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    Brad Spellberg, MD

    TitleProfessor of Clinical Medicine
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressKEK 1500 San Pablo St
    Health Sciences Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
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      Other Positions
      TitleAssociate Dean For Clinical Affairs (LAC+USC)


      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Spellberg is Chief Medical Officer at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. He is also a Professor of Clinical Medicine and Associate Dean for Clinical Affairs at the Keck School of Medicine at USC. He received his BA in Molecular Cell Biology-Immunology from UC Berkeley. He then attended medical school at UCLA, where he received numerous academic honors, including serving as the UCLA AOA Chapter Co-President, and winning the prestigious Stafford Warren Award for the topic academic performance in his graduating class. Dr. Spellberg completed his Residency in Internal Medicine and subspecialty fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center.

      Dr. Spellberg has extensive administrative, patient care, and teaching activities. His NIH-funded research interests are diverse, ranging from basic immunology and vaccinology, to pure clinical and outcomes research, to process improvement work related to delivery of care, focusing on safety net hospitals. His laboratory research has focused on developing a vaccine that targets the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida; the vaccine is undergoing clinical development. Dr. Spellberg is currently working on the immunology, vaccinology, and host defense against highly resistant Gram negative bacilli, including Acinetobacter and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.

      Dr. Spellberg has worked extensively with the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to attempt to bring attention to the problems of increasing drug resistance and decreasing new antibiotics. His research regarding new drug development was a cornerstone of the IDSA’s white paper, Bad Bugs, No Drugs, and has been cited extensively in medical literature and on Capitol Hill. He first-authored numerous societal position papers and review articles relating to public policy of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development. Dr. Spellberg is the author of Rising Plague, which he wrote to inform and educate the public about the crisis in antibiotic resistant infections and lack of antibiotic development. He has appeared on TV programs including Dr. Oz, The Doctors, Katie Couric, and has given numerous radio and news interviews.

      Outside of medicine, he enjoys intergalactic hyperspace travel, dinosaur cloning, and going after bad guys while dressed up in a Kevlar suit with a cool utility belt. He has also been known to split an atom or two from time to time when bored. Sometimes, he reads non-medical textbooks and lifts weights.


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      University of California, Berkeley1991  - 1994Dean's List
      University of California, Berkeley1994Summa Cum Laude
      Phi Beta Kappa1994Elected Member
      UCLA School of Medicine1996First STAR Summer Fellowship Award
      Alpha Omega Alpha1998Elected Member
      UCLA Alpha Omega Alpha1998  - 1999Chapter Co-President
      American College of Physicians1999Outstanding Student in Internal Medicine at UCLA
      UCLA Department of Medicine1999Faculty Award for Outstanding Junior Medicine Clerk
      UCLA School of Medicine1999Stafford Warren Award
      Harbor-UCLA Medical Center2004Subspecialty Fellow of the Year
      LA Biomedical Research Institute 2007Liu Young Investigator's Award
      Choice Magazine2010Outstanding Academic Title Award for Rising Plague
      Department of Medicine, UCLA2011Kouichi R. Tanaka Distinguished Faculty Teaching Award
      LA BioMed Research Institute2013Richard E. Weitzman Memorial Prize for Meritorious Research

