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    Robert Hsiu-Ping Chow, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Physiology & Biophysics
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentZilkha Neurogenetic Institute
    AddressZNI 323 1501 San Pablo Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 2901
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      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      The aim of my laboratory is to advance our understanding of how hormone and neuronal secretion is controlled in normal and pathological states, and then to translate this knowledge to improve human health. In the last decade, neuroscience has benefited tremendously from the molecular biology revolution. Dozens of synaptic proteins have been cloned. One of the most exciting goals today is to figure out how these proteins orchestrate the complex life cycle of the secretory vesicle. It is of particular interest to understand how calcium is involved. Katz and colleagues showed that calcium triggers fast exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that calcium may play other important roles that precede exocytosis, perhaps facilitating translocation, docking and priming of vesicles.

      We work with neurons and endocrine cells. Many endocrine cells such as pancreatic beta and chromaffin cells, like neurons, fire action potentials, exhibit fast calcium-dependent exocytosis, and express synaptic proteins or closely related proteins. They have the advantages of being easy to prepare, and their secretory vesicles are larger than synaptic vesicles and can therefore be visualized more readily. We use viral vectors to express the protein of interest in native or mutated form, and we then study the effects on secretion. The high-resolution methods we use to monitor exocytosis include membrane capacitance measurements, carbon-fiber amperometry, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (also called evanescent-wave microscopy).

      Another related area of interest of the laboratory is the cellular mechanism of abnormal secretion and cell death in diabetes mellitus. In collaboration with Prof. Ralf Langen (Biochemistry, ZNI), we are studying the mechanism of cell death in pancreatic beta cells. The aim is to understand the nature of derangements in beta cell function early in disease, which may permit design of therapeutic interventions early in the development of type I and II diabetes.

      In collaboration with Mark Humayun (Ophthalmology, BME) and Jim Weiland (Ophthalmology, BME), we are studying methods to restore sight to the blind. In my laboratory, we perform imaging of retinal ganglion and bipolar neurons expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators, in order to better understand how to improve signaling between the microelectrode array of an implanted epiretinal prosthesis and the retina. In addition, we are working on photoactivated molecules that embed in cell membranes, converting the cells into light-sensors -- a novel cellular prosthesis.

      A recent interest of our laboratory pertains to cancer biology. When cancer cells become invasive, they express many neuronal-type proteins, including those involved in electrical signaling, secretion, and motility. Thus, we have been studying how these genes are turned on, in an effort to develop approaches to recognize the potential of cancer cells to invade/metastasize, as well as to find ways to stop invasion. One recent discovery we made in collaboration with Prof. Kirk Shung (BME) is that highly invasive breast cancer cells, but not less invasive cells, exhibit calcium elevations upon ultrasound stimulation. We are investigating the pathways involved, and we are collaborating with oncologists to develop a possible clinical assay.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Howard Hughes Medical Institute Postdoctoral Fellow
      Sir Henry Wellcome Innovative Research Award
      Medical Scientist Training Fellowship
      Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship
      Royal Society New Investigator Award
      Fellow of the American College of Physicians

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      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Dueck HR, Ai R, Camarena A, Ding B, Dominguez R, Evgrafov OV, Fan JB, Fisher SA, Herstein JS, Kim TK, Kim JM, Lin MY, Liu R, Mack WJ, McGroty S, Nguyen JD, Salathia N, Shallcross J, Souaiaia T, Spaethling JM, Walker CP, Wang J, Wang K, Wang W, Wildberg A, Zheng L, Chow R, Eberwine J, Knowles JA, Zhang K, Kim J. Assessing characteristics of RNA amplification methods for single cell RNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2016 Nov 24; 17(1):966. PMID: 27881084.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lim HG, Li Y, Lin MY, Yoon C, Lee C, Jung H, Chow R, Shung KK. Calibration of Trapping Force on Cell-Size Objects From Ultrahigh-Frequency Single-Beam Acoustic Tweezer. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2016 Nov; 63(11):1988-1995. PMID: 27834633.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Okada AK, Teranishi K, Isas JM, Bedrood S, Chow R, Langen R. Diabetic Risk Factors Promote Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Misfolding by a Common, Membrane-mediated Mechanism. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:31094. PMID: 27531121.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Lim HG, Li Y, Lin MY, Yoon C, Lee C, Jung H, Chow R, Shung KK. Calibration of Trapping Force on Cell-Size Objects from Ultra-High Frequency Single Beam Acoustic Tweezer. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2016 Aug 16. PMID: 27541791.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Chang YC, Walston ST, Chow R, Weiland JD. In vivo characterization of genetic expression of virus-transduced calcium indicators in retinal ganglion cells using a low-cost funduscope. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:1316-1319. PMID: 28261004.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Weitz AC, Nanduri D, Behrend MR, Gonzalez-Calle A, Greenberg RJ, Humayun MS, Chow R, Weiland JD. Improving the spatial resolution of epiretinal implants by increasing stimulus pulse duration. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Dec 16; 7(318):318ra203. PMID: 26676610.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wang XM, Yik WY, Zhang P, Lu W, Huang N, Kim BR, Shibata D, Zitting M, Chow R, Moser AB, Steinberg SJ, Hacia JG. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015; 6(1):158. PMID: 26319495.
