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    Chih Ping Chou, PhD

    TitleProfessor of Preventive Medicine
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentInstitute for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention
    AddressSSB 302X 2001 N. Soto Street
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 442 8239
    vCardDownload vCard

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      Dr. Chou is a Professor of Preventive Medicine. Â His research focuses on the advancement of research methodology and statistical techniques in social and health behavioral research. His research interest falls into three distinct areas: evaluation of prevention intervention of substance use among adolescents; evaluation of substance abuse treatment, and statistical and methodological application and development for prevention research. Â Dr. Chou is an internationally recognized researcher on structural equation modeling. Â He has a well-established record on the application and development of statistical models and research methodologies in prevention research, and has extensive experience in longitudinal analyses of the effects of health promotion interventions, structural equation modeling, multilevel modeling, growth curve modeling and psychometrics analysis. Â Dr. Chou received the Research Scientist Development Award and several research projects from NIH to study advanced statistical methods for prevention research. Â He has also been serving as the directors of measurement core and statistics core for four NIH funded transdisciplinary research centers based at USC. Â Dr. Chou also holds a joint appointment in School of Social Work.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Liao Y, Chou C, Huh J, Leventhal A, Dunton G. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. Int J Behav Med. 2016 Dec 22. PMID: 28008556.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Liao Y, Chou C, Huh J, Leventhal A, Dunton G. Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment. J Behav Med. 2016 Oct 20. PMID: 27766481.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Palinkas LA, Spear SE, Mendon SJ, Villamar J, Valente T, Chou C, Landsverk J, Kellam SG, Brown CH. Measuring sustainment of prevention programs and initiatives: a study protocol. Implement Sci. 2016; 11(1):95. PMID: 27422149.
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      4. Barrington-Trimis JL, Berhane K, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Urman R, Chou C, Howland S, Wang K, Pentz MA, Gilreath TD, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Samet JM, McConnell R. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Jul; 59(1):75-80. PMID: 27161417.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Li MJ, Frank HG, Harawa NT, Williams JK, Chou C, Bluthenthal RN. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 Apr 26. PMID: 27115618.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Sussman S, Chou C, Pang RD, Kirkpatrick M, Guillot CR, Stone M, Khoddam R, Riggs NR, Unger JB, Leventhal AM. Social Self-Control Is a Statistically Nonredundant Correlate of Adolescent Substance Use. Subst Use Misuse. 2016 May 11; 51(6):788-94. PMID: 27070833.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Gilreath TD, Leventhal A, Barrington-Trimis JL, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Berhane K, Huh J, Urman R, Wang K, Howland S, Pentz MA, Chou C, McConnell R. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Feb; 58(2):181-5. PMID: 26598059.
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      8. Rohrbach LA, Berglas NF, Jerman P, Angulo-Olaiz F, Chou C, Constantine NA. A Rights-Based Sexuality Education Curriculum for Adolescents: 1-Year Outcomes From a Cluster-Randomized Trial. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Oct; 57(4):399-406. PMID: 26403840.
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      9. An Z, Chou C. Social Support for First-Time Chinese Mothers in Contexts of Provider-Recipient Relationships. Health Commun. 2016 Apr; 31(4):504-12. PMID: 26422372.
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      10. Tanenbaum HC, Felicitas JQ, Li Y, Tobias M, Chou C, Palmer PH, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds KD, Anderson Johnson C, Xie B. Overweight Perception: Associations with Weight Control Goals, Attempts, and Practices among Chinese Female College Students. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Mar; 116(3):458-66. PMID: 26260670.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Barrington-Trimis JL, Berhane K, Unger JB, Cruz TB, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Urman R, Wang K, Howland S, Gilreath TD, Chou C, Pentz MA, McConnell R. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug; 136(2):308-17. PMID: 26216326.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Constantine NA, Jerman P, Berglas NF, Angulo-Olaiz F, Chou C, Rohrbach LA. Short-term effects of a rights-based sexuality education curriculum for high-school students: a cluster-randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2015; 15(1):293. PMID: 25886554.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Yang Y, Zhao X, Qiu P, Ma X, Chou C. Integrating spatial technology into studying the generational differences of migrants' health protection status in urban China. Int J Equity Health. 2015; 14(1):27. PMID: 25889727.
