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    Terence David Sanger, MD, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolViterbi School of Engineering, BME
    DepartmentBiomedical Engineering
    AddressDRB 140
    University Park Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-1111
    Phone+1 323 300 5970
    Emailtsanger@usc.edu
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Jalaleddini K, Niu C, Chakravarthi Raja S, Sohn WJ, Loeb G, Sanger T, Valero-Cuevas F. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, Part II: The role of fusimotor drive. J Neural Eng. 2017 Jan 17. PMID: 28094764.
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      2. Niu CM, Jalaleddini K, Sohn WJ, Rocamora J, Sanger T, Valero-Cuevas F. Neuromorphic meets Neuromechanics PART I: The Methodology and Implementation. J Neural Eng. 2017 Jan 13. PMID: 28084217.
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      3. Koy A, Lin JP, Sanger T, Marks WA, Mink JW, Timmermann L. Management of movement disorders in children - Authors' reply. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Dec; 15(13):1302-1303. PMID: 27839637.
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      4. Liyanagamage SA, Bertucco M, Bhanpuri NH, Sanger T. Scaled Vibratory Feedback Can Bias Muscle Use in Children With Dystonia During a Redundant, 1-Dimensional Myocontrol Task. J Child Neurol. 2016 Oct 25. PMID: 27798370.
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      5. Sohn WJ, Niu CM, Sanger T. A neuromorphic model of motor overflow in focal hand dystonia due to correlated sensory input. J Neural Eng. 2016 Oct; 13(5):055001. PMID: 27578228.
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      6. Marks W, Bailey L, Sanger T. PEDiDBS: The pediatric international deep brain stimulation registry project. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2017 Jan; 21(1):218-222. PMID: 27375173.
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      7. Neymotin SA, Dura-Bernal S, Lakatos P, Sanger T, Lytton WW. Multitarget Multiscale Simulation for Pharmacological Treatment of Dystonia in Motor Cortex. Front Pharmacol. 2016; 7:157. PMID: 27378922.
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      8. Koy A, Lin JP, Sanger T, Marks WA, Mink JW, Timmermann L. Advances in management of movement disorders in children. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Jun; 15(7):719-35. PMID: 27302239.
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      9. Chu VW, Park SW, Sanger T, Sternad D. Children With Dystonia Can Learn a Novel Motor Skill: Strategies That are Tolerant to High Variability. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2016 Aug; 24(8):847-858. PMID: 26829795.
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      10. Bertucco M, Bhanpuri NH, Sanger T. Perceived Cost and Intrinsic Motor Variability Modulate the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139988. PMID: 26447874.
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      11. Lunardini F, Casellato C, d'Avella A, Sanger T, Pedrocchi A. Robustness and Reliability of Synergy-Based Myocontrol of a Multiple Degree of Freedom Robotic Arm. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2016 Sep; 24(9):940-950. PMID: 26441423.
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      12. Ghoreyshi A, Sanger T. A Nonlinear Stochastic Filter for Continuous-Time State Estimation. IEEE Trans Automat Contr. 2015 Aug; 60(8):2161-2165. PMID: 26412871.
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      13. Lunardini F, Casellato C, Bertucco M, Sanger T, Pedrocchi A. Muscle synergies in children with dystonia capture "healthy" patterns regardless the altered motor performance. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015 Aug; 2015:2099-102. PMID: 26736702.
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      14. Lunardini F, Maggioni S, Casellato C, Bertucco M, Pedrocchi AL, Sanger T. Increased task-uncorrelated muscle activity in childhood dystonia. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2015; 12(1):52. PMID: 26068444.
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      15. Sohn WJ, Niu CM, Sanger T. Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study. J Neural Eng. 2015 Jun; 12(3):036010. PMID: 25946372.
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      16. Dunning A, Ghoreyshi A, Bertucco M, Sanger T. The tuning of human motor response to risk in a dynamic environment task. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0125461. PMID: 25901604.