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      8. Walston ST, Chow R, Weiland JD. Patch clamp recordings of retinal bipolar cells in response to extracellular electrical stimulation in wholemount mouse retina. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015 Aug; 2015:3363-6. PMID: 26737013.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Woolcott OO, Richey JM, Kabir M, Chow R, Iyer MS, Kirkman EL, Stefanovski D, Lottati M, Kim SP, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Bradshaw H, Wu Q, Kolka CM, Bergman RN. Corrections: High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance does not Increase Plasma Anandamide Levels or Potentiate Anandamide Insulinotropic Effect in Isolated Canine Islets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0131033. PMID: 26075612.
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      10. Sook Lee N, Evgrafov OV, Souaiaia T, Bonyad A, Herstein J, Yeun Lee J, Kim J, Ning Y, Sixto M, Weitz AC, Lenz HJ, Wang K, Knowles JA, Press MF, Salvaterra PM, Kirk Shung K, Chow R. Non-coding RNAs derived from an alternatively spliced REST transcript (REST-003) regulate breast cancer invasiveness. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:11207. PMID: 26053433.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Woolcott OO, Richey JM, Kabir M, Chow R, Iyer MS, Kirkman EL, Stefanovski D, Lottati M, Kim SP, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Bradshaw H, Wu Q, Bergman RN. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123558. PMID: 25855974.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Christopher P, Wei J, Wuyyuru V, Patel U, Greenberg RJ, Humayun MS, Chow R, Weiland JD. Interphase gap as a means to reduce electrical stimulation thresholds for epiretinal prostheses. J Neural Eng. 2014 Feb; 11(1):016007. PMID: 24654269.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Hwang JY, Lee NS, Lee C, Lam KH, Kim HH, Woo J, Lin MY, Kisler K, Choi H, Zhou Q, Chow R, Shung KK. Investigating contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation for determination of invasion potential of breast cancer cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013 Oct; 110(10):2697-705. PMID: 23568761.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Kisler K, Chow R, Dominguez R. Fluorescently-Labeled Estradiol Internalization and Membrane Trafficking in Live N-38 Neuronal Cells Visualized with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. J Steroids Horm Sci. 2013 Apr 20; Suppl 12. PMID: 24353903.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Rohan JG, Citron YR, Durrell AC, Cheruzel LE, Gray HB, Grubbs RH, Humayun M, Engisch KL, Pikov V, Chow R. Light-triggered modulation of cellular electrical activity by ruthenium diimine nanoswitches. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013 Apr 17; 4(4):585-93. PMID: 23419103.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Lin MY, Rohan JG, Cai H, Reim K, Ko CP, Chow R. Complexin facilitates exocytosis and synchronizes vesicle release in two secretory model systems. J Physiol. 2013 May 15; 591(Pt 10):2463-73. PMID: 23401610.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Lee NS, Klein RL, Chiodo VA, Hauswirth WW, Humayun MS, Weiland JD, Chow R. Imaging the response of the retina to electrical stimulation with genetically encoded calcium indicators. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Apr; 109(7):1979-88. PMID: 23343890.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Lee NS, Rohan JG, Zitting M, Kamath S, Weitz A, Sipos A, Salvaterra PM, Hasegawa K, Pera M, Chow R. A novel dual-color reporter for identifying insulin-producing Beta- cells and classifying heterogeneity of insulinoma cell lines. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35521. PMID: 22530041.