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      14. Felicitas JQ, Tanenbaum HC, Li Y, Chou C, Palmer PH, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds KD, Johnson CA, Xie B. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors, Foreign Media, and Attitude toward Appearance on General and Central Adiposity in Chinese Adolescents. Prev Med Rep. 2015; 2:608-214. PMID: 26279973.
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      15. Pentz MA, Shin H, Riggs N, Unger JB, Collison KL, Chou C. Parent, peer, and executive function relationships to early adolescent e-cigarette use: A substance use pathway? Addict Behav. 2015 Mar; 42:73-8. PMID: 25462657.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Ameringer KJ, Chou C, Sussman S, Unger JB, Leventhal AM. Identifying Shared Latent Dimensions of Psychological Symptoms: Implications for the Psychological Correlates of Smoking. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2015 Sep 1; 37(3):454-468. PMID: 26478654.
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      17. Ameringer KJ, Chou C, Leventhal AM. Shared versus specific features of psychological symptoms and cigarettes per day: structural relations and mediation by negative- and positive-reinforcement smoking. J Behav Med. 2015 Apr; 38(2):224-36. PMID: 25231408.
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      18. Tate EB, Unger JB, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA, Riggs NR. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake. Health Educ Behav. 2015 Apr; 42(2):163-70. PMID: 25194147.
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      19. Shen E, Chou C, Pentz MA, Berhane K. Quantile Mediation Models: A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Mediation Across the Outcome Distribution. Multivariate Behav Res. 2014 Sep-Oct; 49(5):471-85. PMID: 26732360.
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      20. Hsu YW, Chou C, Belcher BR, Nguyen-Rodriguez ST, Weigensberg MJ, McClain AD, Spruijt-Metz D. Double Jeopardy: Metabolic Syndrome Leads to Increased Sedentary Behavior in Peri-Pubertal Minority Females. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014 Apr 10. PMID: 24722884.
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      21. Shin HS, Valente TW, Riggs NR, Huh J, Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C, Ann Pentz M. The interaction of social networks and child obesity prevention program effects: The pathways trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Feb 25. PMID: 24616241.
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      22. Wu S, Ell K, Gross-Schulman SG, Sklaroff LM, Katon WJ, Nezu AM, Lee PJ, Vidyanti I, Chou C, Guterman JJ. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: Comparative effectiveness trial design. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014 Mar; 37(2):342-54. PMID: 24215775.
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      23. Huh J, Huang Z, Liao Y, Pentz M, Chou C. Transitional life events and trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use during emerging adulthood: latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013 Sep; 74(5):727-35. PMID: 23948532.
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      24. Spruijt-Metz D, Belcher BR, Hsu YW, McClain AD, Chou C, Nguyen-Rodriguez S, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI. Temporal relationship between insulin sensitivity and the pubertal decline in physical activity in peripubertal Hispanic and African American females. Diabetes Care. 2013 Nov; 36(11):3739-45. PMID: 23846812.
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      25. Wong CF, Schrager SM, Chou C, Weiss G, Kipke MD. Changes in developmental contexts as predictors of transitions in HIV-risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Am J Community Psychol. 2013 Jun; 51(3-4):439-50. PMID: 23254866.
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      26. Liao Y, Huang Z, Huh J, Pentz MA, Chou C. Changes in friends' and parental influences on cigarette smoking from early through late adolescence. J Adolesc Health. 2013 Jul; 53(1):132-8. PMID: 23583505.