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      17. Lunardini F, Bertucco M, Casellato C, Bhanpuri N, Pedrocchi A, Sanger T. Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in a Trajectory-Constrained Self-Feeding Task: A Quantitative Index of Unsuppressed Motor Noise in Children With Dystonia. J Child Neurol. 2015 Oct; 30(12):1676-85. PMID: 25895910.
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      18. Bhanpuri NH, Bertucco M, Young SJ, Lee AA, Sanger T. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study. J Child Neurol. 2015 Oct; 30(12):1604-15. PMID: 25792428.
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      19. Niu CM, Lee K, Houde JF, Sanger T. Vowel generation for children with cerebral palsy using myocontrol of a speech synthesizer. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:1077. PMID: 25657622.
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      20. Niu CM, Nandyala SK, Sanger T. Emulated muscle spindle and spiking afferents validates VLSI neuromorphic hardware as a testbed for sensorimotor function and disease. Front Comput Neurosci. 2014; 8:141. PMID: 25538613.
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      21. Bertucco M, Sanger T. Current and emerging strategies for treatment of childhood dystonia. J Hand Ther. 2015 Apr-Jun; 28(2):185-94. PMID: 25835254.
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      22. Sanger T. Risk-aware control. Neural Comput. 2014 Dec; 26(12):2669-91. PMID: 25149696.
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      23. Bhanpuri NH, Bertucco M, Ferman D, Young SJ, Liker MA, Krieger MD, Sanger T. Deep brain stimulation evoked potentials may relate to clinical benefit in childhood dystonia. Brain Stimul. 2014 Sep-Oct; 7(5):718-26. PMID: 25088460.
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      24. Chu VW, Sanger T. Two different motor learning mechanisms contribute to learning reaching movements in a rotated visual environment. F1000Res. 2014; 3:72. PMID: 26673417.
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      25. Sanger T, Kalaska JF. Crouching tiger, hidden dimensions. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Feb 25; 17(3):338-40. PMID: 24569828.
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      26. Olaya JE, Christian E, Ferman D, Luc Q, Krieger MD, Sanger T, Liker MA. Deep brain stimulation in children and young adults with secondary dystonia: the Children's Hospital Los Angeles experience. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Nov; 35(5):E7. PMID: 24175867.
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      27. Bertucco M, Sanger T. Speed-Accuracy Testing on the Apple iPadĀ® Provides a Quantitative Test of Upper Extremity Motor Performance in Children with Dystonia. J Child Neurol. 2014 Nov; 29(11):1460-6. PMID: 23965400.
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      28. Young SJ, Bertucco M, Sanger T. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a sham-controlled study. J Child Neurol. 2014 Feb; 29(2):232-9. PMID: 23760989.
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      29. Chu VW, Sternad D, Sanger T. Healthy and dystonic children compensate for changes in motor variability. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Apr; 109(8):2169-78. PMID: 23343896.
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      30. Young SJ, Bertucco M, Sheehan-Stross R, Sanger T. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a pilot open-label trial. J Child Neurol. 2013 Oct; 28(10):1238-44. PMID: 23034972.
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      31. Air EL, Ostrem JL, Sanger T, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulation in children: experience and technical pearls. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011 Dec; 8(6):566-74. PMID: 22132914.
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      32. Sanger T. Distributed control of uncertain systems using superpositions of linear operators. Neural Comput. 2011 Aug; 23(8):1911-34. PMID: 21521040.
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      33. Cramer SC, Sur M, Dobkin BH, O'Brien C, Sanger T, Trojanowski JQ, Rumsey JM, Hicks R, Cameron J, Chen D, Chen WG, Cohen LG, deCharms C, Duffy CJ, Eden GF, Fetz EE, Filart R, Freund M, Grant SJ, Haber S, Kalivas PW, Kolb B, Kramer AF, Lynch M, Mayberg HS, McQuillen PS, Nitkin R, Pascual-Leone A, Reuter-Lorenz P, Schiff N, Sharma A, Shekim L, Stryker M, Sullivan EV, Vinogradov S. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain. 2011 Jun; 134(Pt 6):1591-609. PMID: 21482550.
