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    Rohit Varma, MD, MPH

    TitleDean, Keck School of Medicine of USC
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentOphthalmology
    AddressHC4 4900 1450 San Pablo Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033-9224
    Phone+1 323 442 6411
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      Other Positions
      TitleMay S. and John Hooval Dean’s Chair in Medicine

      TitleGrace and Emery Beardsley Chair in Ophthalmology

      TitleChair, USC Care Board of Directors


      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      An accomplished physician and scientist, Rohit Varma, MD, MPH is recognized worldwide as a visionary leader in the epidemiology of eye diseases. He is an expert on changes in the optic nerve in glaucoma and is also studying new imaging techniques in the early diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. His primary research focuses on epidemiologic studies of eye disease in children and aging populations.

      Varma was appointed interim dean of the Keck School on March 25, 2016. He was officially named dean on November 9, 2016. Dr. Varma is professor of Ophthalmology and Preventive Medicine and holds the Grace and Emery Beardsley Chair in Ophthalmology. His most recent service to USC includes serving as the chair of the Department of Ophthalmology, director of the USC Gayle and Edward Roski Eye Institute and president of USC Care Medical Group.

      He is the principal investigator of the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, the Chinese American Eye Study, the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Diseases Study and the African American Eye Disease Study. More recently, Varma has been involved in the development of novel implantable intraocular pressure sensors and drainage devices. He has over 274 publications in various peer reviewed ophthalmic journals, and has co-authored two ophthalmic books.

      Varma obtained his medical degree at the University of Delhi, India. He completed his residency in ophthalmology at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, as well as earning a master of public health degree from Johns Hopkins University. He completed two glaucoma fellowships, one at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia and the other at USC.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      1980  - 1985National Science Talent Award
      1982Indian Council for Medical Research
      1986  - 1989Goldberg Award
      1987  - 1988Fight for Sight Post-Doctoral Award
      1988  - 1989Fight for Sight Post-Doctoral Award
      1988  - 1989Dana Foundation Award
      1988  - 1989Topcon Corporation Award
      1989Delta Omega Society Award
      1991  - 1993Topcon Corporation Award
      1993National Eye Institute Travel Award
      1994  - 1997National Eye Institute National Research Service Award
      1994  - 1995Fight for Sight Grant-in Aid Award
      1995  - 1996Knights Templar Grant Award
      1996  - 1998Beckman Young Investigators Award
      1997  - 2001Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award
      1997  - 2001Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award
      1998American Academy of Ophthalmology Honor Award
      2003Research to Prevent Blindness Sybil B. Harrington Scholar Award
      2006American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award
      2009Glaucoma Research Foundation - President's Award
      2013  - 2016Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award
      2014AAO Secretariat Award
      2015  - 2016Best Doctors in America
      2016AAO Lifetime Achievement Award
      2017National Medical Fellowships- Innovation in Medicine Award

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse In The News

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Richter GM, Wang M, Jiang X, Wu S, Wang D, Torres M, Choudhury F, Varma R. Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Jul 01; 135(7):724-732. PMID: 28520882.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Varma R, Jiang X. Use of Structural End Points in Glaucoma: Beyond Visual Field Loss. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Jul 01; 135(7):789-790. PMID: 28594985.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Teutsch S, Varma R, Marshall E. Epidemiology a Major Focus of a New National Academies Report. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2017 Aug; 24(4):209-210. PMID: 28657394.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Suñer IJ, Bressler NM, Varma R, Dolan CM, Ward J, Turpcu A. RESPONSIVENESS OF THE NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE VISUAL FUNCTION QUESTIONNAIRE-25 TO VISUAL ACUITY GAINS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: Evidence From the RIDE and RISE Trials. Retina. 2017 Jun; 37(6):1126-1133. PMID: 27668928.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Jiang X. Visual Impairment in Preschool Children in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations From 2015 to 2060. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun 01; 135(6):610-616. PMID: 28472231.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Xie J, Ikram MK, Cotch MF, Klein B, Varma R, Shaw JE, Klein R, Mitchell P, Lamoureux EL, Wong TY. Association of Diabetic Macular Edema and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun 01; 135(6):586-593. PMID: 28472362.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wang J, Aydogan DB, Varma R, Toga AW, Shi Y. Topographic Regularity for Tract Filtering in Brain Connectivity. Inf Process Med Imaging. 2017 Jun; 10265:263-274. PMID: 28943732.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rüeger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG, Ng MC, Mudgal P, Rivas MA, Vedantam S, Mahajan A, Guo X, Abecasis G, Aben KK, Adair LS, Alam DS, Albrecht E, Allin KH, Allison M, Amouyel P, Appel EV, Arveiler D, Asselbergs FW, Auer PL, Balkau B, Banas B, Bang LE, Benn M, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bonnycastle LL, Bork-Jensen J, Bots ML, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Breen G, Brilliant MH, Broer L, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Carey DJ, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Cocca M, Collins FS, Cook JP, Corley J, Galbany JC, Cox AJ, Cuellar-Partida G, Danesh J, Davies G, de Bakker PI, de Borst GJ, de Denus S, de Groot MC, de Mutsert R, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, den Hollander AI, Dennis JG, Di Angelantonio E, Drenos F, Du M, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Ebeling T, Edwards TL, Ellinor PT, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki AE, Faul JD, Feitosa MF, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrario MM, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Ford I, Fornage M, Franks PW, Frikke-Schmidt R, Galesloot TE, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Giri A, Girotto G, Gordon SD, Gordon-Larsen P, Gorski M, Grarup N, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Gustafsson S, Hansen T, Harris KM, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, He L, Heid IM, Heikkilä K, Helgeland Ø, Hernesniemi J, Hewitt AW, Hocking LJ, Hollensted M, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JM, Hoyng CB, Huang PL, Hveem K, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jansson JH, Jarvik GP, Jensen GB, Jhun MA, Jia Y, Jiang X, Johansson S, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kahali B, Kahn RS, Kähönen M, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Kaprio J, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SL, Karpe F, Kee F, Keeman R, Kiemeney LA, Kitajima H, Kluivers KB, Kocher T, Komulainen P, Kontto J, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kriebel J, Kuivaniemi H, Küry S, Kuusisto J, La Bianca M, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lange EM, Lange LA, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee IT, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin H, Lin LA, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu Y, Liu Y, Lophatananon A, Luan J, Lubitz SA, Lyytikäinen LP, Mackey DA, Madden PA, Manning AK, Männistö S, Marenne G, Marten J, Martin NG, Mazul AL, Meidtner K, Metspalu A, Mitchell P, Mohlke KL, Mook-Kanamori DO, Morgan A, Morris AD, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nelson CP, Neville M, Nielsen SF, Nikus K, Njølstad PR, Nordestgaard BG, Ntalla I, O'Connel JR, Oksa H, Loohuis LM, Ophoff RA, Owen KR, Packard CJ, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CN, Pasterkamp G, Patel AP, Pattie A, Pedersen O, Peissig PL, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JR, Person TN, Pirie A, Polasek O, Posthuma D, Raitakari OT, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Reiner AP, Renström F, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Robertson N, Robino A, Rolandsson O, Rudan I, Ruth KS, Saleheen D, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sandow K, Sapkota Y, Sattar N, Schmidt MK, Schreiner PJ, Schulze MB, Scott RA, Segura-Lepe MP, Shah S, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, Smith AV, Smith JA, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Surendran P, 't Hart LM, Tansey KE, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thompson DJ, Thorsteinsdottir U, Thuesen BH, Tönjes A, Tromp G, Trompet S, Tsafantakis E, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Tyrer JP, Uher R, Uitterlinden AG, Ulivi S, van der Laan SW, Van Der Leij AR, van Duijn CM, van Schoor NM, van Setten J, Varbo A, Varga TV, Varma R, Edwards DR, Vermeulen SH, Vestergaard H, Vitart V, Vogt TF, Vozzi D, Walker M, Wang F, Wang CA, Wang S, Wang Y, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Wessel J, Willems SM, Wilson JG, Witte DR, Woods MO, Wu Y, Yaghootkar H, Yao J, Yao P, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhan X, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Zhao W, Zheng H, Zhou W, Rotter JI, Boehnke M, et al. