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    Iris Chi, PhD

    TitleChinese American Golden Age Association/Dr. Frances Wu Chair For Chinese Elderly, Professor of Social Work
    SchoolSchool of Social Work
    DepartmentSocial Work
    AddressMRF 329
    University Park Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-0411
    Phone+1 213 821 1360
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      IRIS CHI was installed as the Chinese-American Golden Age Association/Frances Wu Chair for the Chinese Elderly in 2004 and currently directs the China Program. She also has a joint appointment in the USC Davis School of Gerontology. Prior to joining the USC School of Social Work, she taught at the University of Hong Kong for 17 years, in addition to chairing the postgraduate research programs and serving as the director of the Sau Po Centre on Aging.

      An expert in elderly health and gerontology, Dr. Chi has participated in more than 60 studies and published more than 150 articles on such topics as long-term care, mental health chronic illness, community service, social support, dementia, Parkinson's disease and minimum data set (MDS). She has also been involved in seven cross-national collaborative research projects.

      A career milestone came in 2004 when the city of Hong Kong honored Dr. Chi with the prestigious Bronze Bauhina Star for her public and community service with the city's aging population. She has also earned a Certificate of Merit for Housing Research from the Hong Kong Institute of Planners, the Outstanding Research in Gerontology Award from the Hong Kong Association of Gerontology and the Best Research of the Year Award from the Hong Kong College of General Practitioners. As a result of her extensive work and expertise, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government appointed her to the Elderly Commission, a post she held for seven years.

      Dr. Chi is an honorary professor, member, consultant and advisor to more than 30 local and overseas elderly-related organizations such as the World Health Organization, Peking University and University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada. Among the organizations funding her efforts to provide professional training for elder care, training and accreditation for standardized care need assessors are the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charitable Foundation; Social Welfare Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government; China National Aging Committee, People's Republic of China; and Beijing Civil Affairs Bureau, People's Republic of China.

      She is also an expert reviewer and editorial board member for The Gerontologist, International Journal of Social Welfare, Journal of Social Work Practice, Evaluation and Geriatrics and Gerontology International. In addition, Dr. Chi serves on the Commission on Curriculum and Educational Innovation for the Council on Social Work Education, chairs the nomination committee for the International Association of the Schools of Social Work and was appointed an external examiner for Women's College in Beijing. Most recently, she was elected a national research mentor for the Hartford Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program and appointed to the National Program Advisory Committee for the Hartford Doctoral Fellows.

      A frequent lecturer in many universities throughout Asia, Dr. Chi presently teaches aging-related courses in the USC Master of Social Work program.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      University of Hong Kong & City University of Hong Kong2010  - 2011Distinguished Visiting Scholar
      Hong Kong Association of Gerontology2010Outstanding paper, 18th Annual Congress of Gerontology
      Gerontological Society of America2010Fellow
      Australian Association of Gerontology2010Gary Andrews Fellow

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Li J, Xu L, Chi I. Challenges and resilience related to aging in the United States among older Chinese immigrants. Aging Ment Health. 2017 Sep 15; 1-8. PMID: 28914547.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lam K, Kwan JSK, Wai Kwan C, Chong AML, Lai CKY, Lou VWQ, Leung AYM, Liu JYW, Bai X, Chi I. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Aug 23. PMID: 28843527.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Tang F, Chi I, Dong X. The Relationship of Social Engagement and Social Support With Sense of Community. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Jul 01; 72(suppl_1):S102-S107. PMID: 28575257.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Yuan L, Liu L, Leu R, Chi I. Designing a Patient Empowerment Program for Chinese Immigrants. Health Soc Work. 2017 May 01; 42(2):121-124. PMID: 28339934.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Bai X, Leung DY, Lai CK, Chong AM, Chi I. Mediating effect of decline in social activities on urinary incontinence and negative mood: Do sex and marital differences exist? Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017 Jan 06. PMID: 28060444.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Lu N, Xu L, Lou VWQ, Chi I. Intergenerational relationships and the trajectory of depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults in rural migrant families. Aging Ment Health. 2016 Dec 06; 1-8. PMID: 27922265.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Tang F, Xu L, Chi I, Dong X. Psychological Well-Being of Older Chinese-American Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Nov; 64(11):2356-2361. PMID: 27641829.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Li H, Xu L, Chi I. Perceived Need for Home- and Community-Based Services: Experiences of Urban Chinese Older Adults With Functional Impairments. J Aging Soc Policy. 2017 Mar-Apr; 29(2):182-196. PMID: 27573622.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Tang F, Xu L, Chi I, Dong X. Health in the Neighborhood and Household Contexts Among Older Chinese Americans. J Aging Health. 