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    Gangning Liang, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Research Urology
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentUrology
    AddressNOR 7338
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90089-9176
    Phone+1 323 865 0470
    vCardDownload vCard
      Other Positions
      TitleDirector of Epigenetic Translational Research of The USC Institute of Urology.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Lakshminarasimhan R, Andreu-Vieyra C, Lawrenson K, Duymich CE, Gayther SA, Liang G, Jones PA. Down-regulation of ARID1A is sufficient to initiate neoplastic transformation along with epigenetic reprogramming in non-tumorigenic endometriotic cells. Cancer Lett. 2017 Aug 10; 401:11-19. PMID: 28483516.
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      2. Liang G, Weisenberger DJ. DNA methylation aberrancies as a guide for surveillance and treatment of human cancers. Epigenetics. 2017 Jun 03; 12(6):416-432. PMID: 28358281.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Vincent M, Mundbjerg K, Skou Pedersen J, Liang G, Jones PA, Ørntoft TF, Dalsgaard Sørensen K, Wiuf C. epiG: statistical inference and profiling of DNA methylation from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data. Genome Biol. 2017 Feb 21; 18(1):38. PMID: 28222791.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Helbo AS, Lay FD, Jones PA, Liang G, Grønbæk K. Nucleosome Positioning and NDR Structure at RNA Polymerase III Promoters. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 08; 7:41947. PMID: 28176797.
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      5. Chopra S, Liu J, Alemozaffar M, Nichols PW, Aron M, Weisenberger DJ, Collings CK, Syan S, Hu B, Desai M, Aron M, Duddalwar V, Gill I, Liang G, Siegmund KD. Improving needle biopsy accuracy in small renal mass using tumor-specific DNA methylation markers. Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 17; 8(3):5439-5448. PMID: 27690297.
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      6. Møller M, Strand SH, Mundbjerg K, Liang G, Gill I, Haldrup C, Borre M, Høyer S, Ørntoft TF, Sørensen KD. Heterogeneous patterns of DNA methylation-based field effects in histologically normal prostate tissue from cancer patients. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 13; 7:40636. PMID: 28084441.
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      7. Mundbjerg K, Chopra S, Alemozaffar M, Duymich C, Lakshminarasimhan R, Nichols PW, Aron M, Siegmund KD, Ukimura O, Aron M, Stern M, Gill P, Carpten JD, Ørntoft TF, Sørensen KD, Weisenberger DJ, Jones PA, Duddalwar V, Gill I, Liang G. Identifying aggressive prostate cancer foci using a DNA methylation classifier. Genome Biol. 2017 Jan 12; 18(1):3. PMID: 28081708.
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      8. Li HT, Duymich CE, Weisenberger DJ, Liang G. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Bladder Cancer. Int Neurourol J. 2016 Nov; 20(Suppl 2):S84-94. PMID: 27915480.
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      9. Liu M, Ohtani H, Zhou W, Ørskov AD, Charlet J, Zhang YW, Shen H, Baylin SB, Liang G, Grønbæk K, Jones PA. Vitamin C increases viral mimicry induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Sep 13; 113(37):10238-44. PMID: 27573823; PMCID: PMC5027469.
      10. Charlet J, Duymich CE, Lay FD, Mundbjerg K, Dalsgaard Sørensen K, Liang G, Jones PA. Bivalent Regions of Cytosine Methylation and H3K27 Acetylation Suggest an Active Role for DNA Methylation at Enhancers. Mol Cell. 2016 May 05; 62(3):422-31. PMID: 27153539; PMCID: PMC4859934 [Available on 05/05/17].
      11. Duymich CE, Charlet J, Yang X, Jones PA, Liang G. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells. Nat Commun. 2016 Apr 28; 7:11453. PMID: 27121154; PMCID: PMC4853477.
      12. Ding XL, Yang X, Liang G, Wang K. Isoform switching and exon skipping induced by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 19; 6:24545. PMID: 27090213; PMCID: PMC4835787.
      13. Becket E, Chopra S, Duymich CE, Lin JJ, You JS, Pandiyan K, Nichols PW, Siegmund KD, Charlet J, Weisenberger DJ, Jones PA, Liang G. Identification of DNA Methylation-Independent Epigenetic Events Underlying Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2016 04 01; 76(7):1954-64. PMID: 26759245; PMCID: PMC4873378 [Available on 04/01/17].