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. Nature. 2017 02 09; 542(7640):186-190. PMID: 28146470.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Jiang X, Varma R, Torres M, Hsu C, McKean-Cowdin R. Self-reported Use of Eye Care Among Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Apr; 176:183-193. PMID: 28161048.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Nannini DR, Torres M, Chen YI, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R, Gao X. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Vertical Cup-Disc Ratio in a Latino Population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Jan 01; 58(1):87-95. PMID: 28061514.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Varma R, Sun J, Torres M, Wu S, Hsu C, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence of Lens Opacities in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study (CHES). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Dec 01; 57(15):6692-6699. PMID: 27936471.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Gao X, Nannini DR, Corrao K, Torres M, Chen YI, Fan BJ, Wiggs JL, Taylor KD, Gauderman WJ, Rotter JI, Varma R. Genome-wide association study identifies WNT7B as a novel locus for central corneal thickness in Latinos. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 11 15; 25(22):5035-5045. PMID: 28171582.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Xu BY, Israelsen P, Pan BX, Wang D, Jiang X, Varma R. Benefit of Measuring Anterior Segment Structures Using an Increased Number of Optical Coherence Tomography Images: The Chinese American Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Nov 01; 57(14):6313-6319. PMID: 27893097.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Kimel M, Leidy NK, Tschosik E, Dolan C, Souied EH, Varma R, Bressler NM. Functional Reading Independence (FRI) Index: A New Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Patients With Geographic Atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Nov 01; 57(14):6298-6304. PMID: 27893095.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Varma R, Torres M, McKean-Cowdin R, Rong F, Hsu C, Jiang X. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Mar; 175:201-212. PMID: 27769895.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Varma R, Jiang X. The Role of Contextual Factors in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Eye Care Use. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 01; 134(10):1167-1168. PMID: 27560770.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Fini ME, Schwartz SG, Gao X, Jeong S, Patel N, Itakura T, Price MO, Price FW, Varma R, Stamer WD. Steroid-induced ocular hypertension/glaucoma: Focus on pharmacogenomics and implications for precision medicine. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2017 Jan; 56:58-83. PMID: 27666015.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Zhang X, Dastiridou A, Francis BA, Tan O, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Sehi M, Chopra V, Huang D. Baseline Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Structural Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec; 172:94-103. PMID: 27651070.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Richter GM, Zhang X, Tan O, Francis BA, Chopra V, Greenfield DS, Varma R, Schuman JS, Huang D. Regression Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Disc Variables for Glaucoma Diagnosis. J Glaucoma. 2016 Aug; 25(8):634-42. PMID: 26900833; PMCID: PMC4969235 [Available on 08/01/17].
      20. Murakami Y, Wang D, Burkemper B, Lin SC, Varma R. A Population-Based Assessment of the Agreement Between Grading of Goniophotographic Images and Gonioscopy in the Chinese-American Eye Study (CHES). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Aug 01; 57(10):4512-6. PMID: 27571018; PMCID: PMC5015969.
      21. Varma R, Kim JS, Burkemper BS, Wen G, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Chinese American Adults: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jul 01; 134(7):785-93. PMID: 27196952.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Varma R, Vajaranant TS, Burkemper B, Wu S, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R. Visual Impairment and Blindness in Adults in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations From 2015 to 2050. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jul 01; 134(7):802-9. PMID: 27197072.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Choudhury F, Varma R, Klein R, Gauderman WJ, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Quality of Life in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jun 01; 134(6):683-90. PMID: 27124819.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Varma R, Wen G, Jiang X, Hsu C, Torres M, Klein R, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Adult Chinese American Individuals: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Apr 07. PMID: 27055063.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Varma R, Choudhury F, Chen S, Wu S, Hsu C, Torres M, Klein R, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Chinese American Adults: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Apr 07. PMID: 27055183.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Nannini D, Torres M, Chen YD, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R, Gao X. Reply. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr; 123(4):e31-2. PMID: 27012707.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Zhang X, Francis BA, Dastiridou A, Chopra V, Tan O, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Huang D. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Analyses of Age Effects on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness by Fourier-Domain OCT. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2016 Mar; 5(2):1. PMID: 26966637.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Bressler NM, Varma R, Mitchell P, Suñer IJ, Dolan C, Ward J, Ferreira A, Ehrlich JS, Turpcu A. Effect of Ranibizumab on the Decision to Drive and Vision Function Relevant to Driving in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema: Report From RESTORE, RIDE, and RISE Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Feb; 134(2):160-6. PMID: 26584450.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Zhang X, Loewen N, Tan O, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Predicting Development of Glaucomatous Visual Field Conversion Using Baseline Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar; 163:29-37. PMID: 26627918; PMCID: PMC4769942 [Available on 03/01/17].
      30. Nannini D, Torres M, Chen YD, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R, Gao X. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan; 123(1):102-8. PMID: 26477841; PMCID: PMC4695255 [Available on 01/01/17].
      31. Varma R, Haller JA, Kaiser PK. Improvement in Patient-Reported Visual Function After Ocriplasmin for Vitreomacular Adhesion: Results of the Microplasmin for Intravitreous Injection-Traction Release Without Surgical Treatment (MIVI-TRUST) Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Sep; 133(9):997-1004. PMID: 26068086.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Loewen NA, Zhang X, Tan O, Francis BA, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Combining measurements from three anatomical areas for glaucoma diagnosis using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Sep; 99(9):1224-9. PMID: 25795917.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Srinivas S, Tan O, Wu S, Nittala MG, Huang D, Varma R, Sadda SR. Measurement of retinal blood flow in normal Chinese-American subjects by Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Feb 10; 56(3):1569-74. PMID: 25670487; PMCID: PMC4351651.