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      34. Young SJ, van Doornik J, Sanger T. Finger muscle control in children with dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 Jun; 26(7):1290-6. PMID: 21449015.
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      35. Kukke SN, Sanger T. Contributors to excess antagonist activity during movement in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy. J Neurophysiol. 2011 May; 105(5):2100-7. PMID: 21325680.
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      36. Przekop A, Sanger T. Birth-related syndromes of athetosis and kernicterus. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011; 100:387-95. PMID: 21496597.
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      37. Kurian MA, Li Y, Zhen J, Meyer E, Hai N, Christen HJ, Hoffmann GF, Jardine P, von Moers A, Mordekar SR, O'Callaghan F, Wassmer E, Wraige E, Dietrich C, Lewis T, Hyland K, Heales S, Sanger T, Gissen P, Assmann BE, Reith ME, Maher ER. Clinical and molecular characterisation of hereditary dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: an observational cohort and experimental study. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Jan; 10(1):54-62. PMID: 21112253.
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      38. Sanger T. Controlling variability. J Mot Behav. 2010 Nov; 42(6):401-7. PMID: 21184358.
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      39. Sanger T, Chen D, Fehlings DL, Hallett M, Lang AE, Mink JW, Singer HS, Alter K, Ben-Pazi H, Butler EE, Chen R, Collins A, Dayanidhi S, Forssberg H, Fowler E, Gilbert DL, Gorman SL, Gormley ME, Jinnah HA, Kornblau B, Krosschell KJ, Lehman RK, MacKinnon C, Malanga CJ, Mesterman R, Michaels MB, Pearson TS, Rose J, Russman BS, Sternad D, Swoboda KJ, Valero-Cuevas F. Definition and classification of hyperkinetic movements in childhood. Mov Disord. 2010 Aug 15; 25(11):1538-49. PMID: 20589866.
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      40. Young SJ, van Doornik J, Sanger T. Visual feedback reduces co-contraction in children with dystonia. J Child Neurol. 2011 Jan; 26(1):37-43. PMID: 20525943.
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      41. Bloom R, Przekop A, Sanger T. Prolonged electromyogram biofeedback improves upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol. 2010 Dec; 25(12):1480-4. PMID: 20525944.
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      42. Sanger T. Neuro-mechanical control using differential stochastic operators. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010; 2010:4494-7. PMID: 21095779.
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      43. Travaglini L, Brancati F, Attie-Bitach T, Audollent S, Bertini E, Kaplan J, Perrault I, Iannicelli M, Mancuso B, Rigoli L, Rozet JM, Swistun D, Tolentino J, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG, Valente EM. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Oct; 149A(10):2173-80. PMID: 19764032.
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      44. Ben-Pazi H, Ishihara A, Kukke S, Sanger T. Increasing viscosity and inertia using a robotically controlled pen improves handwriting in children. J Child Neurol. 2010 Jun; 25(6):674-80. PMID: 19794098.
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      45. Chu WT, Sanger T. Force variability during isometric biceps contraction in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy. Mov Disord. 2009 Jul 15; 24(9):1299-305. PMID: 19412940.
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      46. van Doornik J, Kukke S, Sanger T. Hypertonia in childhood secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy is associated with reflex muscle activation. Mov Disord. 2009 May 15; 24(7):965-71. PMID: 19353733.
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      47. Goetz CG, Stebbins GT, Wolff D, DeLeeuw W, Bronte-Stewart H, Elble R, Hallett M, Nutt J, Ramig L, Sanger T, Wu AD, Kraus PH, Blasucci LM, Shamim EA, Sethi KD, Spielman J, Kubota K, Grove AS, Dishman E, Taylor CB. Testing objective measures of motor impairment in early Parkinson's disease: Feasibility study of an at-home testing device. Mov Disord. 2009 Mar 15; 24(4):551-6. PMID: 19086085.