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      19. Woolcott OO, Bergman RN, Richey JM, Kirkman EL, Harrison LN, Ionut V, Lottati M, Zheng D, Hsu IR, Stefanovski D, Kabir M, Kim SP, Catalano KJ, Chiu JD, Chow R. Simplified method to isolate highly pure canine pancreatic islets. Pancreas. 2012 Jan; 41(1):31-8. PMID: 21792087.
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      20. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Humayun MS, Chow R, Weiland JD. Interphase gap decreases electrical stimulation threshold of retinal ganglion cells. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011 Aug; 2011:6725-8. PMID: 22255882.
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      21. Ye R, Ni M, Wang M, Luo S, Zhu G, Chow R, Lee AS. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 mutation perturbs glucose homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2011 Aug; 210(2):209-17. PMID: 21565852.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Humayun MS, Chow R, Weiland JD. Resolution of the epiretinal prosthesis is not limited by electrode size. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011 Aug; 19(4):436-42. PMID: 21511569.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Crawford CA, Akopian G, Ring J, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM, Andersen JK, Vittozzi-Wong P, Wang K, Farley CM, Charntikov S, Mitroi D, Beal MF, Chow R, Walsh JP. Acute and long-term response of dopamine nigrostriatal synapses to a single, low-dose episode of 3-nitropropionic acid-mediated chemical hypoxia. Synapse. 2011 Apr; 65(4):339-50. PMID: 20730800.
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      24. Cho JH, Chen L, Kim MH, Chow R, Hille B, Koh DS. Characteristics and functions of {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors expressed in mouse pancreatic {alpha}-cells. Endocrinology. 2010 Apr; 151(4):1541-50. PMID: 20189997.
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      25. Imoukhuede PI, Moss FJ, Michael DJ, Chow R, Lester HA. Ezrin mediates tethering of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GAT1 to actin filaments via a C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Biophys J. 2009 Apr 8; 96(7):2949-60. PMID: 19348776.
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      26. McDonald ML, Wang Y, Selvam S, Nakamura T, Chow R, Schechter JE, Yiu SC, Mircheff AK. Cytopathology and exocrine dysfunction induced in ex vivo rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cell models by chronic exposure to histamine or serotonin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul; 50(7):3164-75. PMID: 19324838.
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      27. Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, Humayun MS, Weiland JD, Chow R. Selective labeling of retinal ganglion cells with calcium indicators by retrograde loading in vitro. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 May 15; 179(2):166-72. PMID: 19428523.
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      28. Michael DJ, Tapechum S, Rohan JG, Johnson JM, Chow R. Fluorescent cargo proteins in peptidergic endocrine cells: cell type determines secretion kinetics at exocytosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jan; 1152:7-17. PMID: 19161372.
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      29. Cai H, Reim K, Varoqueaux F, Tapechum S, Hill K, Sørensen JB, Brose N, Chow R. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 9; 105(49):19538-43. PMID: 19033464.
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      30. Peti-Peterdi J, Chow R. A novel tool to visualize the cell secretory pathway. Focus on "a fluorimetry-based ssYFP secretion assay to monitor vasopressin-induced exocytosis in LLC-PK1 cells expressing aquaporin-2". Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Dec; 295(6):C1473. PMID: 18971386.
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      31. Akopian G, Crawford C, Beal MF, Cappelletti M, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM, Zheng L, Gheorghe SL, Reichel CM, Chow R, Walsh JP. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 h after 3-nitropropionic-acid-induced chemical hypoxia. J Neurosci. 2008 Sep 17; 28(38):9585-97. PMID: 18799690.
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      32. Pyrko P, Kardosh A, Liu YT, Soriano N, Xiong W, Chow R, Uddin J, Petasis NA, Mircheff AK, Farley RA, Louie SG, Chen TC, Schönthal AH. Calcium-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a major component of tumor cell death induced by 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a non-coxib analogue of celecoxib. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr; 6(4):1262-75. PMID: 17431104.
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      33. Michael DJ, Xiong W, Geng X, Drain P, Chow R. Human insulin vesicle dynamics during pulsatile secretion. Diabetes. 2007 May; 56(5):1277-88. PMID: 17317765.
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      34. Kolski-Andreaco A, Cai H, Currle DS, Chandy KG, Chow R. Mouse adrenal chromaffin cell isolation. J Vis Exp. 2007; (2):129. PMID: 18830430.