      34. Varma R, Bressler NM, Doan QV, Danese M, Dolan CM, Lee A, Turpcu A. Visual Impairment and Blindness Avoided with Ranibizumab in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites with Diabetic Macular Edema in the United States. Ophthalmology. 2015 May; 122(5):982-9. PMID: 25670501.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Wessel J, Chu AY, Willems SM, Wang S, Yaghootkar H, Brody JA, Dauriz M, Hivert MF, Raghavan S, Lipovich L, Hidalgo B, Fox K, Huffman JE, An P, Lu Y, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Grarup N, Ehm MG, Li L, Baldridge AS, Stancáková A, Abrol R, Besse C, Boland A, Bork-Jensen J, Fornage M, Freitag DF, Garcia ME, Guo X, Hara K, Isaacs A, Jakobsdottir J, Lange LA, Layton JC, Li M, Hua Zhao J, Meidtner K, Morrison AC, Nalls MA, Peters MJ, Sabater-Lleal M, Schurmann C, Silveira A, Smith AV, Southam L, Stoiber MH, Strawbridge RJ, Taylor KD, Varga TV, Allin KH, Amin N, Aponte JL, Aung T, Barbieri C, Bihlmeyer NA, Boehnke M, Bombieri C, Bowden DW, Burns SM, Chen Y, Chen YD, Cheng CY, Correa A, Czajkowski J, Dehghan A, Ehret GB, Eiriksdottir G, Escher SA, Farmaki AE, Frånberg M, Gambaro G, Giulianini F, Goddard WA, Goel A, Gottesman O, Grove ML, Gustafsson S, Hai Y, Hallmans G, Heo J, Hoffmann P, Ikram MK, Jensen RA, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Karaleftheri M, Khor CC, Kirkpatrick A, Kraja AT, Kuusisto J, Lange EM, Lee IT, Lee WJ, Leong A, Liao J, Liu C, Liu Y, Lindgren CM, Linneberg A, Malerba G, Mamakou V, Marouli E, Maruthur NM, Matchan A, McKean-Cowdin R, McLeod O, Metcalf GA, Mohlke KL, Muzny DM, Ntalla I, Palmer ND, Pasko D, Peter A, Rayner NW, Renström F, Rice K, Sala CF, Sennblad B, Serafetinidis I, Smith JA, Soranzo N, Speliotes EK, Stahl EA, Stirrups K, Tentolouris N, Thanopoulou A, Torres M, Traglia M, Tsafantakis E, Javad S, Yanek LR, Zengini E, Becker DM, Bis JC, Brown JB, Cupples LA, Hansen T, Ingelsson E, Karter AJ, Lorenzo C, Mathias RA, Norris JM, Peloso GM, Sheu WH, Toniolo D, Vaidya D, Varma R, Wagenknecht LE, Boeing H, Bottinger EP, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Ferrannini E, Franco OH, Franks PW, Gibbs RA, Gudnason V, Hamsten A, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, Hofman A, Jansson JH, Langenberg C, Launer LJ, Levy D, Oostra BA, O'Donnell CJ, O'Rahilly S, Padmanabhan S, Pankow JS, Polasek O, Province MA, Rich SS, Ridker PM, Rudan I, Schulze MB, Smith BH, Uitterlinden AG, Walker M, Watkins H, Wong TY, Zeggini E, Laakso M, Borecki IB, Chasman DI, Pedersen O, Psaty BM, Tai ES, van Duijn CM, Wareham NJ, Waterworth DM, Boerwinkle E, Kao WH, Florez JC, Loos RJ, Wilson JG, Frayling TM, Siscovick DS, Dupuis J, Rotter JI, Meigs JB, Scott RA, Goodarzi MO. Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Commun. 2015 Jan 29; 6:5897. PMID: 25631608; PMCID: PMC4311266.
      36. Charlson ES, Sankar PS, Miller-Ellis E, Regina M, Fertig R, Salinas J, Pistilli M, Salowe RJ, Rhodes AL, Merritt WT, Chua M, Trachtman BT, Gudiseva HV, Collins DW, Chavali VR, Nichols C, Henderer J, Ying GS, Varma R, Jorgenson E, O'Brien JM. The primary open-angle african american glaucoma genetics study: baseline demographics. Ophthalmology. 2015 Apr; 122(4):711-20. PMID: 25576993; PMCID: PMC4372490.
      37. Palmer ND, Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Wang N, Guo X, Taylor KD, Fingerlin TE, Norris JM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Haritunians T, Ziegler JT, Williams AH, Stefanovski D, Cui J, Mackay AW, Henkin LF, Bergman RN, Gao X, Gauderman J, Varma R, Hanis CL, Cox NJ, Highland HM, Below JE, Williams AL, Burtt NP, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Huerta-Chagoya A, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Orozco L, Haiman CA, Tsai MY, Johnson WC, Yao J, Rasmussen-Torvik L, Pankow J, Snively B, Jackson RD, Liu S, Nadler JL, Kandeel F, Chen YD, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Raffel LJ, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Wagenknecht LE. Genetic Variants Associated With Quantitative Glucose Homeostasis Traits Translate to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Americans: The GUARDIAN (Genetics Underlying Diabetes in Hispanics) Consortium. Diabetes. 2015 May; 64(5):1853-66. PMID: 25524916; PMCID: PMC4407862.
      38. Le PV, Zhang X, Francis BA, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Loewen N, Huang D. Advanced imaging for glaucoma study: design, baseline characteristics, and inter-site comparison. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb; 159(2):393-403.e2. PMID: 25447111; PMCID: PMC4277893.
      39. Varma R, Bressler NM, Doan QV, Gleeson M, Danese M, Bower JK, Selvin E, Dolan C, Fine J, Colman S, Turpcu A. Prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic macular edema in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov; 132(11):1334-40. PMID: 25125075; PMCID: PMC4576994.
      40. Otilingam PG, Gatz M, Tello E, Escobar AJ, Goldstein A, Torres M, Varma R. Buenos hábitos alimenticios para una buena salud : evaluation of a nutrition education program to improve heart health and brain health in Latinas. J Aging Health. 2015 Feb; 27(1):177-92. PMID: 25231884; PMCID: PMC4450745.
      41. Kashani AH, Lopez Jaime GR, Saati S, Martin G, Varma R, Humayun MS. Noninvasive assessment of retinal vascular oxygen content among normal and diabetic human subjects: a study using hyperspectral computed tomographic imaging spectroscopy. Retina. 2014 Sep; 34(9):1854-60. PMID: 24732694; PMCID: PMC4145024.
