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    Kiros T. Berhane, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Preventive Medicine
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentPreventive Medicine
    AddressSSB 202C 2001 N. Soto Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 1994
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      Other Positions
      TitleHead of Epi/Biostatistics Program


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      Dr. Berhane is a Professor in the Division of Biostatistics, and Director of Graduate Programs in Biostatistics and Epidemiology. He obtained his B.Sc. from Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), majoring in statistics, M.Sc. degree in statistics at University of Guelph (Canada), Ph.D. degree in biostatistics at University of Toronto (Canada), and a postdoctoral fellowship at Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD). His main research interests are in the development of statistical methods for environmental research, and their application to examination of health effects of air pollution, occupational exposures and climate change. His research is funded via grants from the NIH, US-EPA, HEI and the Canadian IDRC. He is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association. He is a member of the US-EPA Science Advisory Board, Health Effects Institute Review Committee, and the Biostatistical Methods and Research Design [BMRD] Study Section of the NIH.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia1982Dean's Honor List
      University of Toronto, Canada1991Whitehall-Robbins Fellow
      International Biometrics Society - Eastern North American Region1993ENAR Student Award
      US Fulbright Prorgam2016  - 2017Fulbright Scholar Award
      American Statistical Association2017Elected Fellow

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      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Zhang Y, Salam MT, Berhane K, Eckel SP, Rappaport EB, Linn WS, Habre R, Bastain TM, Gilliland FD. Genetic and epigenetic susceptibility of airway inflammation to PM2.5 in school children: new insights from quantile regression. Environ Health. 2017 Aug 18; 16(1):88. PMID: 28821285.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Leventhal AM, Urman R, Barrington-Trimis JL, Goldenson NI, Gallegos K, Chou CP, Wang K, Berhane K, Cruz TB, Pentz MA, Unger J, McConnell RS. Perceived stress and poly-tobacco product use across adolescence: Patterns of association and gender differences. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Nov; 94:172-179. PMID: 28738287.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Chen Z, Salam MT, Alderete TL, Habre R, Bastain TM, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Effects of Childhood Asthma on the Development of Obesity among School-aged Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 May 01; 195(9):1181-1188. PMID: 28103443.
        View in: PubMed
      4. McConnell R, Barrington-Trimis JL, Wang K, Urman R, Hong H, Unger J, Samet J, Leventhal A, Berhane K. Electronic Cigarette Use and Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr 15; 195(8):1043-1049. PMID: 27806211.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Alderete TL, Habre R, Toledo-Corral CM, Berhane K, Chen Z, Lurmann FW, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal Associations Between Ambient Air Pollution With Insulin Sensitivity, ß-Cell Function, and Adiposity in Los Angeles Latino Children. Diabetes. 2017 Jul; 66(7):1789-1796. PMID: 28137791.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Barrington-Trimis JL, Urman R, Leventhal AM, Gauderman WJ, Cruz TB, Gilreath TD, Howland S, Unger JB, Berhane K, Samet JM, McConnell R. E-cigarettes, Cigarettes, and the Prevalence of Adolescent Tobacco Use. Pediatrics. 2016 Aug; 138(2). PMID: 27401102; PMCID: PMC4960723 [Available on 08/01/17].
      7. Samet JM, Bahrami H, Berhane K. Indoor Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease: New Evidence From Iran. Circulation. 2016 Jun 14; 133(24):2342-4. PMID: 27297339.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Barrington-Trimis JL, Urman R, Berhane K, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Pentz MA, Samet JM, Leventhal AM, McConnell R. E-Cigarettes and Future Cigarette Use. Pediatrics. 2016 Jul; 138(1). PMID: 27296866; PMCID: PMC4925085 [Available on 07/01/17].
      9. Younan D, Tuvblad C, Li L, Wu J, Lurmann F, Franklin M, Berhane K, McConnell R, Wu AH, Baker LA, Chen JC. Environmental Determinants of Aggression in Adolescents: Role of Urban Neighborhood Greenspace. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Jul; 55(7):591-601. PMID: 27343886; PMCID: PMC4924128 [Available on 07/01/17].
      10. Barrington-Trimis JL, Berhane K, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Urman R, Chou CP, Howland S, Wang K, Pentz MA, Gilreath TD, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Samet JM, McConnell R. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Jul; 59(1):75-80. PMID: 27161417; PMCID: PMC4920702 [Available on 07/01/17].