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      27. Forster M, Dyal SR, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Chou C, Soto DW, Unger JB. Bullying victimization as a mediator of associations between cultural/familial variables, substance use, and depressive symptoms among Hispanic youth. Ethn Health. 2013; 18(4):415-32. PMID: 23297708.
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      28. Dunton GF, Liao Y, Grana R, Lagloire R, Riggs N, Chou C, Robertson T. State-wide dissemination of a school-based nutrition education programme: a RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Feb; 17(2):422-30. PMID: 23218458.
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      29. Chang MC, Parham LD, Blanche EI, Schell A, Chou C, Dawson M, Clark F. Autonomic and behavioral responses of children with autism to auditory stimuli. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 Sep; 66(5):567-76. PMID: 22917123.
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      30. Guo Q, Unger JB, Palmer PH, Chou C, Johnson CA. The role of cognitive attributions for smoking in subsequent smoking progression and regression among adolescents in China. Addict Behav. 2013 Jan; 38(1):1493-8. PMID: 23017586.
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      31. Dunton GF, Liao Y, Almanza E, Jerrett M, Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C, Pentz MA. Joint physical activity and sedentary behavior in parent-child pairs. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug; 44(8):1473-80. PMID: 22367744.
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      32. Ell K, Katon W, Lee PJ, Kapetanovic S, Guterman J, Xie B, Chou C. Depressive Symptom Deterioration among Predominantly Hispanic Diabetes Patients in Safety Net Care. Psychosomatics. 2012 Jul; 53(4):347-55. PMID: 22458987.
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      33. Riggs NR, Huh J, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Executive function and latent classes of childhood obesity risk. J Behav Med. 2012 Jan 5. PMID: 22218938.
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      34. Pentz MA, Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C, Riggs NR. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Dec; 8(12):4406-24. PMID: 22408581.
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      35. Ell K, Katon W, Xie B, Lee PJ, Kapetanovic S, Guterman J, Chou C. One-year postcollaborative depression care trial outcomes among predominantly Hispanic diabetes safety net patients. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Sep-Oct; 33(5):436-42. PMID: 21774987.
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      36. Hsu YW, Johnson CA, Chou C, Unger JB, Sun P, Xie B, Palmer PH, Gallaher PE, Spruijt-Metz D. Correlates of overweight status in Chinese youth: an East-West paradox. Am J Health Behav. 2011 Jul; 35(4):496-506. PMID: 22040595.
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      37. Fujimoto K, Chou C, Valente TW. The Network Autocorrelation Model using Two-mode Data: Affiliation Exposure and Potential Bias in the Autocorrelation Parameter. Soc Networks. 2011 Jul 1; 33(3):231-243. PMID: 21909184.
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      38. Riggs NR, Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C, Pentz MA. Relationships between executive cognitive function and lifetime substance use and obesity-related behaviors in fourth grade youth. Child Neuropsychol. 2012 Jan; 18(1):1-11. PMID: 21480013.
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      39. Clark F, Jackson J, Carlson M, Chou C, Cherry BJ, Jordan-Marsh M, Knight BG, Mandel D, Blanchard J, Granger DA, Wilcox RR, Lai MY, White B, Hay J, Lam C, Marterella A, Azen SP. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in promoting the well-being of independently living older people: results of the Well Elderly 2 Randomised Controlled Trial. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Sep; 66(9):782-90. PMID: 21636614.
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      40. Palmer PH, Xie B, Lee L, Chou C, Sun P, Hemingway B, Johnson CA. The China Seven Cities Study (CSCS) consortium: adapting evidence-based prevention science from west to east. Transl Behav Med. 2011 Jun; 1(2):283-8. PMID: 24073050.
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      41. Carlson M, Wilcox R, Chou C, Chang M, Yang F, Blanchard J, Marterella A, Kuo A, Clark F. Psychometric properties of reverse-scored items on the CES-D in a sample of ethnically diverse older adults. Psychol Assess. 2011 Jun; 23(2):558-62. PMID: 21319906.