      42. Gao X, Gauderman WJ, Marjoram P, Torres M, Chen YD, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R. Native American ancestry is associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in Latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Aug 21; 55(9):6041-5. PMID: 25146985; PMCID: PMC4176415.
      43. Bressler NM, Varma R, Suñer IJ, Dolan CM, Ward J, Ehrlich JS, Colman S, Turpcu A. Vision-related function after ranibizumab treatment for diabetic macular edema: results from RIDE and RISE. Ophthalmology. 2014 Dec; 121(12):2461-72. PMID: 25148789.
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      44. Kempen JH, Sugar EA, Varma R, Dunn JP, Heinemann MH, Jabs DA, Lyon AT, Lewis RA. Risk of cataract among subjects with acquired immune deficiency syndrome free of ocular opportunistic infections. Ophthalmology. 2014 Dec; 121(12):2317-24. PMID: 25109932; PMCID: PMC4252252.
      45. Bressler NM, Varma R, Doan Q. Vulnerable populations in the underuse of the US Health Care System by persons with diabetes mellitus and diabetic macular edema-reply. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug; 132(8):1030-1. PMID: 25124956.
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      46. Gutiérrez-Hernández JC, Caffey S, Abdallah W, Calvillo P, González R, Shih J, Brennan J, Zimmerman J, Martínez-Camarillo JC, Rodriguez AR, Varma R, Santos A, Sánchez G, Humayun M. One-Year Feasibility Study of Replenish MicroPump for Intravitreal Drug Delivery: A Pilot Study. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2014 May; 3(4):8. PMID: 25774328.
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      47. Xie JZ, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Lin J, Cotter SA, Torres M, Varma R. Color vision deficiency in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jul; 121(7):1469-74. PMID: 24702753; PMCID: PMC4839481.
      48. Wang M, Lu AT, Varma R, Schuman JS, Greenfield DS, Huang D. Combining information from 3 anatomic regions in the diagnosis of glaucoma with time-domain optical coherence tomography. J Glaucoma. 2014 Mar; 23(3):129-35. PMID: 22828002; PMCID: PMC3535579.
      49. Bressler NM, Varma R, Doan QV, Gleeson M, Danese M, Bower JK, Selvin E, Dolan C, Fine J, Colman S, Turpcu A. Underuse of the health care system by persons with diabetes mellitus and diabetic macular edema in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb; 132(2):168-73. PMID: 24357541; PMCID: PMC4576971.
      50. Varma R, Hsu C, Wang D, Torres M, Azen SP. The chinese american eye study: design and methods. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013 Dec; 20(6):335-47. PMID: 24044409; PMCID: PMC4876710.
      51. He M, Abdou A, Ellwein LB, Naidoo KS, Sapkota YD, Thulasiraj RD, Varma R, Zhao J, Kocur I, Congdon NG. Age-related prevalence and met need for correctable and uncorrectable near vision impairment in a multi-country study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jan; 121(1):417-22. PMID: 23993359.
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      52. Wen G, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Borchert M, Lin J, Kim J, Varma R. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white and Asian children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct; 120(10):2109-16. PMID: 23953098; PMCID: PMC3902090.
      53. Varma R. Author reply: To PMID 22771048. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jul; 120(7):e45. PMID: 23823521.
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      54. Suñer IJ, Bressler NM, Varma R, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, Colman S, Rubio RG. Reading speed improvements in retinal vein occlusion after ranibizumab treatment. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul; 131(7):851-6. PMID: 23699977.
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      55. Le PV, Tan O, Chopra V, Francis BA, Ragab O, Varma R, Huang D. Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun 21; 54(6):4287-95. PMID: 23716631; PMCID: PMC3691052.
      56. McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wen G, Kim J, Borchert M, Varma R. Prevalence of amblyopia or strabismus in asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct; 120(10):2117-24. PMID: 23697956; PMCID: PMC4848013.
      57. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, Kim J, Varma R. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun; 120(6):1220-6. PMID: 23561327; PMCID: PMC4848010.
      58. Gao X, Gauderman WJ, Liu Y, Marjoram P, Torres M, Haritunians T, Kuo JZ, Chen YD, Allingham RR, Hauser MA, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R. A genome-wide association study of central corneal thickness in Latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 01; 54(4):2435-43. PMID: 23493294; PMCID: PMC3621577.
      59. Varma R, McKean-Cowdin R, Vitale S, Slotkin J, Hays RD. Vision assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology. 2013 Mar 12; 80(11 Suppl 3):S37-40. PMID: 23479542; PMCID: PMC3662341.
      60. Paz SH, Slotkin J, McKean-Cowdin R, Lee P, Owsley C, Vitale S, Varma R, Gershon R, Hays RD. Development of a vision-targeted health-related quality of life item measure. Qual Life Res. 2013 Nov; 22(9):2477-87. PMID: 23475688; PMCID: PMC3722299.
      61. Sehi M, Zhang X, Greenfield DS, Chung Y, Wollstein G, Francis BA, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy is associated with visual field loss over time in glaucoma suspect and glaucomatous eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jan; 155(1):73-82.e1. PMID: 23036570; PMCID: PMC3525739.
      62. Bressler NM, Chang TS, Varma R, Suñer I, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, Ianchulev T, Fine J. Driving ability reported by neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients after treatment with ranibizumab. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jan; 120(1):160-8. PMID: 23009891.
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      63. Kymes S, Varma R, Coleman AL. The economics of the initial preventive physical examination in medicare. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep; 130(9):1232-3; author reply 1233-4. PMID: 22965617.
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      64. Huang D, Chopra V, Lu AT, Tan O, Francis B, Varma R. Does optic nerve head size variation affect circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 27; 53(8):4990-7. PMID: 22743319; PMCID: PMC4625828.
      65. Varma R, Bressler NM, Suñer I, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, Colman S, Rubio RG. Improved vision-related function after ranibizumab for macular edema after retinal vein occlusion: results from the BRAVO and CRUISE trials. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10):2108-18. PMID: 22817833.
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      66. Jiang X, Varma R, Wu S, Torres M, Azen SP, Francis BA, Chopra V, Nguyen BB. Baseline risk factors that predict the development of open-angle glaucoma in a population: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Nov; 119(11):2245-53. PMID: 22796305; PMCID: PMC3474872.
      67. Zheng L, Teng EL, Varma R, Mack WJ, Mungas D, Lu PH, Chui HC. Chinese-language montreal cognitive assessment for cantonese or mandarin speakers: age, education, and gender effects. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2012; 2012:204623. PMID: 22830073; PMCID: PMC3399373.
      68. Richter GM, Choudhury F, Torres M, Azen SP, Varma R. Risk factors for incident cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, and mixed lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10):2040-7. PMID: 22771048; PMCID: PMC3464350.