2016 Jul 01; 898264316661829. PMID: 27481932.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Xu L, Li Y, Min J, Chi I. Worry about not having a caregiver and depressive symptoms among widowed older adults in China: the role of family support. Aging Ment Health. 2017 Aug; 21(8):879-888. PMID: 27166663.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Zhou J, Mao W, Lee Y, Chi I. The Impact of Caring for Grandchildren on Grandparents' Physical Health Outcomes: The Role of Intergenerational Support. Res Aging. 2017 Jun; 39(5):612-634. PMID: 26733495.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Leung DY, Lo SK, Leung AY, Lou VW, Chong AM, Kwan JS, Chan WC, Chi I. Prevalence and correlates of abuse screening items among community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017 Jan; 17(1):150-160. PMID: 26627898.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Luo H, Lum TY, Wong GH, Kwan JS, Tang JY, Chi I. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Nursing Homes: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study and Development of the FRAIL-Minimum Data Set (MDS) Quick Screening Tool. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Dec; 16(12):1042-7. PMID: 26602760.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Lu N, Lou VW, Zuo D, Chi I. Intergenerational Relationships and Self-Rated Health Trajectories Among Older Adults in Rural China: Does Gender Matter? Res Aging. 2015 Oct 14. PMID: 26472103.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Dong X, Chen R, Wu B, Zhang NJ, Mui AC, Chi I. Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the USA. Gerontology. 2015; 62(1):71-80. PMID: 26336817.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Luo H, Tang JY, Wong GH, Chen CC, Lum TY, Chi I, Lou VW. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use on Subsequent Physical Decline and Number of Hospitalizations in Nursing Home Residents: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 Dec; 16(12):1048-54. PMID: 26234654.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Guo M, Chi I, Silverstein M. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference. Res Aging. 2016 Jul; 38(5):531-53. PMID: 26133805.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Liu JY, Chi I, Chan KS, Lai CK, Leung AY. The reliability and validity of the pain items of the Hong Kong version interRAI community health assessment for community-dwelling elders in Hong Kong. J Clin Nurs. 2015 Aug; 24(15-16):2352-4. PMID: 26041334.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Li H, Xu L, Chi I. Factors related to Chinese older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts. Aging Ment Health. 2016 Jul; 20(7):752-61. PMID: 25921725.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Um MY, Chi I, Kim HJ, Palinkas LA, Kim JY. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr; 131:107-13. PMID: 25769109.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Lee Y, Chi I. Do cognitive leisure activities really matter in the relationship between education and cognition? Evidence from the aging, demographics, and memory study (ADAMS). Aging Ment Health. 2016; 20(3):252-61. PMID: 25703525.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Hsiao HY, Liu Z, Xu L, Huang Y, Chi I. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices for Patients With Dementia Among Mental Health Providers in China: City and Town Differences. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2016 Oct-Dec; 37(4):342-358. PMID: 25625718.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Li C, Chi I, Zhang X, Cheng Z, Zhang L, Chen G. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults. Aging Ment Health. 2015; 19(10):947-54. PMID: 25407598.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Leung AY, Bo A, Hsiao HY, Wang SS, Chi I. Health literacy issues in the care of Chinese American immigrants with diabetes: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2014 Nov 18; 4(11):e005294. PMID: 25406155; PMCID: PMC4244415.
      25. Zuo D, Li S, Mao W, Chi I. End-of-life family caregiving for older parents in China's Rural Anhui province. Can J Aging. 2014 Dec; 33(4):448-61. PMID: 25330807.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Leung AY, Cheung MK, Chi I. Supplementing vitamin D through sunlight: associating health literacy with sunlight exposure behavior. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Jan-Feb; 60(1):134-41. PMID: 25456887.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Chan WC, Kwan CW, Chi I. Moderating effect of communication difficulty on the relationship between depression and pain: a study on community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Aging Ment Health. 2015; 19(9):829-34. PMID: 25316214.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Leung DY, Bai X, Leung AY, Liu BC, Chi I. Prevalence of medication adherence and its associated factors among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 Jun; 15(6):789-96. PMID: 25257337.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Bai ZG, Yang K, Tian JH, Ma B, Liu Y, Jiang L, Tan J, Liu TX, Chi I. Bicarbonate versus lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 04; (7):CD007034. PMID: 24992903.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Chan CL, Lai CK, Chi I. Initial validation of the Chinese interRAI Mental Health in people with psychiatric illness. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2014 Aug; 18(3):182-9. PMID: 24611537.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Chan WC, Kwan CW, Chi I, Chong AM. The impact of loneliness on the relationship between depression and pain of Hong Kong Chinese terminally ill patients. J Palliat Med. 2014 May; 17(5):527-32. PMID: 24717050.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Chang J, Guan Z, Chi I, Yang KH, Bai ZG. Evidence-based practice in the health and social services in China: developments, strategies, and challenges. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2014 Mar; 12(1):17-24. PMID: 24685896.
