews JA, Speer AL, Torashima Y, Barthel ER, Grikscheit T. A multicellular approach forms a significant amount of tissue-engineered small intestine in the mouse. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Jul; 17(13-14):1841-50. PMID: 21395443; PMCID: PMC3118603.
      48. Speer AL, Sala FG, Matthews JA, Grikscheit T. Murine tissue-engineered stomach demonstrates epithelial differentiation. J Surg Res. 2011 Nov; 171(1):6-14. PMID: 21571313.
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      49. Sala FG, Del Moral PM, Tiozzo C, Alam DA, Warburton D, Grikscheit T, Veltmaat JM, Bellusci S. FGF10 controls the patterning of the tracheal cartilage rings via Shh. Development. 2011 Jan; 138(2):273-82. PMID: 21148187; PMCID: PMC3005603.
      50. Giuliani S, Franklin A, Pierce J, Ford H, Grikscheit T. Massive subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Mar; 45(3):647-9. PMID: 20223337.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Tai CC, Sala FG, Ford HR, Wang KS, Li C, Minoo P, Grikscheit T, Bellusci S. Wnt5a knock-out mouse as a new model of anorectal malformation. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):278-82. PMID: 19577771; PMCID: PMC3412158.
      52. Sala FG, Kunisaki SM, Ochoa ER, Vacanti J, Grikscheit T. Tissue-engineered small intestine and stomach form from autologous tissue in a preclinical large animal model. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):205-12. PMID: 19665143.
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      53. Guner YS, Chokshi N, Aranda A, Ochoa C, Qureshi FG, Nguyen NX, Grikscheit T, Ford HR, Stein JE, Shin CE. Thoracoscopic repair of neonatal diaphragmatic hernia. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2008 Dec; 18(6):875-80. PMID: 19105674.
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      54. Estrada JJ, Petrosyan M, Hunter CJ, Lee SL, Anselmo DM, Grikscheit T, Stein JE, Wang KS, Ford HR, Shaul DB. Preservation of extracorporeal tissue in closing gastroschisis augments intestinal length. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Dec; 43(12):2213-5. PMID: 19040937.
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      55. Guner YS, Chokshi N, Petrosyan M, Upperman JS, Ford HR, Grikscheit T. Necrotizing enterocolitis--bench to bedside: novel and emerging strategies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2008 Nov; 17(4):255-65. PMID: 19019294.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Grikscheit T, Sala FG, Ogilvie J, Bower KA, Ochoa ER, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered spleen protects against overwhelming pneumococcal sepsis in a rodent model. J Surg Res. 2008 Oct; 149(2):214-8. PMID: 18621401.
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      57. Little DC, Yoder SM, Grikscheit T, Jackson CC, Fuchs JR, McCrudden KW, Holcomb GW. Cost considerations and applicant characteristics for the Pediatric Surgery Match. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jan; 40(1):69-73; discussion 73-4. PMID: 15868561.
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      58. Grikscheit T, Siddique A, Ochoa ER, Srinivasan A, Alsberg E, Hodin RA, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered small intestine improves recovery after massive small bowel resection. Ann Surg. 2004 Nov; 240(5):748-54. PMID: 15492554; PMCID: PMC1356478.
      59. Duxbury MS, Grikscheit T, Gardner-Thorpe J, Rocha FG, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Lymphangiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Transplantation. 2004 Apr 27; 77(8):1162-6. PMID: 15114078.
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      60. Gardner-Thorpe J, Grikscheit T, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Tissue Eng. 2003 Dec; 9(6):1255-61. PMID: 14670113.
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      61. Grikscheit T, Srinivasan A, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered stomach: a preliminary report of a versatile in vivo model with therapeutic potential. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Sep; 38(9):1305-9. PMID: 14523810.
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      62. Ramsanahie A, Duxbury MS, Grikscheit T, Perez A, Rhoads DB, Gardner-Thorpe J, Ogilvie J, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Effect of GLP-2 on mucosal morphology and SGLT1 expression in tissue-engineered neointestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1345-52. PMID: 12919941.
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      63. Grikscheit T, Ochoa ER, Srinivasan A, Gaissert H, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered esophagus: experimental substitution by onlay patch or interposition. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Aug; 126(2):537-44. PMID: 12928655.
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      64. Grikscheit T. Tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal tract for surgical replacement: a nutrition tool of the future? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Aug; 62(3):739-43. PMID: 14692609.
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      65. Grikscheit T, Ochoa ER, Ramsanahie A, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Whang EE, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered large intestine resembles native colon with appropriate in vitro physiology and architecture. Ann Surg. 2003 Jul; 238(1):35-41. PMID: 12832963; PMCID: PMC1422658.
      66. Perez A, Grikscheit T, Blumberg RS, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE. Tissue-engineered small intestine: ontogeny of the immune system. Transplantation. 2002 Sep 15; 74(5):619-23. PMID: 12352876.
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      67. Grikscheit T, Ogilvie JB, Ochoa ER, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Vacanti JP. Tissue-engineered colon exhibits function in vivo. Surgery. 2002 Aug; 132(2):200-4. PMID: 12219012.
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      68. Grikscheit T, Vacanti JP. The history and current status of tissue engineering: The future of pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):277-88. PMID: 11877635.
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      69. Marvin MR, Libutti SK, Kayton M, Kao J, Hayward J, Grikscheit T, Fan Y, Brett J, Weinberg A, Nowygrod R, LoGerfo P, Feind C, Hansen KS, Schwartz M, Stern D, Chabot J. A novel tumor-derived mediator that sensitizes cytokine-resistant tumors to tumor necrosis factor. J Surg Res. 1996 Jun; 63(1):248-55. PMID: 8661206.
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      70. Kao J, Houck K, Fan Y, Haehnel I, Libutti SK, Kayton ML, Grikscheit T, Chabot J, Nowygrod R, Greenberg S. Characterization of a novel tumor-derived cytokine. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 07; 269(40):25106-19. PMID: 7929199.
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