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      48. Sanger T. Is cerebral palsy a wastebasket diagnosis? J Child Neurol. 2008 Jul; 23(7):726-8. PMID: 18658072.
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      49. Sanger T. Use of surface electromyography (EMG) in the diagnosis of childhood hypertonia: a pilot study. J Child Neurol. 2008 Jun; 23(6):644-8. PMID: 18344454.
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      50. van Doornik J, Kukke S, McGill K, Rose J, Sherman-Levine S, Sanger T. Oral baclofen increases maximal voluntary neuromuscular activation of ankle plantar flexors in children with spasticity due to cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol. 2008 Jun; 23(6):635-9. PMID: 18281622.
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      51. Sanger T, Henderson J. Optimizing assisted communication devices for Children with motor impairments using a model of information rate and channel capacity. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2007 Sep; 15(3):458-68. PMID: 17894279.
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      52. Ben-Pazi H, Kukke S, Sanger T. Poor penmanship in children correlates with abnormal rhythmic tapping: a broad functional temporal impairment. J Child Neurol. 2007 May; 22(5):543-9. PMID: 17690059.
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      53. Sanger T, Bastian A, Brunstrom J, Damiano D, Delgado M, Dure L, Gaebler-Spira D, Hoon A, Mink JW, Sherman-Levine S, Welty LJ. Prospective open-label clinical trial of trihexyphenidyl in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol. 2007 May; 22(5):530-7. PMID: 17690057.
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      54. Sanger T, Kukke SN. Abnormalities of tactile sensory function in children with dystonic and diplegic cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol. 2007 Mar; 22(3):289-93. PMID: 17621498.
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      55. Sanger T, Kukke SN, Sherman-Levine S. Botulinum toxin type B improves the speed of reaching in children with cerebral palsy and arm dystonia: an open-label, dose-escalation pilot study. J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan; 22(1):116-22. PMID: 17608320.
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      56. Malfait N, Sanger T. Does dystonia always include co-contraction? A study of unconstrained reaching in children with primary and secondary dystonia. Exp Brain Res. 2007 Jan; 176(2):206-16. PMID: 16850323.
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      57. Grossman AD, Sanger T. A probabilistic algorithm for estimating the intention of computer users with movement disorders. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007; 2007:3605-8. PMID: 18002777.
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      58. Sanger T. Bayesian filtering of myoelectric signals. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Feb; 97(2):1839-45. PMID: 17182908.
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      59. Sanger T, Chen D, Delgado MR, Gaebler-Spira D, Hallett M, Mink JW. Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov; 118(5):2159-67. PMID: 17079590.
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      60. Sanger T. Arm trajectories in dyskinetic cerebral palsy have increased random variability. J Child Neurol. 2006 Jul; 21(7):551-7. PMID: 16970842.
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      61. Sanger T. Hypertonia in children: how and when to treat. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2005 Nov; 7(6):427-39. PMID: 16221366.
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      62. Sanger T, Kaiser J, Placek B. Reaching movements in childhood dystonia contain signal-dependent noise. J Child Neurol. 2005 Jun; 20(6):489-96. PMID: 15996397.
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      63. Espay AJ, Hung SW, Sanger T, Moro E, Fox SH, Lang AE. A writing device improves writing in primary writing tremor. Neurology. 2005 May 10; 64(9):1648-50. PMID: 15883338.
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      64. Sanger T. Toward a definition of childhood dystonia. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004 Dec; 16(6):623-7. PMID: 15548923.
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      65. Sanger T. Failure of motor learning for large initial errors. Neural Comput. 2004 Sep; 16(9):1873-86. PMID: 15265326.
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      66. Sanger T. Severe resting clonus caused by thyrotoxicosis in a 16-year-old girl with hereditary spastic paraparesis: a case report. Mov Disord. 2004 Jun; 19(6):712-3. PMID: 15197716.
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      67. Enns GM, Barkovich AJ, van Kuilenburg AB, Manning M, Sanger T, Witt DR, van Gennip AH. Head imaging abnormalities in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004; 27(4):513-22. PMID: 15303009.