      11. Berhane K, Chang CC, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Rapapport E, Urman R, Lurmann F, Gilliland F. Association of Changes in Air Quality With Bronchitic Symptoms in Children in California, 1993-2012. JAMA. 2016 Apr 12; 315(14):1491-501. PMID: 27115265.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Breton CV, Mack WJ, Yao J, Berhane K, Amadeus M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, McConnell R, Hodis HN, Künzli N, Avol E. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150825. PMID: 26950592; PMCID: PMC4780745.
      13. Eckel SP, Zhang Z, Habre R, Rappaport EB, Linn WS, Berhane K, Zhang Y, Bastain TM, Gilliland FD. Traffic-related air pollution and alveolar nitric oxide in southern California children. Eur Respir J. 2016 May; 47(5):1348-56. PMID: 26797034.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Kumie A, Amera T, Berhane K, Samet J, Hundal N, G/Michael F, Gilliland F. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2016; 30(1 Spec Iss):17-27. PMID: 28867918.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Simane B, Beyene H, Deressa W, Kumie A, Berhane K, Samet J. Review of Climate Change and Health in Ethiopia: Status and Gap Analysis. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2016; 30(1 Spec Iss):28-41. PMID: 28867919.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Berhane K, Kumie A, Samet J. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way Forward. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2016; 30(1 Spec Iss):50-56. PMID: 28867920.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Tefera W, Asfaw A, Gilliland F, Worku A, Wondimagegn M, Kumie A, Samet J, Berhane K. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2016; 30(1):5-16. PMID: 28890631.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Su YC, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Lewinger JP. Adaptive Set-Based Methods for Association Testing. Genet Epidemiol. 2016 Feb; 40(2):113-22. PMID: 26707371.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Gilreath TD, Leventhal A, Barrington-Trimis JL, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Berhane K, Huh J, Urman R, Wang K, Howland S, Pentz MA, Chou CP, McConnell R. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Feb; 58(2):181-5. PMID: 26598059; PMCID: PMC4963235 [Available on 02/01/17].
      20. Barrington-Trimis JL, Berhane K, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Urman R, Wang K, Howland S, Gilreath TD, Chou CP, Pentz MA, McConnell R. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug; 136(2):308-17. PMID: 26216326; PMCID: PMC4516947.
      21. Zhang Y, Berhane K, Eckel SP, Salam MT, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Gilliland FD. Determinants of Children's Exhaled Nitric Oxide: New Insights from Quantile Regression. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0130505. PMID: 26214692; PMCID: PMC4516246.
      22. Gauderman WJ, Urman R, Avol E, Berhane K, McConnell R, Rappaport E, Chang R, Lurmann F, Gilliland F. Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 05; 372(10):905-13. PMID: 25738666; PMCID: PMC4430551.
      23. Wu W, Muller R, Berhane K, Fruin S, Liu F, Jaspers I, Diaz-Sanchez D, Peden DB, McConnell R. Inflammatory response of monocytes to ambient particles varies by highway proximity. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 Dec; 51(6):802-9. PMID: 24895888; PMCID: PMC4291543.
      24. McConnell R, Shen E, Gilliland FD, Jerrett M, Wolch J, Chang CC, Lurmann F, Berhane K. A longitudinal cohort study of body mass index and childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and air pollution: the Southern California Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Apr; 123(4):360-6. PMID: 25389275; PMCID: PMC4384197.
      25. Shen E, Chou CP, Pentz MA, Berhane K. Quantile Mediation Models: A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Mediation Across the Outcome Distribution. Multivariate Behav Res. 2014 Sep-Oct; 49(5):471-85. PMID: 26732360.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Eckel SP, Linn WS, Salam MT, Bastain TM, Zhang Y, Rappaport EB, Liu M, Berhane K. Spirometry effects on conventional and multiple flow exhaled nitric oxide in children. J Asthma. 2015 Mar; 52(2):198-204. PMID: 25134783; PMCID: PMC4344916.
      27. Jerrett M, McConnell R, Wolch J, Chang R, Lam C, Dunton G, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Islam T, Berhane K. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. Environ Health. 2014 Jun 09; 13:49. PMID: 24913018; PMCID: PMC4106205.
      28. Berhane K, Zhang Y, Salam MT, Eckel SP, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide: the Children's Health Study. Occup Environ Med. 2014 Jul; 71(7):507-13. PMID: 24696513; PMCID: PMC4310696.
      29. Eckel SP, Linn WS, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Salam MT, Zhang Y, Gilliland FD. Estimation of parameters in the two-compartment model for exhaled nitric oxide. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85471. PMID: 24465571; PMCID: PMC3894971.