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      33. Lee JS, Auyeung TW, Chau PP, Hui E, Chan F, Chi I, Woo J. Obesity can benefit survival-a 9-year prospective study in 1614 Chinese nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014 May; 15(5):342-8. PMID: 24534518.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Leung DY, Leung AY, Chi I. Factors associated with chewing problems and oral dryness among older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Gerodontology. 2016 Mar; 33(1):106-15. PMID: 27534607.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Leung AY, Cheung MK, Chi I. Relationship among patients' perceived capacity for communication, health literacy, and diabetes self-care. J Health Commun. 2014; 19 Suppl 2:161-72. PMID: 25315591.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Lou VW, Kwan CW, Chong ML, Chi I. Associations Between Secondary Caregivers' Supportive Behavior and Psychological Distress of Primary Spousal Caregivers of Cognitively Intact and Impaired Elders. Gerontologist. 2015 Aug; 55(4):584-94. PMID: 24367070.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Rhee MK, Chi I, Yi J. Understanding employment barriers among older Korean immigrants. Gerontologist. 2015 Jun; 55(3):472-82. PMID: 24136989.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Li Y, Xu L, Chi I, Guo P. Participation in productive activities and health outcomes among older adults in urban China. Gerontologist. 2014 Oct; 54(5):784-96. PMID: 24030035.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Lou VW, Lu N, Xu L, Chi I. Grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults: the role of the grandparent-parent relationship. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013 Jul; 68(4):599-608. PMID: 23737401.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Li H, Chi I, Xu L. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2013 Jun; 28(2):153-65. PMID: 23636831.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Guo M, Chi I, Silverstein M. Sources of older parents' ambivalent feelings toward their adult children: the case of rural China. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013 May; 68(3):420-30. PMID: 23591570; PMCID: PMC3627660.
      42. Hsiao HY, Xu L, Chi I, Silverstein M. Does productive role occupancy prevent depression among older rural Chinese adults? A latent difference score analysis. Aging Ment Health. 2014; 18(1):51-8. PMID: 23438178.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Leung AY, Kwan CW, Chi I. Residents with Alzheimer's disease in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong: patterns of hospitalization and emergency room use. Aging Ment Health. 2013; 17(8):959-65. PMID: 23402396.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Liu BC, Chi I. The moderating effect of medication review on polypharmacy and loneliness in older Chinese adults in primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Feb; 61(2):290-2. PMID: 23405924.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Leung AY, Cheung MK, Lou VW, Chan FH, Ho CK, Do TL, Chan SS, Chi I. Development and validation of the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care. J Health Commun. 2013; 18 Suppl 1:205-22. PMID: 24093357; PMCID: PMC3815113.
      46. Lou VW, Chi I, Kwan CW, Leung AY. Trajectories of social engagement and depressive symptoms among long-term care facility residents in Hong Kong. Age Ageing. 2013 Mar; 42(2):215-22. PMID: 23117468.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Xu L, Wu B, Chi I, Hsiao HY. Intensity of grandparent caregiving and life satisfaction among rural Chinese older adults: a longitudinal study using latent difference score analysis. Fam Community Health. 2012 Oct-Dec; 35(4):287-99. PMID: 22929375.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Chi I, Jordan-Marsh M, Guo M, Xie B, Bai Z. Tai chi and reduction of depressive symptoms for older adults: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Jan; 13(1):3-12. PMID: 22680972.
        View in: PubMed
      49. MacEntee MI, Mariño R, Wong S, Kiyak A, Minichiello V, Chi I, Lo EC, Huancai L. Discussions on oral health care among elderly Chinese immigrants in Melbourne and Vancouver. Gerodontology. 2012 Jun; 29(2):e822-32. PMID: 22616910.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Leung DY, Leung AY, Chi I. Breast and colorectal cancer screening and associated correlates among Chinese older women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(1):283-7. PMID: 22502686.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Leung DY, Leung AY, Chi I. A psychometric evaluation of a negative mood scale in the MDS-HC using a large sample of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Age Ageing. 2012 May; 41(3):317-22. PMID: 22126988.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Leung AY, Chi I, Aranda MP. Introduction: long-term care needs in Hong Kong. Home Health Care Serv Q. 2011 Jul; 30(3):115-8. PMID: 21846225.