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      35. Michael DJ, Cai H, Xiong W, Ouyang J, Chow R. Mechanisms of peptide hormone secretion. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec; 17(10):408-15. PMID: 17084640.
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      36. Oheim M, Michael DJ, Geisbauer M, Madsen D, Chow R. Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2006 Sep 15; 58(7):788-808. PMID: 17055106.
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      37. Michael DJ, Ritzel RA, Haataja L, Chow R. Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in fast- and slow-release forms. Diabetes. 2006 Mar; 55(3):600-7. PMID: 16505221.
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      38. Roizenblatt R, Weiland JD, Carcieri S, Qiu G, Behrend M, Humayun MS, Chow R. Nanobiolistic delivery of indicators to the living mouse retina. J Neurosci Methods. 2006 May 15; 153(1):154-61. PMID: 16290199.
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      39. Michael DJ, Geng X, Cawley NX, Loh YP, Rhodes CJ, Drain P, Chow R. Fluorescent cargo proteins in pancreatic beta-cells: design determines secretion kinetics at exocytosis. Biophys J. 2004 Dec; 87(6):L03-5. PMID: 15516519.
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      40. Peti-Peterdi J, Fintha A, Fuson AL, Tousson A, Chow R. Real-time imaging of renin release in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Aug; 287(2):F329-35. PMID: 15082450.
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      41. Qian L, Wang Y, Xie J, Rose CM, Yang T, Nakamura T, Sandberg M, Zeng H, Schechter JE, Chow R, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Mircheff AK. Biochemical changes contributing to functional quiescence in lacrimal gland acinar cells after chronic ex vivo exposure to a muscarinic agonist. Scand J Immunol. 2003 Nov; 58(5):550-65. PMID: 14629627.
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      42. Wiegand UK, Duncan RR, Greaves J, Chow R, Shipston MJ, Apps DK. Red, yellow, green go!--A novel tool for microscopic segregation of secretory vesicle pools according to their age. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Aug; 31(Pt 4):851-6. PMID: 12887320.
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      43. Duncan RR, Greaves J, Wiegand UK, Matskevich I, Bodammer G, Apps DK, Shipston MJ, Chow R. Functional and spatial segregation of secretory vesicle pools according to vesicle age. Nature. 2003 Mar 13; 422(6928):176-80. PMID: 12634788.
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      44. Chan SA, Chow R, Smith C. Calcium dependence of action potential-induced endocytosis in chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch. 2003 Feb; 445(5):540-6. PMID: 12634923.
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      45. Wiegand UK, Don-Wauchope A, Matskevich I, Duncan RR, Greaves J, Shipston MJ, Apps DK, Chow R. Exocytosis studies in a chromaffin cell-free system: imaging of single-vesicle exocytosis in a chromaffin cell-free system using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Oct; 971:257-61. PMID: 12438128.
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      46. Greaves J, Duncan RR, Tapechum S, Apps DK, Shipston MJ, Chow R. Use of ANF-EGFP for the visualization of secretory vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Oct; 971:275-6. PMID: 12438133.
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      47. Duncan RR, Greaves J, Tapechum S, Apps DK, Shipston MJ, Chow R. Efficacy of Semliki Forest virus transduction of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: an analysis of heterologous protein targeting and distribution. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Oct; 971:641-6. PMID: 12438199.
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      48. Voets T, Moser T, Lund PE, Chow R, Geppert M, Südhof TC, Neher E. Intracellular calcium dependence of large dense-core vesicle exocytosis in the absence of synaptotagmin I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25; 98(20):11680-5. PMID: 11562488.
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      49. Duncan RR, Apps DK, Learmonth MP, Shipston MJ, Chow R. Is double C2 protein (DOC2) expressed in bovine adrenal medulla? A commercial anti-DOC2 monoclonal antibody recognizes a major bovine mitochondrial antigen. Biochem J. 2000 Oct 1; 351(Pt 1):33-7. PMID: 10998344.
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      50. Duncan RR, Shipston MJ, Chow R. Double C2 protein. A review. Biochimie. 2000 May; 82(5):421-6. PMID: 10865129.
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      51. Duncan RR, Betz A, Shipston MJ, Brose N, Chow R. Transient, phorbol ester-induced DOC2-Munc13 interactions in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 24; 274(39):27347-50. PMID: 10488064.