      30. van der Valk RJ, Duijts L, Timpson NJ, Salam MT, Standl M, Curtin JA, Genuneit J, Kerhof M, Kreiner-Møller E, Cáceres A, Gref A, Liang LL, Taal HR, Bouzigon E, Demenais F, Nadif R, Ober C, Thompson EE, Estrada K, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, van Duijn C, Rivadeneira F, Li X, Eckel SP, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Granell R, Evans DM, St Pourcain B, McArdle W, Kemp JP, Smith GD, Tiesler CM, Flexeder C, Simpson A, Murray CS, Fuchs O, Postma DS, Bønnelykke K, Torrent M, Andersson M, Sleiman P, Hakonarson H, Cookson WO, Moffatt MF, Paternoster L, Melén E, Sunyer J, Bisgaard H, Koppelman GH, Ege M, Custovic A, Heinrich J, Gilliland FD, Henderson AJ, Jaddoe VW, de Jongste JC. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide values in childhood are associated with 17q11.2-q12 and 17q12-q21 variants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Jul; 134(1):46-55. PMID: 24315451; PMCID: PMC4334587.
      31. Zhang Y, Berhane K. Bayesian mixed hidden Markov models: a multi-level approach to modeling categorical outcomes with differential misclassification. Stat Med. 2014 Apr 15; 33(8):1395-408. PMID: 24254432; PMCID: PMC4221103.
      32. Breton CV, Wang X, Mack WJ, Berhane K, Lopez M, Islam TS, Feng M, Lurmann F, McConnell R, Hodis HN, Künzli N, Avol E. Response to letter regarding article, “Childhood air pollutant exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness in young adults”. Circulation. 2013 Jun 04; 127(22):e659. PMID: 23882698; PMCID: PMC4035034.
      33. Davis DA, Bortolato M, Godar SC, Sander TK, Iwata N, Pakbin P, Shih JC, Berhane K, McConnell R, Sioutas C, Finch CE, Morgan TE. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64128. PMID: 23734187; PMCID: PMC3667185.
      34. Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Eckel SP, Berhane K, Zhang Y, Salam MT, Bastain TM, Gilliland FD. Multiple-flow exhaled nitric oxide, allergy, and asthma in a population of older children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013 Sep; 48(9):885-96. PMID: 23687084; PMCID: PMC3748140.
      35. Su JG, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Berhane K, Dunton G, Shankardass K, Reynolds K, Chang R, Wolch J. Factors influencing whether children walk to school. Health Place. 2013 Jul; 22:153-61. PMID: 23707968; PMCID: PMC4363112.
      36. McConnell R, Wu W, Berhane K, Liu F, Verma G, Peden D, Diaz-Sanchez D, Fruin S. Inflammatory cytokine response to ambient particles varies due to field collection procedures. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Apr; 48(4):497-502. PMID: 23306836; PMCID: PMC3653609.
      37. Banks K, Tuazon E, Berhane K, Koh CJ, De Filippo RE, Chang A, Kim SS, Daneshmand S, Davis-Dao C, Lewinger JP, Bernstein L, Cortessis VK. Cryptorchidism and testicular germ cell tumors: comprehensive meta-analysis reveals that association between these conditions diminished over time and is modified by clinical characteristics. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012; 3:182. PMID: 23423470; PMCID: PMC3574983.
      38. Wang J, Cozen W, Thorne PS, Berhane K, Cerhan JR, Hartge P, Ward MH, De Roos AJ, Severson RK, Morton LM, Bernstein L, Linet MS, Colt JS. Household endotoxin levels and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb; 24(2):357-64. PMID: 23277417; PMCID: PMC3800025.
      39. Breton CV, Wang X, Mack WJ, Berhane K, Lopez M, Islam TS, Feng M, Lurmann F, McConnell R, Hodis HN, Künzli N, Avol E. Childhood air pollutant exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults. Circulation. 2012 Sep 25; 126(13):1614-20. PMID: 22896588; PMCID: PMC3474843.
      40. Dunton G, McConnell R, Jerrett M, Wolch J, Lam C, Gilliland F, Berhane K. Organized physical activity in young school children and subsequent 4-year change in body mass index. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Aug; 166(8):713-8. PMID: 22869403; PMCID: PMC3415326.
      41. Riedl MA, Diaz-Sanchez D, Linn WS, Gong H, Clark KW, Effros RM, Miller JW, Cocker DR, Berhane K. Allergic inflammation in the human lower respiratory tract affected by exposure to diesel exhaust. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2012 Feb; (165):5-43; discussion 45-64. PMID: 22852485.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Franklin M, Vora H, Avol E, McConnell R, Lurmann F, Liu F, Penfold B, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Gauderman WJ. Predictors of intra-community variation in air quality. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Mar-Apr; 22(2):135-47. PMID: 22252279; PMCID: PMC4391642.