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      42. Wagner KD, Lankenau SE, Palinkas LA, Richardson JL, Chou C, Unger JB. The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: balancing competing risks. Addict Behav. 2011 Aug; 36(8):835-42. PMID: 21498004.
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      43. Li D, London SJ, Liu J, Lee W, Jiang X, Van Den Berg D, Bergen AW, Nishita D, Waleh N, Swan GE, Gallaher P, Chou C, Shih JC, Unger JB, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland F, Johnson CA, Conti DV. Association of the calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein gene (CALY) with adolescent smoking initiation in China and California. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 May 1; 173(9):1039-48. PMID: 21415033.
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      44. Hasson RE, Adam TC, Davis JN, Kelly LA, Ventura EE, Byrd-Williams CE, Toledo-Corral CM, Roberts CK, Lane CJ, Azen SP, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Berhane K, Goran MI. Randomized controlled trial to improve adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in obese african-american and latino youth. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Apr; 20(4):811-8. PMID: 21293446.
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      45. Hsu YW, Chou C, Nguyen-Rodriguez ST, McClain AD, Belcher BR, Spruijt-Metz D. Influences of social support, perceived barriers, and negative meanings of physical activity on physical activity in middle school students. J Phys Act Health. 2011 Feb; 8(2):210-9. PMID: 21415448.
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      46. Ell K, Xie B, Kapetanovic S, Quinn DI, Lee PJ, Wells A, Chou C. One-year follow-up of collaborative depression care for low-income, predominantly Hispanic patients with cancer. Psychiatr Serv. 2011 Feb; 62(2):162-70. PMID: 21285094.
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      47. Rollins BY, Riggs NR, Spruijt-Metz D, McClain AD, Chou C, Pentz MA. Psychometrics of the Eating in Emotional Situations Questionnaire (EESQ) among low-income Latino elementary-school children. Eat Behav. 2011 Apr; 12(2):156-9. PMID: 21385647.
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      48. Xie B, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds K, Palmer PH, Wu Q, Gallaher P, Johnson CA. Longitudinal analysis of weight perception and psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2011 Jan-Feb; 35(1):92-104. PMID: 20950162.
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      49. Belcher BR, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Emken BA, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D. Physical activity in US youth: effect of race/ethnicity, age, gender, and weight status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Dec; 42(12):2211-21. PMID: 21084930.
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      50. Chou C, Chi F, Weisner C, Pentz M, Hser YI. Initial Status in Growth Curve Modeling for Randomized Trials. J Drug Issues. 2010 Dec; 40(1):155-172. PMID: 21572585.
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      51. Sattler F, Bhasin S, He J, Chou C, Castaneda-Sceppa C, Yarasheski K, Binder E, Schroeder ET, Kawakubo M, Zhang A, Roubenoff R, Azen S. Testosterone threshold levels and lean tissue mass targets needed to enhance skeletal muscle strength and function: the HORMA trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jan; 66(1):122-9. PMID: 21059836.
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      52. Huh J, Riggs NR, Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C, Huang Z, Pentz M. Identifying patterns of eating and physical activity in children: a latent class analysis of obesity risk. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Mar; 19(3):652-8. PMID: 20930718.
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      53. Wagner KD, Lankenau SE, Palinkas LA, Richardson JL, Chou C, Unger JB. The perceived consequences of safer injection: an exploration of qualitative findings and gender differences. Psychol Health Med. 2010 Oct; 15(5):560-73. PMID: 20835966.
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      54. Spruijt-Metz D, Wolch J, Jerrett M, Byrne J, Hsieh S, Myles R, Xie B, Wang L, Chou C, Reynolds KD. Development, reliability, and validity of an urban trail use survey. Am J Health Promot. 2010 Sep-Oct; 25(1):2-11. PMID: 20809825.
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      55. Riggs NR, Spruijt-Metz D, Sakuma KL, Chou C, Pentz MA. Executive cognitive function and food intake in children. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010 Nov-Dec; 42(6):398-403. PMID: 20719568.