      14. Lakshminarasimhan R, Liang G. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 945:151-172. PMID: 27826838.
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      15. Kim JM, Kim K, Punj V, Liang G, Ulmer TS, Lu W, An W. Linker histone H1.2 establishes chromatin compaction and gene silencing through recognition of H3K27me3. Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 19; 5:16714. PMID: 26581166; PMCID: PMC4652225.
      16. Helbo AS, Treppendahl M, Aslan D, Dimopoulos K, Nandrup-Bus C, Holm MS, Andersen MK, Liang G, Kristensen LS, Grønbæk K. Hypermethylation of the VTRNA1-3 Promoter is Associated with Poor Outcome in Lower Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients. Genes (Basel). 2015 Oct 14; 6(4):977-90. PMID: 26473932; PMCID: PMC4690025.
      17. Huhdanpaa H, Hwang D, Cen S, Quinn B, Nayyar M, Zhang X, Chen F, Desai B, Liang G, Gill I, Duddalwar V. CT prediction of the Fuhrman grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC): towards the development of computer-assisted diagnostic method. Abdom Imaging. 2015 Oct; 40(8):3168-74. PMID: 26304585.
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      18. Duymich CE, Liang G. Unique Role for a DNA Methyltransferase Isoform in Lung Cancer. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct; 2(10):1272-3. PMID: 26629503; PMCID: PMC4634676.
      19. Roulois D, Loo Yau H, Singhania R, Wang Y, Danesh A, Shen SY, Han H, Liang G, Jones PA, Pugh TJ, O'Brien C, De Carvalho DD. DNA-Demethylating Agents Target Colorectal Cancer Cells by Inducing Viral Mimicry by Endogenous Transcripts. Cell. 2015 Aug 27; 162(5):961-73. PMID: 26317465; PMCID: PMC4843502.
      20. Chopra S, Satkunasivam R, Kundavaram C, Liang G, Gill IS. Outlining the limits of partial nephrectomy. Transl Androl Urol. 2015 Jun; 4(3):294-300. PMID: 26236649.
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      21. Saito Y, Saito H, Liang G, Friedman JM. Epigenetic alterations and microRNA misexpression in cancer and autoimmune diseases: a critical review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Oct; 47(2):128-35. PMID: 24362548; PMCID: PMC4651002.
      22. Yang X, Han H, De Carvalho DD, Lay FD, Jones PA, Liang G. Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and is a therapeutic target in cancer. Cancer Cell. 2014 Oct 13; 26(4):577-90. PMID: 25263941; PMCID: PMC4224113.
      23. Su SF, de Castro Abreu AL, Chihara Y, Tsai Y, Andreu-Vieyra C, Daneshmand S, Skinner EC, Jones PA, Siegmund KD, Liang G. A panel of three markers hyper- and hypomethylated in urine sediments accurately predicts bladder cancer recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Apr 01; 20(7):1978-89. PMID: 24691641.
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      24. Lay FD, Triche TJ, Tsai YC, Su SF, Martin SE, Daneshmand S, Skinner EC, Liang G, Chihara Y, Jones PA. Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition. Genome Res. 2014 Apr; 24(4):545-53. PMID: 24515120; PMCID: PMC3975055.
      25. Han H, Yang X, Pandiyan K, Liang G. Synergistic re-activation of epigenetically silenced genes by combinatorial inhibition of DNMTs and LSD1 in cancer cells. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75136. PMID: 24040395; PMCID: PMC3765366.
      26. Choi IS, Yu K, Kim J, De Guzman E, Weisenberger DJ, Oghamian S, Kim HJ, Lee KH, Carroll C, Trinh BN, Kim M, Houshdaran S, Laird PW, Jones PA, Warburton D, Liang G, Koh CJ. Alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns of Calca, Timp3, Mmp2, and Igf2r are associated with chronic cystitis in a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model. Urology. 2013 Jul; 82(1):253.e9-15. PMID: 23806407; PMCID: PMC3697025.