      43. Eckel SP, Berhane K, Salam MT, Rappaport EB, Linn WS, Bastain TM, Zhang Y, Lurmann F, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Residential traffic-related pollution exposures and exhaled nitric oxide in the children's health study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Oct; 119(10):1472-7. PMID: 21708511; PMCID: PMC3230449.
      44. Breton CV, Wang X, Mack WJ, Berhane K, Lopez M, Islam TS, Feng M, Hodis HN, Künzli N, Avol E. Carotid artery intima-media thickness in college students: race/ethnicity matters. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug; 217(2):441-6. PMID: 21679950; PMCID: PMC3146627.
      45. Hasson RE, Adam TC, Davis JN, Kelly LA, Ventura EE, Byrd-Williams CE, Toledo-Corral CM, Roberts CK, Lane CJ, Azen SP, Chou CP, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Berhane K, Goran MI. Randomized controlled trial to improve adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in obese African-American and Latino youth. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Apr; 20(4):811-8. PMID: 21293446; PMCID: PMC3106142.
      46. Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Milam J, Richardson J, Berhane K, McConnell R. Social environment and asthma: associations with crime and No Child Left Behind programmes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Oct; 65(10):859-65. PMID: 21071562; PMCID: PMC4384703.
      47. Wolch J, Jerrett M, Reynolds K, McConnell R, Chang R, Dahmann N, Brady K, Gilliland F, Su JG, Berhane K. Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: a longitudinal cohort study. Health Place. 2011 Jan; 17(1):207-14. PMID: 21075670; PMCID: PMC4380517.
      48. Berhane K, Zhang Y, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Islam T, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD. The effect of ambient air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in the Children's Health Study. Eur Respir J. 2011 May; 37(5):1029-36. PMID: 20947676; PMCID: PMC4340653.
      49. Zhang Y, McConnell R, Gilliland F, Berhane K. Ethnic differences in the effect of asthma on pulmonary function in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar 01; 183(5):596-603. PMID: 20889910; PMCID: PMC3081280.
      50. McConnell R, Liu F, Wu J, Lurmann F, Peters J, Berhane K. Asthma and school commuting time. J Occup Environ Med. 2010 Aug; 52(8):827-8. PMID: 20657304; PMCID: PMC4083079.
      51. McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Gauderman J, Avol E, Künzli N, Yao L, Peters J, Berhane K. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul; 118(7):1021-6. PMID: 20371422; PMCID: PMC2920902.
      52. Byrd-Williams CE, Belcher BR, Spruijt-Metz D, Davis JN, Ventura EE, Kelly L, Berhane K, Azen S, Goran MI. Increased physical activity and reduced adiposity in overweight Hispanic adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Mar; 42(3):478-84. PMID: 19952807; PMCID: PMC3163456.
      53. Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Lin PC, Peters J, Gilliland FD. Functional variants in the catalase and myeloperoxidase genes, ambient air pollution, and respiratory-related school absences: an example of epistasis in gene-environment interactions. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec 15; 170(12):1494-501. PMID: 19897513; PMCID: PMC2800273.
      54. Jerrett M, McConnell R, Chang CC, Wolch J, Reynolds K, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Berhane K. Automobile traffic around the home and attained body mass index: a longitudinal cohort study of children aged 10-18 years. Prev Med. 2010 Jan; 50 Suppl 1:S50-8. PMID: 19850068; PMCID: PMC4334364.
      55. Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane K, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Gilliland FD. Extended exhaled nitric oxide analysis in field surveys of schoolchildren: a pilot test. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 Oct; 44(10):1033-42. PMID: 19774622.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Shankardass K, McConnell R, Jerrett M, Milam J, Richardson J, Berhane K. Parental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 28; 106(30):12406-11. PMID: 19620729; PMCID: PMC2718368.
      57. Wenten M, Li YF, Lin PC, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Avol E, Gilliland FD. In utero smoke exposure, glutathione S-transferase P1 haplotypes, and respiratory illness-related absence among schoolchildren. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):1344-51. PMID: 19403501.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane K, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Exhaled nitric oxide in a population-based study of southern California schoolchildren. Respir Res. 2009 Apr 21; 10:28. PMID: 19379527; PMCID: PMC2678086.
      59. Davis JN, Kelly LA, Lane CJ, Ventura EE, Byrd-Williams CE, Alexandar KA, Azen SP, Chou CP, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Berhane K, Goran MI. Randomized control trial to improve adiposity and insulin resistance in overweight Latino adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Aug; 17(8):1542-8. PMID: 19247280; PMCID: PMC2846423.