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      56. Xie B, Unger JB, Gallaher P, Johnson CA, Wu Q, Chou C. Overweight, body image, and depression in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2010 Jul-Aug; 34(4):476-88. PMID: 20218759.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Ell K, Aranda MP, Xie B, Lee PJ, Chou C. Collaborative depression treatment in older and younger adults with physical illness: pooled comparative analysis of three randomized clinical trials. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Jun; 18(6):520-30. PMID: 20220588.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Riggs N, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Executive cognitive function as a correlate and predictor of child food intake and physical activity. Child Neuropsychol. 2010; 16(3):279-92. PMID: 20234954.
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      59. Wagner KD, Ritt-Olson A, Chou C, Pokhrel P, Duan L, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Soto DW, Unger JB. Associations between family structure, family functioning, and substance use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Psychol Addict Behav. 2010 Mar; 24(1):98-108. PMID: 20307116.
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      60. Wu Q, Xie B, Chou C, Palmer PH, Gallaher PE, Johnson CA. Understanding the effect of social capital on the depression of urban Chinese adolescents: an integrative framework. Am J Community Psychol. 2010 Mar; 45(1-2):1-16. PMID: 20066487.
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      61. Ell K, Katon W, Xie B, Lee PJ, Kapetanovic S, Guterman J, Chou C. Collaborative care management of major depression among low-income, predominantly Hispanic subjects with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr; 33(4):706-13. PMID: 20097780.
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      62. Guo Q, Unger JB, Azen SP, Li C, Spruijt-Metz D, Palmer PH, Chou C, Lee L, Sun P, Johnson CA. Cognitive attributions for smoking among adolescents in China. Addict Behav. 2010 Feb; 35(2):95-101. PMID: 19800741.
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      63. Riggs NR, Chou C, Pentz MA. Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction. 2009 Oct; 104(10):1691-9. PMID: 19681799.
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      64. Dunton GF, Spruijt-Metz D, Wolch J, Chou C, Jerrett M, Byrne J, Weaver S, Reynolds KD. Reasons for urban trail use predict levels of trail-related physical activity. J Phys Act Health. 2009 Jul; 6(4):426-34. PMID: 19842456.
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      65. Spruijt-Metz D, Belcher B, Anderson D, Lane CJ, Chou C, Salter-Venzon D, Davis JN, Hsu YW, Neuhouser ML, Richey JM, McKenzie TL, McClain A, Goran MI, Weigensberg MJ. A high-sugar/low-fiber meal compared with a low-sugar/high-fiber meal leads to higher leptin and physical activity levels in overweight Latina females. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jun; 109(6):1058-63. PMID: 19465188.
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      66. Myers R, Chou C, Sussman S, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Pachon H, Valente TW. Acculturation and substance use: social influence as a mediator among Hispanic alternative high school youth. J Health Soc Behav. 2009 Jun; 50(2):164-79. PMID: 19537458.
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      67. Valente TW, Fujimoto K, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D. Adolescent affiliations and adiposity: a social network analysis of friendships and obesity. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Aug; 45(2):202-4. PMID: 19628148.
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      68. Davis JN, Kelly LA, Lane CJ, Ventura EE, Byrd-Williams CE, Alexandar KA, Azen SP, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Berhane K, Goran MI. Randomized control trial to improve adiposity and insulin resistance in overweight Latino adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Aug; 17(8):1542-8. PMID: 19247280.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Jackson J, Mandel D, Blanchard J, Carlson M, Cherry B, Azen S, Chou C, Jordan-Marsh M, Forman T, White B, Granger D, Knight B, Clark F. Confronting challenges in intervention research with ethnically diverse older adults: the USC Well Elderly II Trial. Clin Trials. 2009 Feb; 6(1):90-101. PMID: 19254939.
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      70. Riggs NR, Chou C, Pentz MA. Protecting against intergenerational problem behavior: mediational effects of prevented marijuana use on second-generation parent-child relationships and child impulsivity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Feb 1; 100(1-2):153-60. PMID: 19036535.