      27. Chihara Y, Kanai Y, Fujimoto H, Sugano K, Kawashima K, Liang G, Jones PA, Fujimoto K, Kuniyasu H, Hirao Y. Diagnostic markers of urothelial cancer based on DNA methylation analysis. BMC Cancer. 2013 Jun 04; 13:275. PMID: 23735005; PMCID: PMC3691617.
      28. You JS, De Carvalho DD, Dai C, Liu M, Pandiyan K, Zhou XJ, Liang G, Jones PA. SNF5 is an essential executor of epigenetic regulation during differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr; 9(4):e1003459. PMID: 23637628; PMCID: PMC3636213.
      29. Pandiyan K, You JS, Yang X, Dai C, Zhou XJ, Baylin SB, Jones PA, Liang G. Functional DNA demethylation is accompanied by chromatin accessibility. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Apr; 41(7):3973-85. PMID: 23408854; PMCID: PMC3627572.
      30. Su SF, Chang YW, Andreu-Vieyra C, Fang JY, Yang Z, Han B, Lee AS, Liang G. miR-30d, miR-181a and miR-199a-5p cooperatively suppress the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and signaling regulator GRP78 in cancer. Oncogene. 2013 Sep 26; 32(39):4694-701. PMID: 23085757; PMCID: PMC3787795.
      31. Kelly TK, Liu Y, Lay FD, Liang G, Berman BP, Jones PA. Genome-wide mapping of nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation within individual DNA molecules. Genome Res. 2012 Dec; 22(12):2497-506. PMID: 22960375; PMCID: PMC3514679.
      32. Han H, Wolff EM, Liang G. Epigenetic alterations in bladder cancer and their potential clinical implications. Adv Urol. 2012; 2012:546917. PMID: 22829811; PMCID: PMC3397159.
      33. De Carvalho DD, Sharma S, You JS, Su SF, Taberlay PC, Kelly TK, Yang X, Liang G, Jones PA. DNA methylation screening identifies driver epigenetic events of cancer cell survival. Cancer Cell. 2012 May 15; 21(5):655-67. PMID: 22624715; PMCID: PMC3395886.
      34. Yang X, Noushmehr H, Han H, Andreu-Vieyra C, Liang G, Jones PA. Gene reactivation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation requires SRCAP-mediated H2A.Z insertion to establish nucleosome depleted regions. PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(3):e1002604. PMID: 22479200; PMCID: PMC3315468.
      35. Sharma S, Gerke DS, Han HF, Jeong S, Stallcup MR, Jones PA, Liang G. Lysine methyltransferase G9a is not required for DNMT3A/3B anchoring to methylated nucleosomes and maintenance of DNA methylation in somatic cells. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2012 Jan 27; 5(1):3. PMID: 22284370; PMCID: PMC3292817.
      36. Taberlay PC, Kelly TK, Liu CC, You JS, De Carvalho DD, Miranda TB, Zhou XJ, Liang G, Jones PA. Polycomb-repressed genes have permissive enhancers that initiate reprogramming. Cell. 2011 Dec 09; 147(6):1283-94. PMID: 22153073; PMCID: PMC3240866.
      37. Treppendahl MB, Qiu X, Søgaard A, Yang X, Nandrup-Bus C, Hother C, Andersen MK, Kjeldsen L, Möllgård L, Möllgaard L, Hellström-Lindberg E, Jendholm J, Porse BT, Jones PA, Liang G, Grønbæk K. Allelic methylation levels of the noncoding VTRNA2-1 located on chromosome 5q31.1 predict outcome in AML. Blood. 2012 Jan 05; 119(1):206-16. PMID: 22058117; PMCID: PMC3251229.
      38. You JS, Kelly TK, De Carvalho DD, Taberlay PC, Liang G, Jones PA. OCT4 establishes and maintains nucleosome-depleted regions that provide additional layers of epigenetic regulation of its target genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 30; 108(35):14497-502. PMID: 21844352; PMCID: PMC3167525.
      39. Han H, Cortez CC, Yang X, Nichols PW, Jones PA, Liang G. DNA methylation directly silences genes with non-CpG island promoters and establishes a nucleosome occupied promoter. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Nov 15; 20(22):4299-310. PMID: 21835883; PMCID: PMC3196883.