      69. Gao X, Haritunians T, Marjoram P, McKean-Cowdin R, Torres M, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Gauderman WJ, Varma R. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels. Front Genet. 2012; 3:117. PMID: 22754564; PMCID: PMC3384355.
      70. Gatto NM, Varma R, Torres M, Wong TY, Johnson PL, Segal-Gidan F, Mack WJ. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive function in Latino adults in Los Angeles. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Jun; 19(3):127-36. PMID: 22568425; PMCID: PMC3598630.
      71. Hwang JC, Konduru R, Zhang X, Tan O, Francis BA, Varma R, Sehi M, Greenfield DS, Sadda SR, Huang D. Relationship among visual field, blood flow, and neural structure measurements in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17; 53(6):3020-6. PMID: 22447865; PMCID: PMC3378085.
      72. Vajaranant TS, Wu S, Torres M, Varma R. A 40-year forecast of the demographic shift in primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 04; 53(5):2464-6. PMID: 22562841.
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      73. Vajaranant TS, Wu S, Torres M, Varma R. The changing face of primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States: demographic and geographic changes from 2011 to 2050. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug; 154(2):303-314.e3. PMID: 22541661; PMCID: PMC3401269.
      74. Varma R, Wang D, Wu C, Francis BA, Nguyen BB, Chopra V, Memarzadeh F, Torres M, Azen SP. Four-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug; 154(2):315-325.e1. PMID: 22541649; PMCID: PMC3401311.
      75. Patty L, Wu C, Torres M, Azen S, Varma R. Validity of self-reported eye disease and treatment in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Sep; 119(9):1725-30. PMID: 22537615; PMCID: PMC3413787.
      76. He M, Abdou A, Naidoo KS, Sapkota YD, Thulasiraj RD, Varma R, Zhao J, Ellwein LB. Prevalence and correction of near vision impairment at seven sites in China, India, Nepal, Niger, South Africa, and the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul; 154(1):107-116.e1. PMID: 22534109.
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      77. Pai AS, Rose KA, Samarawickrama C, Fotedar R, Burlutsky G, Varma R, Mitchell P. Testability of refraction, stereopsis, and other ocular measures in preschool children: the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study. J AAPOS. 2012 Apr; 16(2):185-92. PMID: 22525178.
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      78. Chabi A, Varma R, Tsai JC, Lupinacci R, Pigeon J, Baranak C, Noble L, Lines C, Ho TW. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of preservative-free tafluprost and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jun; 153(6):1187-96. PMID: 22310086.
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      79. Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, Lamoureux EL, Kowalski JW, Bek T, Chen SJ, Dekker JM, Fletcher A, Grauslund J, Haffner S, Hamman RF, Ikram MK, Kayama T, Klein BE, Klein R, Krishnaiah S, Mayurasakorn K, O'Hare JP, Orchard TJ, Porta M, Rema M, Roy MS, Sharma T, Shaw J, Taylor H, Tielsch JM, Varma R, Wang JJ, Wang N, West S, Xu L, Yasuda M, Zhang X, Mitchell P, Wong TY. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar; 35(3):556-64. PMID: 22301125; PMCID: PMC3322721.
      80. Rine RM, Roberts D, Corbin BA, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Beaumont J, Slotkin J, Schubert MC. New portable tool to screen vestibular and visual function--National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(2):209-20. PMID: 22773523; PMCID: PMC3741057.
      81. Richter GM, Torres M, Choudhury F, Azen SP, Varma R. Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, and mixed lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Mar; 119(3):547-54. PMID: 22197433; PMCID: PMC3293944.
      82. Pai AS, Rose KA, Leone JF, Sharbini S, Burlutsky G, Varma R, Wong TY, Mitchell P. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children. Ophthalmology. 2012 Jan; 119(1):138-44. PMID: 21963268.
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      83. Varma R, Lee PP, Goldberg I, Kotak S. An assessment of the health and economic burdens of glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Oct; 152(4):515-22. PMID: 21961848; PMCID: PMC3206636.
      84. Girkin CA, McGwin G, Sinai MJ, Sekhar GC, Fingeret M, Wollstein G, Varma R, Greenfield D, Liebmann J, Araie M, Tomita G, Maeda N, Garway-Heath DF. Variation in optic nerve and macular structure with age and race with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2011 Dec; 118(12):2403-8. PMID: 21907415.
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      85. Caprioli J, Varma R. Intraocular pressure: modulation as treatment for glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Sep; 152(3):340-344.e2. PMID: 21855671.
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      86. Borchert MS, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Wen G, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct; 118(10):1966-73. PMID: 21856013; PMCID: PMC3186878.
      87. Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, Wei J, Borchert M, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors associated with childhood strabismus: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov; 118(11):2251-61. PMID: 21856012; PMCID: PMC3208120.
      88. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Varma R, Cotter SA, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Borchert MS, Torres M, Wen G, Azen SP, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for decreased visual acuity in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov; 118(11):2262-73. PMID: 21856014; PMCID: PMC3208077.
      89. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Borchert MS, Lin JH, Wen G, Azen SP, Torres M, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Giordano L. Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct; 118(10):1974-81. PMID: 21856010; PMCID: PMC3186875.
      90. Francis BA, Varma R, Vigen C, Lai MY, Winarko J, Nguyen B, Azen S. Population and high-risk group screening for glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 05; 52(9):6257-64. PMID: 21245400; PMCID: PMC3175989.
      91. Yonekawa Y, Varma R, Choudhury F, Torres M, Azen SP. Risk factors for four-year incident visual impairment and blindness: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Sep; 118(9):1790-7. PMID: 21788079; PMCID: PMC4850737.
      92. Choudhury F, Varma R, McKean-Cowdin R, Klein R, Azen SP. Risk factors for four-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the los angeles latino eye study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Sep; 152(3):385-95. PMID: 21679916; PMCID: PMC3159714.
      93. Bressler NM, Doan QV, Varma R, Lee PP, Suñer IJ, Dolan C, Danese MD, Yu E, Tran I, Colman S. Estimated cases of legal blindness and visual impairment avoided using ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization: non-Hispanic white population in the United States with age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Jun; 129(6):709-17. PMID: 21670337.
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      94. Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Niziol LM, Lichter PR, Varma R. Intraocular pressure control and long-term visual field loss in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Sep; 118(9):1766-73. PMID: 21600658; PMCID: PMC3161134.
      95. Pai AS, Wang JJ, Samarawickrama C, Burlutsky G, Rose KA, Varma R, Wong TY, Mitchell P. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Aug; 118(8):1495-500. PMID: 21529955.