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      53. Lou VW, Kwan CW, Leung AY, Chi I. Psychological distress among Chinese adult-child caregivers: the effects of behavioral and cognitive components of care. Home Health Care Serv Q. 2011 Jul; 30(3):133-46. PMID: 21846227.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Leung DY, Leung AY, Chi I. An evaluation of the factor structure of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Involvement and Capacity scales of the Minimum Data Set for Home Care for elderly Chinese Community dwellers in Hong Kong. Home Health Care Serv Q. 2011 Jul; 30(3):147-59. PMID: 21846228.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Li Y, Chi I. Correlates of physician visits among older adults in China: the effects of family support. J Aging Health. 2011 Sep; 23(6):933-53. PMID: 21617127.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Liu CP, Leung DS, Chi I. Social functioning, polypharmacy and depression in older Chinese primary care patients. Aging Ment Health. 2011 Aug; 15(6):732-41. PMID: 21562990.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Bai ZG, Yang K, Tian J, Ma B, Liu Y, Jiang L, Tan J, Liu TX, Chi I. Bicarbonate versus lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 08; (9):CD007034. PMID: 20824854.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Wu B, Chi I, Plassman BL, Guo M. Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the US and Chinese elders in China. Aging Ment Health. 2010 Aug; 14(6):695-704. PMID: 20686981.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Liu J, Chen G, Chi I, Wu J, Pei L, Song X, Zhang L, Pang L, Han Y, Zheng X. Regional variations in and correlates of disability-free life expectancy among older adults in China. BMC Public Health. 2010 Jul 29; 10:446. PMID: 20670431; PMCID: PMC2920279.
      60. Chi I, Law BV, Leung AC, Liu CP, Yeoh CS, Cheng YH, Ma AM, Kwan CK, Lai C. Residential Assessment Instrument 2.0 in care planning for residents in nursing homes. Hong Kong Med J. 2010 Jun; 16 Suppl 3:29-33. PMID: 20601731.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Leung AY, Lou VW, Chan KS, Yung A, Chi I. Care management service and falls prevention: a case-control study in a Chinese population. J Aging Health. 2010 Apr; 22(3):348-61. PMID: 20147650.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Leung A, Chi I, Lou VW, Chan KS. Psychosocial risk factors associated with falls among Chinese community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Health Soc Care Community. 2010 May; 18(3):272-81. PMID: 20088953.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Lai CK, Yeung JH, Mok V, Chi I. Special care units for dementia individuals with behavioural problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 07; (4):CD006470. PMID: 19821370.
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      64. Feng Z, Hirdes JP, Smith TF, Finne-Soveri H, Chi I, Du Pasquier JN, Gilgen R, Ikegami N, Mor V. Use of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes: a cross-national study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 24(10):1110-8. PMID: 19280680; PMCID: PMC3764453.
      65. Liu J, Chi I, Chen G, Song X, Zheng X. Prevalence and correlates of functional disability in Chinese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009 Sep; 9(3):253-61. PMID: 19702935.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Guo M, Chi I, Silverstein M. Intergenerational support of Chinese rural elders with migrant children: do sons' or daughters' migrations make a difference? J Gerontol Soc Work. 2009 Jul; 52(5):534-54. PMID: 19585327.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Liu J, Chen G, Song X, Chi I, Zheng X. Trends in disability-free life expectancy among Chinese older adults. J Aging Health. 2009 Mar; 21(2):266-85. PMID: 19104033.
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      68. Wei-Qun LV, Chi I. Measuring grandparenthood stress and reward: Developing a scale based on perceptions by grandparents with adolescent grandchildren in Hong Kong. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2008 Dec; 8(4):291-9. PMID: 19149842.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Lau AL, Chi I, Cummins RA, Lee TM, Chou KL, Chung LW. The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) pandemic in Hong Kong: effects on the subjective wellbeing of elderly and younger people. Aging Ment Health. 2008 Nov; 12(6):746-60. PMID: 19023726.
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      70. Abdullah AS, Lam TH, Chan SK, Leung GM, Chi I, Ho WW, Chan SS. Effectiveness of a mobile smoking cessation service in reaching elderly smokers and predictors of quitting. BMC Geriatr. 2008 Oct 06; 8:25. PMID: 18837985; PMCID: PMC2570661.