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      68. Sanger T. Childhood onset generalised dystonia can be modelled by increased gain in the indirect basal ganglia pathway. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Nov; 74(11):1509-15. PMID: 14617707.
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      69. Sanger T. Pathophysiology of pediatric movement disorders. J Child Neurol. 2003 Sep; 18 Suppl 1:S9-24. PMID: 13677568.
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      70. Sanger T. Pediatric movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003 Aug; 16(4):529-35. PMID: 12869814.
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      71. Thelen DD, Riewald SA, Asakawa DS, Sanger T, Delp SL. Abnormal coupling of knee and hip moments during maximal exertions in persons with cerebral palsy. Muscle Nerve. 2003 Apr; 27(4):486-93. PMID: 12661051.
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      72. Sanger T. Neural population codes. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003 Apr; 13(2):238-49. PMID: 12744980.
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      73. Sanger T, Delgado MR, Gaebler-Spira D, Hallett M, Mink JW. Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood. Pediatrics. 2003 Jan; 111(1):e89-97. PMID: 12509602.
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      74. Sanger T. Decoding neural spike trains: calculating the probability that a spike train and an external signal are related. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Mar; 87(3):1659-63. PMID: 11877538.
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      75. Sanger T, Pascual-Leone A, Tarsy D, Schlaug G. Nonlinear sensory cortex response to simultaneous tactile stimuli in writer's cramp. Mov Disord. 2002 Jan; 17(1):105-11. PMID: 11835446.
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      76. Sanger T, Garg RR, Chen R. Interactions between two different inhibitory systems in the human motor cortex. J Physiol. 2001 Jan 15; 530(Pt 2):307-17. PMID: 11208978.
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      77. Sanger T, Tarsy D, Pascual-Leone A. Abnormalities of spatial and temporal sensory discrimination in writer's cramp. Mov Disord. 2001 Jan; 16(1):94-9. PMID: 11215600.
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      78. Voss SN, Sanger T, Beasley C. Hematologic reference ranges in a population of patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Dec; 20(6):653-7. PMID: 11106137.
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      79. Sanger T, Merzenich MM. Computational model of the role of sensory disorganization in focal task-specific dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Nov; 84(5):2458-64. PMID: 11067988.
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      80. Tohen M, Jacobs TG, Grundy SL, McElroy SL, Banov MC, Janicak PG, Sanger T, Risser R, Zhang F, Toma V, Francis J, Tollefson GD, Breier A. Efficacy of olanzapine in acute bipolar mania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Olanzipine HGGW Study Group. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Sep; 57(9):841-9. PMID: 10986547.
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      81. Bara-Jimenez W, Shelton P, Sanger T, Hallett M. Sensory discrimination capabilities in patients with focal hand dystonia. Ann Neurol. 2000 Mar; 47(3):377-80. PMID: 10716260.
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      82. Sanger T. Human arm movements described by a low-dimensional superposition of principal components. J Neurosci. 2000 Feb 1; 20(3):1066-72. PMID: 10648712.
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      83. So GM, Thiele EA, Sanger T, Schmid R, Riviello JJ. Electroencephalogram and clinical focalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 1998 Nov; 13(11):541-5. PMID: 9853646.
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      84. Sanger T. Probability density methods for smooth function approximation and learning in populations of tuned spiking neurons. Neural Comput. 1998 Aug 15; 10(6):1567-86. PMID: 9698358.
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      85. Sanger T. Probability density estimation for the interpretation of neural population codes. J Neurophysiol. 1996 Oct; 76(4):2790-3. PMID: 8899646.
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      86. Sanger T, Jain KD. MERRF syndrome with overwhelming lactic acidosis. Pediatr Neurol. 1996 Jan; 14(1):57-61. PMID: 8652018.
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      87. Dornay M, Sanger T. Equilibrium point control of a monkey arm simulator by a fast learning tree structured artificial neural network. Biol Cybern. 1993; 68(6):499-508. PMID: 8324058.
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