      40. Qiu X, Friedman JM, Liang G. Creating a flexible multiple microRNA expression vector by linking precursor microRNAs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jul 29; 411(2):276-80. PMID: 21726537; PMCID: PMC3148277.
      41. Zhu W, Liang G, Huang Z, Doty SB, Boskey AL. Conditional inactivation of the CXCR4 receptor in osteoprecursors reduces postnatal bone formation due to impaired osteoblast development. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 29; 286(30):26794-805. PMID: 21636574; PMCID: PMC3143640.
      42. Molognoni F, Cruz AT, Meliso FM, Morais AS, Souza CF, Xander P, Bischof JM, Costa FF, Soares MB, Liang G, Jones PA, Jasiulionis MG. Epigenetic reprogramming as a key contributor to melanocyte malignant transformation. Epigenetics. 2011 Apr; 6(4):450-64. PMID: 21343701; PMCID: PMC3359486.
      43. Sharma S, De Carvalho DD, Jeong S, Jones PA, Liang G. Nucleosomes containing methylated DNA stabilize DNA methyltransferases 3A/3B and ensure faithful epigenetic inheritance. PLoS Genet. 2011 Feb 03; 7(2):e1001286. PMID: 21304883; PMCID: PMC3033376.
      44. Qiu X, Hother C, Ralfkiær UM, Søgaard A, Lu Q, Workman CT, Liang G, Jones PA, Grønbæk K. Equitoxic doses of 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine induce diverse immediate and overlapping heritable changes in the transcriptome. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 29; 5(9). PMID: 20927380; PMCID: PMC2947512.
      45. Kelly TK, Miranda TB, Liang G, Berman BP, Lin JC, Tanay A, Jones PA. H2A.Z maintenance during mitosis reveals nucleosome shifting on mitotically silenced genes. Mol Cell. 2010 Sep 24; 39(6):901-11. PMID: 20864037; PMCID: PMC2947862.
      46. Wolff EM, Chihara Y, Pan F, Weisenberger DJ, Siegmund KD, Sugano K, Kawashima K, Laird PW, Jones PA, Liang G. Unique DNA methylation patterns distinguish noninvasive and invasive urothelial cancers and establish an epigenetic field defect in premalignant tissue. Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 15; 70(20):8169-78. PMID: 20841482; PMCID: PMC2955801.
      47. Wolff EM, Byun HM, Han HF, Sharma S, Nichols PW, Siegmund KD, Yang AS, Jones PA, Liang G. Hypomethylation of a LINE-1 promoter activates an alternate transcript of the MET oncogene in bladders with cancer. PLoS Genet. 2010 Apr 22; 6(4):e1000917. PMID: 20421991; PMCID: PMC2858672.
      48. Ricca TI, Liang G, Suenaga AP, Han SW, Jones PA, Jasiulionis MG. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression associated with gene demethylation confers anoikis resistance in early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation. Transl Oncol. 2009 Dec; 2(4):329-40. PMID: 19956395; PMCID: PMC2781071.
      49. Jones PA, Liang G. Rethinking how DNA methylation patterns are maintained. Nat Rev Genet. 2009 11; 10(11):805-11. PMID: 19789556; PMCID: PMC2848124.
      50. Friedman JM, Jones PA, Liang G. The tumor suppressor microRNA-101 becomes an epigenetic player by targeting the polycomb group protein EZH2 in cancer. Cell Cycle. 2009 Aug; 8(15):2313-4. PMID: 19625769; PMCID: PMC2846299.
      51. Choi SH, Worswick S, Byun HM, Shear T, Soussa JC, Wolff EM, Douer D, Garcia-Manero G, Liang G, Yang AS. Changes in DNA methylation of tandem DNA repeats are different from interspersed repeats in cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009 Aug 01; 125(3):723-9. PMID: 19437537; PMCID: PMC4086885.
      52. Jeong S, Liang G, Sharma S, Lin JC, Choi SH, Han H, Yoo CB, Egger G, Yang AS, Jones PA. Selective anchoring of DNA methyltransferases 3A and 3B to nucleosomes containing methylated DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Oct; 29(19):5366-76. PMID: 19620278; PMCID: PMC2747980.