      71. Lee JS, Hui E, Chan F, Chi I, Woo J. Associated factors of falls in nursing home residents in Hong Kong and the role of restraints: a cross-sectional survey using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) 2.0. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008 Oct; 20(5):447-53. PMID: 19039287.
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      72. Ling DC, Chi I. Determinants of work among older adults in urban China. Australas J Ageing. 2008 Sep; 27(3):126-33. PMID: 18713172.
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      73. Chou KL, Chi I. Reciprocal relationship between fear of falling and depression in elderly Chinese primary care patients. Aging Ment Health. 2008 Sep; 12(5):587-94. PMID: 18855174.
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      74. Chu LW, Chi I. Nursing homes in China. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008 May; 9(4):237-43. PMID: 18457798.
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      75. Krochalk PC, Li Y, Chi I. Widowhood and self-rated health among Chinese elders: the effect of economic condition. Australas J Ageing. 2008 Mar; 27(1):26-32. PMID: 18713212.
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      76. Lou WQ, Chi I, Mjelde-Mossey LA. Development and validation of a life satisfaction scale for Chinese elders. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2008; 67(2):149-70. PMID: 20063848.
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      77. Chu LW, Chiu AY, Chi I. Falls and subsequent health service utilization in community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008 Mar-Apr; 46(2):125-35. PMID: 17467081.
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      78. Leung A, Ko P, Chan KS, Chi I, Chow N. Searching health information via the web: Hong Kong chinese older adults' experience. Public Health Nurs. 2007 Mar-Apr; 24(2):169-75. PMID: 17319889.
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      79. Li Y, Aranda MP, Chi I. Health and life satisfaction of ethnic minority older adults in mainland China: effects of financial strain. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2007; 64(4):361-79. PMID: 17703679.
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      80. Chu LW, Chiu AY, Chi I. Impact of falls on the balance, gait, and activities of daily living functioning in community-dwelling Chinese older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Apr; 61(4):399-404. PMID: 16611708.
        View in: PubMed
      81. Chou KL, Ho AH, Chi I. The effect of depression on use of emergency department services in Hong Kong Chinese older adults with diabetes. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Sep; 20(9):900-2. PMID: 16116572.
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      82. Chou KL, Chi I. Functional disability related to diabetes mellitus in older Hong Kong Chinese adults. Gerontology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 51(5):334-9. PMID: 16110236.
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      83. Chi I, Yip PS, Chiu HF, Chou KL, Chan KS, Kwan CW, Conwell Y, Caine E. Prevalence of depression and its correlates in Hong Kong's Chinese older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 May; 13(5):409-16. PMID: 15879590.
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      84. Johnston JM, Chan SS, Chan SK, Lam TH, Chi I, Leung GM. Training nurses and social workers in smoking cessation counseling: a population needs assessment in Hong Kong. Prev Med. 2005 Apr; 40(4):389-406. PMID: 15530592.
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      85. Leung A, Lui YH, Chi I. Later life learning experience among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2005; 26(2):1-15. PMID: 16401599.
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      86. Chou KL, Chi I. Prevalence and correlates of depression in Chinese oldest-old. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Jan; 20(1):41-50. PMID: 15578666.
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      87. Chou KL, Lee PW, Yu EC, Macfarlane D, Cheng YH, Chan SS, Chi I. Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with depressive disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Nov; 19(11):1105-7. PMID: 15497192.
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      88. Chou KL, Chi I. Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 May; 19(5):449-57. PMID: 15156546.
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      89. Lai CK, Chi I, Kayser-Jones J. A randomized controlled trial of a specific reminiscence approach to promote the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004 Mar; 16(1):33-49. PMID: 15190995.
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      90. Leung AC, Yau DC, Liu CP, Yeoh CS, Chui TY, Chi I, Chow NW. Reducing utilisation of hospital services by case management: a randomised controlled trial. Aust Health Rev. 2004; 28(1):79-86. PMID: 15525254.
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      91. Yip PS, Chi I, Chiu H, Chi Wai K, Conwell Y, Caine E. A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003 Nov; 18(11):1056-62. PMID: 14618559.
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      92. Tsang KL, Chi I, Ho SL, Lou VW, Lee TM, Chu LW. Translation and validation of the standard Chinese version of PDQ-39: a quality-of-life measure for patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2002 Sep; 17(5):1036-40. PMID: 12360555.
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      93. Chou KL, Chi I. Successful aging among the young-old, old-old, and oldest-old Chinese. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2002; 54(1):1-14. PMID: 12003497.
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      94. Chou KL, Chi I. Chronic illness and depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults: a longitudinal study. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2002; 54(2):159-71. PMID: 12054273.
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