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      96. Patino CM, Varma R, Azen SP, Conti DV, Nichol MB, McKean-Cowdin R. The impact of change in visual field on health-related quality of life the los angeles latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jul; 118(7):1310-7. PMID: 21458074; PMCID: PMC3129408.
      97. Li LJ, Cheung CY, Liu Y, Chia A, Selvaraj P, Lin XY, Chan YM, Varma R, Mitchell P, Wong TY, Saw SM. Influence of blood pressure on retinal vascular caliber in young children. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jul; 118(7):1459-65. PMID: 21444115.
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      98. Feuer WJ, Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Cantor L, Greenfield DS, Savell J, Schuman JS, Varma R. Topographic differences in the age-related changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer of normal eyes measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography. J Glaucoma. 2011 Mar; 20(3):133-8. PMID: 20577113; PMCID: PMC2946985.
      99. Wang Y, Fawzi AA, Varma R, Sadun AA, Zhang X, Tan O, Izatt JA, Huang D. Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Feb; 52(2):840-5. PMID: 21051715; PMCID: PMC3053109.
      100. Fozailoff A, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Wen G, Lin J, Borchert M, Azen S, Varma R. Prevalence of astigmatism in 6- to 72-month-old African American and Hispanic children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb; 118(2):284-93. PMID: 20888047; PMCID: PMC3017730.
      101. Pan Y, Varma R. Natural history of glaucoma. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan; 59 Suppl:S19-23. PMID: 21150029; PMCID: PMC3038509.
      102. Varma R, Richman EA, Ferris FL, Bressler NM. Use of patient-reported outcomes in medical product development: a report from the 2009 NEI/FDA Clinical Trial Endpoints Symposium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec; 51(12):6095-103. PMID: 21123768; PMCID: PMC3055746.
      103. Mazhar K, Varma R, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R, Shtir CJ, Azen SP. Severity of diabetic retinopathy and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Apr; 118(4):649-55. PMID: 21035872; PMCID: PMC3070833.
      104. Wen G, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, Azen S. General health-related quality of life in preschool children with strabismus or amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar; 118(3):574-80. PMID: 20884059; PMCID: PMC3017225.
      105. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Hays RD, Wu J, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Longitudinal changes in visual acuity and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye study. Ophthalmology. 2010 Oct; 117(10):1900-7, 1907.e1. PMID: 20570364; PMCID: PMC2945425.
      106. Kuzin AA, Varma R, Reddy HS, Torres M, Azen SP. Ocular biometry and open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010 Sep; 117(9):1713-9. PMID: 20570359; PMCID: PMC2934756.
      107. Marsh BC, Cantor LB, WuDunn D, Hoop J, Lipyanik J, Patella VM, Budenz DL, Greenfield DS, Savell J, Schuman JS, Varma R. Optic nerve head (ONH) topographic analysis by stratus OCT in normal subjects: correlation to disc size, age, and ethnicity. J Glaucoma. 2010 Jun-Jul; 19(5):310-8. PMID: 19855299; PMCID: PMC3417149.
      108. Varma R, Chung J, Foong AW, Torres M, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of visual impairment in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 149(5):713-27. PMID: 20399925; PMCID: PMC2919324.
      109. Varma R, Foong AW, Lai MY, Choudhury F, Klein R, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 149(5):741-51. PMID: 20399926; PMCID: PMC3138505.
      110. Chia A, Dirani M, Chan YH, Gazzard G, Au Eong KG, Selvaraj P, Ling Y, Quah BL, Young TL, Mitchell P, Varma R, Wong TY, Saw SM. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in young singaporean chinese children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul; 51(7):3411-7. PMID: 20207979; PMCID: PMC3979488.
      111. Saati S, Lo R, Li PY, Meng E, Varma R, Humayun MS. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Curr Eye Res. 2010 Mar; 35(3):192-201. PMID: 20373877; PMCID: PMC2888264.
      112. Kim E, Varma R. Glaucoma in Latinos/Hispanics. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010 Mar; 21(2):100-5. PMID: 20040873.
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      113. Varma R, Richter GM, Torres M, Foong AW, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 149(5):728-34.e1-2. PMID: 20181327; PMCID: PMC2867354.
      114. Varma R, Choudhury F, Klein R, Chung J, Torres M, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 149(5):752-61.e1-3. PMID: 20149342; PMCID: PMC2905589.
      115. Segal-Gidan F, Varma R, Salazar X, Mack WJ. Factors influencing driving status in an older Latino population. J Aging Health. 2010 Apr; 22(3):332-47. PMID: 20142628; PMCID: PMC2896256.
      116. Fraser-Bell S, Choudhury F, Klein R, Azen S, Varma R. Ocular risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 149(5):735-40. PMID: 20138605; PMCID: PMC2856762.
      117. Morales LS, Varma R, Paz SH, Lai MY, Mazhar K, Andersen RM, Azen SP. Self-reported use of eye care among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010 Feb; 117(2):207-15.e1. PMID: 20018380; PMCID: PMC2835414.
      118. Memarzadeh F, Ying-Lai M, Chung J, Azen SP, Varma R. Blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jun; 51(6):2872-7. PMID: 20089880; PMCID: PMC2891455.
      119. Patino CM, McKean-Cowdin R, Azen SP, Allison JC, Choudhury F, Varma R. Central and peripheral visual impairment and the risk of falls and falls with injury. Ophthalmology. 2010 Feb; 117(2):199-206.e1. PMID: 20031225; PMCID: PMC2819614.
      120. Saati S, Lo R, Li PY, Meng E, Varma R, Humayun MS. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009 Dec; 107:60-70. PMID: 20126483; PMCID: PMC2814560.
      121. Dirani M, Chan YH, Gazzard G, Hornbeak DM, Leo SW, Selvaraj P, Zhou B, Young TL, Mitchell P, Varma R, Wong TY, Saw SM. Prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children: the strabismus, amblyopia, and refractive error in young Singaporean Children (STARS) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Mar; 51(3):1348-55. PMID: 19933197; PMCID: PMC3979485.
      122. Shtir CJ, Marjoram P, Azen S, Conti DV, Le Marchand L, Haiman CA, Varma R. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES). BMC Genet. 2009 Nov 10; 10:71. PMID: 19903357; PMCID: PMC3087512.
      123. Borchert M, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Liu N, Azen SP, Varma R. Anisometropia in Hispanic and african american infants and young children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2010 Jan; 117(1):148-153.e1. PMID: 19818509; PMCID: PMC2814917.
      124. Richter GM, Chung J, Azen SP, Varma R. Prevalence of visually significant cataract and factors associated with unmet need for cataract surgery: Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2009 Dec; 116(12):2327-35. PMID: 19815276; PMCID: PMC2787839.
      125. Tan O, Chopra V, Lu AT, Schuman JS, Ishikawa H, Wollstein G, Varma R, Huang D. Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2009 Dec; 116(12):2305-14.e1-2. PMID: 19744726; PMCID: PMC2787911.