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      71. Duan L, Chou C, Andreeva VA, Pentz MA. Trajectories of peer social influences as long-term predictors of drug use from early through late adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Mar; 38(3):454-65. PMID: 19636757.
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      72. Andreeva VA, Reynolds KD, Buller DB, Chou C, Yaroch AL. Concurrent psychosocial predictors of sun safety among middle school youth. J Sch Health. 2008 Jul; 78(7):374-81; quiz 408-10. PMID: 18611212.
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      73. Ma H, Unger JB, Chou C, Sun P, Palmer PH, Zhou Y, Yao J, Xie B, Gallaher PE, Guo Q, Wei Y, Chen B, Wang Z, Wang X, Duan H, Song Y, Gong J, Azen SP, Lee L, Johnson CA. Risk factors for adolescent smoking in urban and rural China: findings from the China seven cities study. Addict Behav. 2008 Aug; 33(8):1081-5. PMID: 18495363.
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      74. Jasuja GK, Chou C, Riggs NR, Pentz MA. Early cigarette use and psychological distress as predictors of obesity risk in adulthood. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Feb; 10(2):325-35. PMID: 18236297.
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      75. Spruijt-Metz D, Nguyen-Michel ST, Goran MI, Chou C, Huang TT. Reducing sedentary behavior in minority girls via a theory-based, tailored classroom media intervention. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008; 3(4):240-8. PMID: 19023773.
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      76. Weiss JW, Palmer PH, Chou C, Mouttapa M, Johnson CA. Association between psychological factors and adolescent smoking in seven cities in China. Int J Behav Med. 2008; 15(2):149-56. PMID: 18569133.
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      77. Hser YI, Huang D, Chou C, Anglin MD. Trajectories of heroin addiction: growth mixture modeling results based on a 33-year follow-up study. Eval Rev. 2007 Dec; 31(6):548-63. PMID: 17986707.
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      78. Riggs NR, Chou C, Li C, Pentz MA. Adolescent to emerging adulthood smoking trajectories: when do smoking trajectories diverge, and do they predict early adulthood nicotine dependence? Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Nov; 9(11):1147-54. PMID: 17978988.
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      79. Sun P, Unger JB, Guo Q, Gong J, Ma H, Palmer PH, Chou C, Li Y, Sussman S, Ritt-Olson A, Xiao L, Johnson CA. Comorbidity between depression and smoking moderates the effect of a smoking prevention program among boys in China. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Nov; 9 Suppl 4:S599-609. PMID: 18067035.
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      80. Nguyen-Rodriguez ST, Chou C, Unger JB, Spruijt-Metz D. BMI as a moderator of perceived stress and emotional eating in adolescents. Eat Behav. 2008 Apr; 9(2):238-46. PMID: 18329603.
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      81. Xie B, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds K, Clark F, Palmer PH, Gallaher P, Sun P, Guo Q, Johnson CA. Socio-demographic and economic correlates of overweight status in Chinese adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2007 Jul-Aug; 31(4):339-52. PMID: 17511569.
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      82. Liu C, Xie B, Chou C, Koprowski C, Zhou D, Palmer P, Sun P, Guo Q, Duan L, Sun X, Anderson Johnson C. Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China Seven Cities. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 23; 92(4):748-54. PMID: 17585967.
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      83. Reynolds KD, Wolch J, Byrne J, Chou C, Feng G, Weaver S, Jerrett M. Trail characteristics as correlates of urban trail use. Am J Health Promot. 2007 Mar-Apr; 21(4 Suppl):335-45. PMID: 17465179.
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      84. Sun W, Chou C, Stacy AW, Ma H, Unger J, Gallaher P. SAS and SPSS macros to calculate standardized Cronbach's alpha using the upper bound of the phi coefficient for dichotomous items. Behav Res Methods. 2007 Feb; 39(1):71-81. PMID: 17552473.