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      52. Duncan RR, Don-Wauchope AC, Tapechum S, Shipston MJ, Chow R, Estibeiro P. High-efficiency Semliki Forest virus-mediated transduction in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem J. 1999 Sep 15; 342 Pt 3:497-501. PMID: 10477258.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Oheim M, Loerke D, Chow R, Stühmer W. Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999 Feb 28; 354(1381):307-18. PMID: 10212479.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Oheim M, Loerke D, Stühmer W, Chow R. Multiple stimulation-dependent processes regulate the size of the releasable pool of vesicles. Eur Biophys J. 1999; 28(2):91-101. PMID: 10028234.
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      55. Jaffe EH, Marty A, Schulte A, Chow R. Extrasynaptic vesicular transmitter release from the somata of substantia nigra neurons in rat midbrain slices. J Neurosci. 1998 May 15; 18(10):3548-53. PMID: 9570786.
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      56. Haller M, Heinemann C, Chow R, Heidelberger R, Neher E. Comparison of secretory responses as measured by membrane capacitance and by amperometry. Biophys J. 1998 Apr; 74(4):2100-13. PMID: 9545069.
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      57. Schulte A, Chow R. Cylindrically etched carbon-fiber microelectrodes for low-noise amperometric recording of cellular secretion. Anal Chem. 1998 Mar 1; 70(5):985-90. PMID: 21644628.
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      58. Oheim M, Loerke D, Stühmer W, Chow R. The last few milliseconds in the life of a secretory granule. Docking, dynamics and fusion visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Eur Biophys J. 1998; 27(2):83-98. PMID: 9530824.
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      59. Gillis KD, Chow R. Kinetics of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1997 Apr; 8(2):133-40. PMID: 15001088.
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      60. Schulte A, Chow R. A simple method for insulating carbon-fiber microelectrodes using anodic electrophoretic deposition of paint. Anal Chem. 1996 Sep 1; 68(17):3054-8. PMID: 21619374.
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      61. Zhou Z, Misler S, Chow R. Rapid fluctuations in transmitter release from single vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biophys J. 1996 Mar; 70(3):1543-52. PMID: 8785312.
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      62. Chow R, Klingauf J, Heinemann C, Zucker RS, Neher E. Mechanisms determining the time course of secretion in neuroendocrine cells. Neuron. 1996 Feb; 16(2):369-76. PMID: 8789951.
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      63. Moser T, Chow R, Neher E. Swelling-induced catecholamine secretion recorded from single chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch. 1995 Dec; 431(2):196-203. PMID: 9026779.
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      64. Chow R, Lund PE, Löser S, Panten U, Gylfe E. Coincidence of early glucose-induced depolarization with lowering of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. J Physiol. 1995 Jun 15; 485 ( Pt 3):607-17. PMID: 7562604.
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      65. Chow R, Klingauf J, Neher E. Time course of Ca2+ concentration triggering exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20; 91(26):12765-9. PMID: 7809118.
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      66. Heinemann C, Chow R, Neher E, Zucker RS. Kinetics of the secretory response in bovine chromaffin cells following flash photolysis of caged Ca2+. Biophys J. 1994 Dec; 67(6):2546-57. PMID: 7696493.
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      67. Heinemann C, von Rüden L, Chow R, Neher E. A two-step model of secretion control in neuroendocrine cells. Pflugers Arch. 1993 Jul; 424(2):105-12. PMID: 8414901.
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      68. Chow R, von Rüden L, Neher E. Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells. Nature. 1992 Mar 5; 356(6364):60-3. PMID: 1538782.
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      69. Chow R. Cadmium block of squid calcium currents. Macroscopic data and a kinetic model. J Gen Physiol. 1991 Oct; 98(4):751-70. PMID: 1660061.
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      70. Parsons TD, Chow R. Neuritic outgrowth in primary cell culture of neurons from the squid, Loligo pealei. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Feb 13; 97(1-2):23-8. PMID: 2919006.
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      71. Armstrong CM, Chow R. Supercharging: a method for improving patch-clamp performance. Biophys J. 1987 Jul; 52(1):133-6. PMID: 2440491.
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      72. Fakunding JL, Chow R, Catt KJ. The role of calcium in the stimulation of aldosterone production by adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, and potassium in isolated glomerulosa cells. Endocrinology. 1979 Aug; 105(2):327-33. PMID: 222570.
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