      126. Varma R, Hwang LJ, Grunden JW, Bean GW. Using diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation to assess the efficacy of fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan; 94(1):80-4. PMID: 19692375.
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      127. Pan Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Wen G, Borchert MS, Azen SP, Varma R. Visual acuity norms in pre-school children: the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Jun; 86(6):607-12. PMID: 19430325; PMCID: PMC2742505.
      128. Varma R, Hwang LJ, Grunden JW, Bean GW, Sultan MB. Assessing the efficacy of latanoprost vs timolol using an alternate efficacy parameter: the intervisit intraocular pressure range. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug; 148(2):221-6. PMID: 19427617.
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      129. Trager MJ, Dirani M, Fan Q, Gazzard G, Selvaraj P, Chia A, Wong TY, Young TL, Varma R, Saw SM. Testability of vision and refraction in preschoolers: the strabismus, amblyopia, and refractive error study in singaporean children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug; 148(2):235-241.e6. PMID: 19426960.
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      130. Memarzadeh F, Varma R, Lin LT, Parikh JG, Dustin L, Alcaraz A, Eliott D. Postoperative use of bevacizumab as an antifibrotic agent in glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul; 50(7):3233-7. PMID: 19182254.
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      131. Varma R. From a population to patients: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2008 Nov; 115(11):1857-8. PMID: 19068373.
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      132. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Song E, Lin J, Borchert M, Azen SP, Varma R. Fixation preference and visual acuity testing in a population-based cohort of preschool children with amblyopia risk factors. Ophthalmology. 2009 Jan; 116(1):145-53. PMID: 18962921; PMCID: PMC2699252.
      133. Francis BA, Varma R, Chopra V, Lai MY, Shtir C, Azen SP. Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 146(5):741-6. PMID: 18672218; PMCID: PMC2583935.
      134. Sanossian N, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Prevalence and risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in community-dwelling Latinos. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008 Dec; 110(10):985-7. PMID: 18657897; PMCID: PMC2763560.
      135. Lu AT, Wang M, Varma R, Schuman JS, Greenfield DS, Smith SD, Huang D. Combining nerve fiber layer parameters to optimize glaucoma diagnosis with optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug; 115(8):1352-7, 1357.e1-2. PMID: 18514318; PMCID: PMC2756507.
      136. Memarzadeh F, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Varma R. Associations with intraocular pressure in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul; 146(1):69-76. PMID: 18486096; PMCID: PMC2518614.
      137. Varma R, Mohanty SA, Deneen J, Wu J, Azen SP. Burden and predictors of undetected eye disease in Mexican-Americans: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Med Care. 2008 May; 46(5):497-506. PMID: 18438198.
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      138. Varma R, Wang MY, Ying-Lai M, Donofrio J, Azen SP. The prevalence and risk indicators of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive need in Latinos: the Los AngelesLatino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Dec; 49(12):5264-73. PMID: 18441303; PMCID: PMC2758787.
      139. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Lin J, Deneen J, Cotter SA, Azen SP, Borchert MS, Wang Y, Varma R. Stereoacuity testability in African-American and Hispanic pre-school children. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Mar; 85(3):158-63. PMID: 18317330.
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      140. Fraser-Bell S, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Hooper C, Foong AW, Varma R. Cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb; 145(2):308-16. PMID: 18222193; PMCID: PMC2278164.
      141. Varma R, Peeples P, Walt JG, Bramley TJ. Disease progression and the need for neuroprotection in glaucoma management. Am J Manag Care. 2008 Feb; 14(1 Suppl):S15-9. PMID: 18284311.
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      142. Varma R, Hwang LJ, Grunden JW, Bean GW. Inter-visit intraocular pressure range: an alternative parameter for assessing intraocular pressure control in clinical trials. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb; 145(2):336-42. PMID: 18222194.
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      143. Broman AT, Quigley HA, West SK, Katz J, Munoz B, Bandeen-Roche K, Tielsch JM, Friedman DS, Crowston J, Taylor HR, Varma R, Leske MC, Bengtsson B, Heijl A, He M, Foster PJ. Estimating the rate of progressive visual field damage in those with open-angle glaucoma, from cross-sectional data. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jan; 49(1):66-76. PMID: 18172076; PMCID: PMC2246309.
      144. Borchert M, Wang Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Deneen J, Azen S, Varma R. Testability of the Retinomax autorefractor and IOLMaster in preschool children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug; 115(8):1422-5, 1425.e1. PMID: 18164067; PMCID: PMC4848014.
      145. McKean-Cowdin R, Wang Y, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Impact of visual field loss on health-related quality of life in glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jun; 115(6):941-948.e1. PMID: 17997485; PMCID: PMC4864605.
      146. Hoki SL, Varma R, Lai MY, Azen SP, Klein R. Prevalence and associations of asymptomatic retinal emboli in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan; 145(1):143-8. PMID: 17981255; PMCID: PMC2219465.
      147. Tan O, Li G, Lu AT, Varma R, Huang D. Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jun; 115(6):949-56. PMID: 17981334; PMCID: PMC2692598.
      148. Ip JM, Huynh SC, Kifley A, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Varma R, Mitchell P. Variation of the contribution from axial length and other oculometric parameters to refraction by age and ethnicity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct; 48(10):4846-53. PMID: 17898312.
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      149. Doshi V, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Varma R. Sociodemographic, family history, and lifestyle risk factors for open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Apr; 115(4):639-647.e2. PMID: 17900693.
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      150. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wang Y, Azen SP, Dilauro A, Borchert M, Varma R. Visual acuity testability in African-American and Hispanic children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Nov; 144(5):663-7. PMID: 17868633; PMCID: PMC2099260.
      151. Barañano AE, Wu J, Mazhar K, Azen SP, Varma R. Visual acuity outcomes after cataract extraction in adult latinos. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 May; 115(5):815-21. PMID: 17826836; PMCID: PMC4864722.
      152. Chao JR, Lai MY, Azen SP, Klein R, Varma R. Retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Sep; 48(9):4019-25. PMID: 17724182.
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      153. Chopra V, Varma R, Francis BA, Wu J, Torres M, Azen SP. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of open-angle glaucoma the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Feb; 115(2):227-232.e1. PMID: 17716734; PMCID: PMC4864602.
      154. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Wu J, Hays RD, Azen SP. Severity of visual field loss and health-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Jun; 143(6):1013-23. PMID: 17399676; PMCID: PMC2731547.
      155. Wu Z, Vazeen M, Varma R, Chopra V, Walsh AC, LaBree LD, Sadda SR. Factors associated with variability in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2007 Aug; 114(8):1505-12. PMID: 17367862.