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      85. Hoffman BR, Monge PR, Chou C, Valente TW. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking. Addict Behav. 2007 Aug; 32(8):1546-54. PMID: 17188818.
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      86. Johnson CA, Xie B, Liu C, Reynolds KD, Chou C, Koprowski C, Gallaher P, Spruitj-Metz D, Guo Q, Sun P, Gong J, Palmer P. Socio-demographic and cultural comparison of overweight and obesity risk and prevalence in adolescents in Southern California and Wuhan, China. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Dec; 39(6):925.e1-8. PMID: 17116525.
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      87. Anderson Johnson C, Palmer PH, Chou C, Pang Z, Zhou D, Dong L, Xiang H, Yang P, Xu H, Wang J, Fu X, Guo Q, Sun P, Ma H, Gallaher PE, Xie B, Lee L, Fang T, Unger JB. Tobacco use among youth and adults in Mainland China: the China Seven Cities Study. Public Health. 2006 Dec; 120(12):1156-69. PMID: 17007895.
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      88. Guo Q, Johnson CA, Unger JB, Lee L, Xie B, Chou C, Palmer PH, Sun P, Gallaher P, Pentz M. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking. Addict Behav. 2007 May; 32(5):1066-81. PMID: 16934414.
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      89. Sun W, Andreeva VA, Unger JB, Conti DV, Chou C, Palmer PH, Sun P, Johnson CA. Age-related smoking progression among adolescents in China. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Nov; 39(5):686-93. PMID: 17046505.
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      90. Grenard JL, Guo Q, Jasuja GK, Unger JB, Chou C, Gallaher PE, Sun P, Palmer P, Anderson Johnson C. Influences affecting adolescent smoking behavior in China. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Apr; 8(2):245-55. PMID: 16766417.
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      91. Xie B, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds K, Clark F, Palmer PH, Gallaher P, Sun P, Guo Q, Johnson CA. Weight perception, academic performance, and psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2006 Mar-Apr; 30(2):115-24. PMID: 16533096.
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      92. Chou C, Li Y, Unger JB, Xia J, Sun P, Guo Q, Shakib S, Gong J, Xie B, Liu C, Azen S, Shan J, Ma H, Palmer P, Gallaher P, Johnson CA. A randomized intervention of smoking for adolescents in urban Wuhan, China. Prev Med. 2006 Apr; 42(4):280-5. PMID: 16487998.
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      93. Xie B, Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Reynolds K, Clark F, Palmer PH, Gallaher P, Sun P, Guo Q, Johnson CA. Weight perception and weight-related sociocultural and behavioral factors in Chinese adolescents. Prev Med. 2006 Mar; 42(3):229-34. PMID: 16458956.
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      94. Weiss JW, Spruijt-Metz D, Palmer PH, Chou C, Johnson CA. Smoking among adolescents in China: an analysis based upon the meanings of smoking theory. Am J Health Promot. 2006 Jan-Feb; 20(3):171-8. PMID: 16422135.
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      95. Sun P, Unger JB, Palmer PH, Gallaher P, Chou C, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Sussman S, Johnson CA. Internet accessibility and usage among urban adolescents in Southern California: implications for web-based health research. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005 Oct; 8(5):441-53. PMID: 16232037.
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      96. Johnson CA, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Palmer PH, Cen SY, Gallaher P, Chou C. Smoking prevention for ethnically diverse adolescents: 2-year outcomes of a multicultural, school-based smoking prevention curriculum in Southern California. Prev Med. 2005 Jun; 40(6):842-52. PMID: 15850886.
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      97. Weiss JW, Mouttapa M, Chou C, Nezami E, Anderson Johnson C, Palmer PH, Cen S, Gallaher P, Ritt-Olson A, Azen S, Unger JB. Hostility, depressive symptoms, and smoking in early adolescence. J Adolesc. 2005 Feb; 28(1):49-62. PMID: 15683634.