      53. Miranda TB, Cortez CC, Yoo CB, Liang G, Abe M, Kelly TK, Marquez VE, Jones PA. DZNep is a global histone methylation inhibitor that reactivates developmental genes not silenced by DNA methylation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Jun; 8(6):1579-88. PMID: 19509260; PMCID: PMC3186068.
      54. Friedman JM, Liang G, Liu CC, Wolff EM, Tsai YC, Ye W, Zhou X, Jones PA. The putative tumor suppressor microRNA-101 modulates the cancer epigenome by repressing the polycomb group protein EZH2. Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 69(6):2623-9. PMID: 19258506.
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      55. Saito Y, Friedman JM, Chihara Y, Egger G, Chuang JC, Liang G. Epigenetic therapy upregulates the tumor suppressor microRNA-126 and its host gene EGFL7 in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 13; 379(3):726-31. PMID: 19116145.
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      56. Gal-Yam EN, Egger G, Iniguez L, Holster H, Einarsson S, Zhang X, Lin JC, Liang G, Jones PA, Tanay A. Frequent switching of Polycomb repressive marks and DNA hypermethylation in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 02; 105(35):12979-84. PMID: 18753622; PMCID: PMC2529074.
      57. Wolff EM, Liang G, Cortez CC, Tsai YC, Castelao JE, Cortessis VK, Tsao-Wei DD, Groshen S, Jones PA. RUNX3 methylation reveals that bladder tumors are older in patients with a history of smoking. Cancer Res. 2008 Aug 01; 68(15):6208-14. PMID: 18676844; PMCID: PMC2536768.
      58. Weisenberger DJ, Trinh BN, Campan M, Sharma S, Long TI, Ananthnarayan S, Liang G, Esteva FJ, Hortobagyi GN, McCormick F, Jones PA, Laird PW. DNA methylation analysis by digital bisulfite genomic sequencing and digital MethyLight. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Aug; 36(14):4689-98. PMID: 18628296; PMCID: PMC2504308.
      59. Byun HM, Wong HL, Birnstein EA, Wolff EM, Liang G, Yang AS. Examination of IGF2 and H19 loss of imprinting in bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15; 67(22):10753-8. PMID: 18006818.
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      60. Lin JC, Jeong S, Liang G, Takai D, Fatemi M, Tsai YC, Egger G, Gal-Yam EN, Jones PA. Role of nucleosomal occupancy in the epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 CpG island. Cancer Cell. 2007 Nov; 12(5):432-44. PMID: 17996647; PMCID: PMC4657456.
      61. Yoo CB, Jeong S, Egger G, Liang G, Phiasivongsa P, Tang C, Redkar S, Jones PA. Delivery of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to cells using oligodeoxynucleotides. Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 01; 67(13):6400-8. PMID: 17616700.
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      62. Gonzalgo ML, Liang G. Methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension (Ms-SNuPE) for quantitative measurement of DNA methylation. Nat Protoc. 2007; 2(8):1931-6. PMID: 17703204.
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      63. Jia L, Shen HC, Wantroba M, Khalid O, Liang G, Wang Q, Gentzschein E, Pinski JK, Stanczyk FZ, Jones PA, Coetzee GA. Locus-wide chromatin remodeling and enhanced androgen receptor-mediated transcription in recurrent prostate tumor cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Oct; 26(19):7331-41. PMID: 16980632; PMCID: PMC1592894.
      64. Egger G, Jeong S, Escobar SG, Cortez CC, Li TW, Saito Y, Yoo CB, Jones PA, Liang G. Identification of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) hypomorphs in somatic knockouts suggests an essential role for DNMT1 in cell survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19; 103(38):14080-5. PMID: 16963560; PMCID: PMC1599915.
      65. Saito Y, Liang G, Egger G, Friedman JM, Chuang JC, Coetzee GA, Jones PA. Specific activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells. Cancer Cell. 2006 Jun; 9(6):435-43. PMID: 16766263.
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      66. Friedrich MG, Chandrasoma S, Siegmund KD, Weisenberger DJ, Cheng JC, Toma MI, Huland H, Jones PA, Liang G. Prognostic relevance of methylation markers in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Nov; 41(17):2769-78. PMID: 16242928.