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      156. Varma R, Macias GL, Torres M, Klein R, Peña FY, Azen SP. Biologic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jul; 114(7):1332-40. PMID: 17306879.
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      157. Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Varma R, Schuman J, Cantor L, Savell J, Greenfield DS, Patella VM, Quigley HA, Tielsch J. Determinants of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Stratus OCT. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jun; 114(6):1046-52. PMID: 17210181; PMCID: PMC2916163.
      158. Tedeschi-Blok N, Buckley J, Varma R, Triche TJ, Hinton DR. Population-based study of early age-related macular degeneration: role of the complement factor H Y402H polymorphism in bilateral but not unilateral disease. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jan; 114(1):99-103. PMID: 17198853.
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      159. Memarzadeh F, Li Y, Chopra V, Varma R, Francis BA, Huang D. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for imaging the anterior chamber after laser peripheral iridotomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 May; 143(5):877-9. PMID: 17452177; PMCID: PMC1913197.
      160. Francis BA, Hsieh A, Lai MY, Chopra V, Pena F, Azen S, Varma R. Effects of corneal thickness, corneal curvature, and intraocular pressure level on Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jan; 114(1):20-6. PMID: 17070592.
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      161. Cotter SA, Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Klein R. Causes of low vision and blindness in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2006 Sep; 113(9):1574-82. PMID: 16949442.
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      162. Varma R, Wu J, Chong K, Azen SP, Hays RD. Impact of severity and bilaterality of visual impairment on health-related quality of life. Ophthalmology. 2006 Oct; 113(10):1846-53. PMID: 16889831.
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      163. Varma R, Deneen J, Cotter S, Paz SH, Azen SP, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Zhao P. The multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study: design and methods. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006 Aug; 13(4):253-62. PMID: 16877284.
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      164. Paz SH, Varma R, Klein R, Wu J, Azen SP. Noncompliance with vision care guidelines in Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug; 113(8):1372-7. PMID: 16769120.
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      165. Sadda SR, Tan O, Walsh AC, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jul; 113(7):1187.e1-12. PMID: 16647123; PMCID: PMC1779509.
      166. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Ying-Lai M, Varma R. Myopic refractive error in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May; 47(5):1845-52. PMID: 16638990.
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      167. Varma R. Diabetic retinopathy: challenges and future directions. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Mar; 141(3):539-41. PMID: 16490503.
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      168. Torres M, Azen S, Varma R. Prevalence of obesity and associated co-morbid conditions in a population-based sample of primarily urban Mexican Americans. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(2):362-9. PMID: 17682236.
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      169. Fraser-Bell S, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Varma R. Smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan; 141(1):79-87. PMID: 16386980.
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      170. Varma R, Winarko J, Kiat-Winarko T, Winarko B. Concentration of latanoprost ophthalmic solution after 4 to 6 weeks' use in an eye clinic setting. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan; 47(1):222-5. PMID: 16384966.
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      171. Shufelt C, Fraser-Bell S, Ying-Lai M, Torres M, Varma R. Refractive error, ocular biometry, and lens opalescence in an adult population: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Dec; 46(12):4450-60. PMID: 16303933.
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      172. Mack WJ, Teng E, Zheng L, Paz S, Chui H, Varma R. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005 Jul; 27(5):591-8. PMID: 16019635.
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      173. Globe DR, Varma R, Torres M, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP. Self-reported comorbidities and visual function in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Jun; 123(6):815-21. PMID: 15955983.
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      174. Rolim de Moura C, Fraser-Bell S, Stout A, Labree L, Nilfors M, Varma R. Experience with the baerveldt glaucoma implant in the management of pediatric glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 May; 139(5):847-54. PMID: 15860290.
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      175. Jonas J, Heatley G, Spaide R, Varma R. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and secondary ocular hypertension. J Glaucoma. 2005 Apr; 14(2):168-71. PMID: 15741821.
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      176. Fraser-Bell S, Donofrio J, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Varma R. Sociodemographic factors and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan; 139(1):30-8. PMID: 15652825.
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      177. Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Francis BA, Nguyen BB, Deneen J, Wilson MR, Azen SP. Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Aug; 111(8):1439-48. PMID: 15288969.
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      178. Varma R, Torres M. Prevalence of lens opacities in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Aug; 111(8):1449-56. PMID: 15288970.
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      179. Varma R, Fraser-Bell S, Tan S, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Jul; 111(7):1288-97. PMID: 15234128.
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      180. Varma R, Torres M, Peña F, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Jul; 111(7):1298-306. PMID: 15234129.
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      181. Varma R, Paz SH, Azen SP, Klein R, Globe D, Torres M, Shufelt C, Preston-Martin S. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study: design, methods, and baseline data. Ophthalmology. 2004 Jun; 111(6):1121-31. PMID: 15177962.
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      182. Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence and risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Jun; 111(6):1132-40. PMID: 15177963.
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      183. Globe DR, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Jun; 111(6):1141-9. PMID: 15177964.
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      184. Fraser-Bell S, Ying-Lai M, Klein R, Varma R. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Jun; 45(6):1732-6. PMID: 15161833.
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      185. Unzueta M, Globe D, Wu J, Paz S, Azen S, Varma R. Compliance with recommendations for follow-up care in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ethn Dis. 2004; 14(2):285-91. PMID: 15132216.
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      186. Varma R, Bazzaz S, Lai M. Optical tomography-measured retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Aug; 44(8):3369-73. PMID: 12882783.
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      187. Paz SH, Globe DR, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Relationship between self-reported depression and self-reported visual function in Latinos. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul; 121(7):1021-7. PMID: 12860807.
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      188. Globe D, Varma R, Azen SP, Paz S, Yu E, Preston-Martin S. Psychometric performance of the NEI VFQ-25 in visually normal Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr; 44(4):1470-8. PMID: 12657581.
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      189. Hahn S, Azen S, Ying-Lai M, Varma R. Central corneal thickness in Latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr; 44(4):1508-12. PMID: 12657586.
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      190. Tong L, Frazao K, LaBree L, Varma R. Intraocular pressure control and complications with two-stage insertion of the Baerveldt implant. Ophthalmology. 2003 Feb; 110(2):353-8. PMID: 12578780.
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      191. Fraser-Bell S, Varma R. Eye disease in Latinos. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2003; 43(4):79-89. PMID: 14574203.
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      192. Azen SP, Varma R, Preston-Martin S, Ying-Lai M, Globe D, Hahn S. Binocular visual acuity summation and inhibition in an ocular epidemiological study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Jun; 43(6):1742-8. PMID: 12036974.
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      193. Globe DR, Schoua-Glusberg A, Paz S, Yu E, Preston-Martin S, Azen S, Varma R. Using focus groups to develop a culturally sensitive methodology for epidemiological surveys in a Latino population: findings from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Ethn Dis. 2002; 12(2):259-66. PMID: 12019936.
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