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      98. Trinidad DR, Unger JB, Chou C, Johnson CA. Emotional intelligence and acculturation to the United States: interactions on the perceived social consequences of smoking in early adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2005; 40(11):1697-706. PMID: 16253935.
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      99. Ritt-Olson A, Unger J, Valente T, Nezami E, Chou C, Trinidad D, Milam J, Earleywine M, Tan S, Johnson CA. Exploring peers as a mediator of the association between depression and smoking in young adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2005; 40(1):77-98. PMID: 15702650.
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      100. Reynolds KD, Bishop DB, Chou C, Xie B, Nebeling L, Perry CL. Contrasting mediating variables in two 5-a-day nutrition intervention programs. Prev Med. 2004 Nov; 39(5):882-93. PMID: 15475020.
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      101. Marie-Mitchell A, Leuchter AF, Chou C, James Gauderman W, Azen SP. Predictors of improved mood over time in clinical trials for major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Jun 30; 127(1-2):73-84. PMID: 15261707.
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      102. Richardson JL, Milam J, McCutchan A, Stoyanoff S, Bolan R, Weiss J, Kemper C, Larsen RA, Hollander H, Weismuller P, Chou C, Marks G. Effect of brief safer-sex counseling by medical providers to HIV-1 seropositive patients: a multi-clinic assessment. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1179-86. PMID: 15166533.
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      103. Unger JB, Chou C, Palmer PH, Ritt-Olson A, Gallaher P, Cen S, Lichtman K, Azen S, Johnson CA. Project FLAVOR: 1-Year Outcomes of a Multicultural, School-Based Smoking Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents. Am J Public Health. 2004 Feb; 94(2):263-5. PMID: 14759940.
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      104. Trinidad DR, Unger JB, Chou C, Azen SP, Johnson CA. Emotional intelligence and smoking risk factors in adolescents: interactions on smoking intentions. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Jan; 34(1):46-55. PMID: 14706405.
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      105. Chou C, Spruijt-Metz D, Azen SP. How can statistical approaches enhance transdisciplinary study of drug misuse prevention? Subst Use Misuse. 2004; 39(10-12):1867-906. PMID: 15587953.
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      106. Spruijt-Metz D, Chou C. The most critical unresolved issues associated with transdisciplinary substance use prevention research: programs, models, paradigms, concepts, and processes. Subst Use Misuse. 2004; 39(10-12):2071-2. PMID: 15587958.
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      107. Crawford AM, Pentz MA, Chou C, Li C, Dwyer JH. Parallel developmental trajectories of sensation seeking and regular substance use in adolescents. Psychol Addict Behav. 2003 Sep; 17(3):179-92. PMID: 14498812.
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      108. Xie B, Liu C, Chou C, Xia J, Spruijt-Metz D, Gong J, Li Y, Wang H, Johnson CA. Weight perception and psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2003 Sep; 33(3):202-10. PMID: 12944011.
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      109. Chou C, Hser YI, Anglin MD. Longitudinal treatment effects among cocaine users: a growth curve modeling approach. Subst Use Misuse. 2003 Jul; 38(9):1323-43. PMID: 12908814.
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      110. Trinidad DR, Chou C, Unger JB, Johnson CA, Li Y. Family harmony as a protective factor against adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in Wuhan, China. Subst Use Misuse. 2003 Jun; 38(8):1159-71. PMID: 12901453.
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      111. Li C, Pentz MA, Chou C. Parental substance use as a modifier of adolescent substance use risk. Addiction. 2002 Dec; 97(12):1537-50. PMID: 12472638.
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      112. Unger JB, Yan L, Shakib S, Rohrbach LA, Chen X, Qian G, Chou C, Jianguo S, Azen S, Zheng H, Johnson CA. Peer influences and access to cigarettes as correlates of adolescent smoking: a cross-cultural comparison of Wuhan, China, and California. Prev Med. 2002 Apr; 34(4):476-84. PMID: 11914054.
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