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      67. Chuang JC, Yoo CB, Kwan JM, Li TW, Liang G, Yang AS, Jones PA. Comparison of biological effects of non-nucleoside DNA methylation inhibitors versus 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Oct; 4(10):1515-20. PMID: 16227400.
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      68. Wolff EM, Liang G, Jones PA. Mechanisms of Disease: genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive bladder cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2005 Oct; 2(10):502-10. PMID: 16474624.
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      69. Friedrich MG, Weisenberger DJ, Cheng JC, Chandrasoma S, Siegmund KD, Gonzalgo ML, Toma MI, Huland H, Yoo C, Tsai YC, Nichols PW, Bochner BH, Jones PA, Liang G. Detection of methylated apoptosis-associated genes in urine sediments of bladder cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 15; 10(22):7457-65. PMID: 15569975.
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      70. Cheng JC, Yoo CB, Weisenberger DJ, Chuang J, Wozniak C, Liang G, Marquez VE, Greer S, Orntoft TF, Thykjaer T, Jones PA. Preferential response of cancer cells to zebularine. Cancer Cell. 2004 Aug; 6(2):151-8. PMID: 15324698.
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      71. Egger G, Liang G, Aparicio A, Jones PA. Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy. Nature. 2004 May 27; 429(6990):457-63. PMID: 15164071.
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      72. Liang G, Lin JC, Wei V, Yoo C, Cheng JC, Nguyen CT, Weisenberger DJ, Egger G, Takai D, Gonzales FA, Jones PA. Distinct localization of histone H3 acetylation and H3-K4 methylation to the transcription start sites in the human genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 11; 101(19):7357-62. PMID: 15123803; PMCID: PMC409923.
      73. Cheng JC, Weisenberger DJ, Gonzales FA, Liang G, Xu GL, Hu YG, Marquez VE, Jones PA. Continuous zebularine treatment effectively sustains demethylation in human bladder cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 24(3):1270-8. PMID: 14729971; PMCID: PMC321446.
      74. Weisenberger DJ, Velicescu M, Cheng JC, Gonzales FA, Liang G, Jones PA. Role of the DNA methyltransferase variant DNMT3b3 in DNA methylation. Mol Cancer Res. 2004 Jan; 2(1):62-72. PMID: 14757847.
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      75. Nguyen CT, Weisenberger DJ, Velicescu M, Gonzales FA, Lin JC, Liang G, Jones PA. Histone H3-lysine 9 methylation is associated with aberrant gene silencing in cancer cells and is rapidly reversed by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 15; 62(22):6456-61. PMID: 12438235.
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      76. Ehrlich M, Jiang G, Fiala E, Dome JS, Yu MC, Long TI, Youn B, Sohn OS, Widschwendter M, Tomlinson GE, Chintagumpala M, Champagne M, Parham D, Liang G, Malik K, Laird PW. Hypomethylation and hypermethylation of DNA in Wilms tumors. Oncogene. 2002 Sep 26; 21(43):6694-702. PMID: 12242669.
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      77. Weisenberger DJ, Velicescu M, Preciado-Lopez MA, Gonzales FA, Tsai YC, Liang G, Jones PA. Identification and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of DNA methyltransferase 3a in mammalian cells. Gene. 2002 Sep 18; 298(1):91-9. PMID: 12406579.
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      78. Liang G, Gonzalgo ML, Salem C, Jones PA. Identification of DNA methylation differences during tumorigenesis by methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. Methods. 2002 Jun; 27(2):150-5. PMID: 12095274.
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      79. Liang G, Gonzales FA, Jones PA, Orntoft TF, Thykjaer T. Analysis of gene induction in human fibroblasts and bladder cancer cells exposed to the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15; 62(4):961-6. PMID: 11861364.
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      80. Liang G, Chan MF, Tomigahara Y, Tsai YC, Gonzales FA, Li E, Laird PW, Jones PA. Cooperativity between DNA methyltransferases in the maintenance methylation of repetitive elements. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jan; 22(2):480-91. PMID: 11756544; PMCID: PMC139739.