      60. Breton CV, Vora H, Salam MT, Islam T, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Van den Berg D, Berhane K, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Variation in the GST mu locus and tobacco smoke exposure as determinants of childhood lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr 01; 179(7):601-7. PMID: 19151192; PMCID: PMC2720124.
      61. Berhane K, Hauptmann M, Langholz B. Using tensor product splines in modeling exposure-time-response relationships: application to the Colorado Plateau Uranium Miners cohort. Stat Med. 2008 Nov 20; 27(26):5484-96. PMID: 18613262; PMCID: PMC3032879.
      62. Linn WS, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Relationships of online exhaled, offline exhaled, and ambient nitric oxide in an epidemiologic survey of schoolchildren. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009 Nov; 19(7):674-81. PMID: 18941479.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Künzli N, Avol E, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Molitor JN, Molitor JT, Thomas DC, Peters J, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Oct; 116(10):1433-8. PMID: 18941591; PMCID: PMC2569108.
      64. Milam J, McConnell R, Yao L, Berhane K, Jerrett M, Richardson J. Parental stress and childhood wheeze in a prospective cohort study. J Asthma. 2008 May; 45(4):319-23. PMID: 18446597.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Berhane K, Molitor NT. A Bayesian approach to functional-based multilevel modeling of longitudinal data: applications to environmental epidemiology. Biostatistics. 2008 Oct; 9(4):686-99. PMID: 18349036; PMCID: PMC2733176.
      66. Molitor J, Jerrett M, Chang CC, Molitor NT, Gauderman J, Berhane K, McConnell R, Lurmann F, Wu J, Winer A, Thomas D. Assessing uncertainty in spatial exposure models for air pollution health effects assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Aug; 115(8):1147-53. PMID: 17687440; PMCID: PMC1940074.
      67. Shankardass K, McConnell RS, Milam J, Berhane K, Tatalovich Z, Wilson JP, Jerrett M. The association between contextual socioeconomic factors and prevalent asthma in a cohort of Southern California school children. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Oct; 65(8):1792-806. PMID: 17658674; PMCID: PMC4098912.
      68. Holguin F, Flores S, Ross Z, Cortez M, Molina M, Molina L, Rincon C, Jerrett M, Berhane K, Granados A, Romieu I. Traffic-related exposures, airway function, inflammation, and respiratory symptoms in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec 15; 176(12):1236-42. PMID: 17641154.
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      69. Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Relationship between air pollution, lung function and asthma in adolescents. Thorax. 2007 Nov; 62(11):957-63. PMID: 17517830; PMCID: PMC2117135.
      70. Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Peters J. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet. 2007 Feb 17; 369(9561):571-7. PMID: 17307103.
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      71. McConnell R, Berhane K, Molitor J, Gilliland F, Künzli N, Thorne PS, Thomas D, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Jerrett M, Peters JM. Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Dec; 114(12):1910-5. PMID: 17185284; PMCID: PMC1764158.
      72. Gilliland FD, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM. Regular smoking and asthma incidence in adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov 15; 174(10):1094-100. PMID: 16973983; PMCID: PMC2648110.
      73. Künzli N, Avol E, Wu J, Gauderman WJ, Rappaport E, Millstein J, Bennion J, McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Lurmann F, Winer A, Peters JM. Health effects of the 2003 Southern California wildfires on children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 01; 174(11):1221-8. PMID: 16946126; PMCID: PMC2648104.
      74. McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Künzli N, Gauderman J, Avol E, Thomas D, Peters J. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 May; 114(5):766-72. PMID: 16675435; PMCID: PMC1459934.
      75. Molitor J, Molitor NT, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Gauderman J, Berhane K, Thomas D. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects with missing exposure data. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jul 01; 164(1):69-76. PMID: 16624966.
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      76. Sokol RZ, Kraft P, Fowler IM, Mamet R, Kim E, Berhane K. Exposure to environmental ozone alters semen quality. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Mar; 114(3):360-5. PMID: 16507458; PMCID: PMC1392229.
      77. Wenten M, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Avol E, Tsai WW, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. TNF-308 modifies the effect of second-hand smoke on respiratory illness-related school absences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Dec 15; 172(12):1563-8. PMID: 16166621; PMCID: PMC2718456.
      78. McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Lurmann FW, Avol E, Peters JM. Predicting residential ozone deficits from nearby traffic. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jun 15; 363(1-3):166-74. PMID: 16095670.
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