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Cheng BL, Nielsen TB, Pantapalangkoor P, Zhao F, Lee JC, Montgomery CP, Luna B, Spellberg B, Daum RS. Evaluation of serotypes 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides in protection against Staphylococcus aureus in murine models of infection. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Apr 19; 1-6. PMID: 28422567.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Marshall S, Hujer AM, Rojas LJ, Papp-Wallace KM, Humphries RM, Spellberg B, Hujer KM, Marshall EK, Rudin SD, Perez F, Wilson BM, Wasserman RB, Chikowski L, Paterson DL, Vila AJ, van Duin D, Kreiswirth BN, Chambers HF, Fowler VG, Jacobs MR, Pulse ME, Weiss WJ, Bonomo RA. Can ceftazidime/avibactam and aztreonam overcome ß-lactam resistance conferred by metallo-ß-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Feb 06. PMID: 28167541.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Wong D, Nielsen TB, Bonomo RA, Pantapalangkoor P, Luna B, Spellberg B. Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Acinetobacter Infections: a Century of Challenges. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jan; 30(1):409-447. PMID: 27974412.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Spellberg B, Bartlett JG, Gilbert DN. How to Pitch an Antibiotic Stewardship Program to the Hospital C-Suite. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Oct; 3(4):ofw210. PMID: 27844028.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Spellberg B, Marr KA, Brass EP. Regulatory Pathways for New Antimicrobial Agents: Trade-offs to Keep the Perfect From Being the Enemy of the Good. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Dec; 100(6):597-599. PMID: 27626768.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Spellberg B, Bonomo RA. Editorial Commentary: Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: "We're Gonna Need a Bigger Boat". Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 15; 63(12):1619-1621. PMID: 27624957.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wei EK, Sarff L, Spellberg B. Debunking the July Effect Myth. J Patient Saf. 2016 Sep 08. PMID: 27611769.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Spellberg B. The New Antibiotic Mantra-"Shorter Is Better". JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Sep 1; 176(9):1254-5. PMID: 27455385.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Spellberg B, Brass E. The VITAL study: case control studies are hypothesis-generating. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Aug; 16(8):886. PMID: 27477970.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Spellberg B. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Uncomplicated Skin Abscess. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 21; 375(3):284-6. PMID: 27468070.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, Catena F, Coccolini F, Abu-Zidan FM, Coimbra R, Moore EE, Moore FA, Maier RV, De Waele JJ, Kirkpatrick AW, Griffiths EA, Eckmann C, Brink AJ, Mazuski JE, May AK, Sawyer RG, Mertz D, Montravers P, Kumar A, Roberts JA, Vincent JL, Watkins RR, Lowman W, Spellberg B, Abbott IJ, Adesunkanmi AK, Al-Dahir S, Al-Hasan MN, Agresta F, Althani AA, Ansari S, Ansumana R, Augustin G, Bala M, Balogh ZJ, Baraket O, Bhangu A, Beltrán MA, Bernhard M, Biffl WL, Boermeester MA, Brecher SM, Cherry-Bukowiec JR, Buyne OR, Cainzos MA, Cairns KA, Camacho-Ortiz A, Chandy SJ, Che Jusoh A, Chichom-Mefire A, Colijn C, Corcione F, Cui Y, Curcio D, Delibegovic S, Demetrashvili Z, De Simone B, Dhingra S, Diaz JJ, Di Carlo I, Dillip A, Di Saverio S, Doyle MP, Dorj G, Dogjani A, Dupont H, Eachempati SR, Enani MA, Egiev VN, Elmangory MM, Ferrada P, Fitchett JR, Fraga GP, Guessennd N, Giamarellou H, Ghnnam W, Gkiokas G, Goldberg SR, Gomes CA, Gomi H, Guzmán-Blanco M, Haque M, Hansen S, Hecker A, Heizmann WR, Herzog T, Hodonou AM, Hong SK, Kafka-Ritsch R, Kaplan LJ, Kapoor G, Karamarkovic A, Kees MG, Kenig J, Kiguba R, Kim PK, Kluger Y, Khokha V, Koike K, Kok KY, Kong V, Knox MC, Inaba K, Isik A, Iskandar K, Ivatury RR, Labbate M, Labricciosa FM, Laterre PF, Latifi R, Lee JG, Lee YR, Leone M, Leppaniemi A, Li Y, Liang SY, Loho T, Maegele M, Malama S, Marei HE, Martin-Loeches I, Marwah S, Massele A, McFarlane M, Melo RB, Negoi I, Nicolau DP, Nord CE, Ofori-Asenso R, Omari AH, Ordonez CA, Ouadii M, Pereira Júnior GA, Piazza D, Pupelis G, Rawson TM, Rems M, Rizoli S, Rocha C, Sakakhushev B, Sanchez-Garcia M, Sato N, Segovia Lohse HA, Sganga G, Siribumrungwong B, Shelat VG, Soreide K, Soto R, Talving P, Tilsed JV, Timsit JF, Trueba G, Trung NT, Ulrych J, van Goor H, Vereczkei A, Vohra RS, Wani I, Uhl W, Xiao Y, Yuan KC, Zachariah SK, Zahar JR, Zakrison TL, Corcione A, Melotti RM, Viscoli C, Viale P. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA). World J Emerg Surg. 2016; 11:33. PMID: 27429642.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Wong D, Spellberg B. Leveraging Antimicrobial Stewardship into Improving Rates of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Virulence. 2016 May 17; 0. PMID: 27187821.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Spellberg B, Srinivasan A, Chambers HF. New Societal Approaches to Empowering Antibiotic Stewardship. JAMA. 2016 Mar 22-29; 315(12):1229-30. PMID: 26914942.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Rojas LJ, Taracila MA, Papp-Wallace KM, Bethel CR, Caselli E, Romagnoli C, Winkler ML, Spellberg B, Prati F, Bonomo RA. Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors Active against KPC and Other Class A ß-Lactamases: Structure-Activity Relationships as a Guide to Inhibitor Design. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016; 60(3):1751-9. PMID: 26729496.
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      15. Bruhn KW, Dekitani K, Nielsen TB, Pantapalangkoor P, Spellberg B. Ly6G-mediated depletion of neutrophils is dependent on macrophages. Results Immunol. 2016; 6:5-7. PMID: 26870635.
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      16. Russo TA, Spellberg B, Johnson JR. Important Complexities of the Antivirulence Target Paradigm: A Novel Ostensibly Resistance-Avoiding Approach for Treating Infections. J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 15; 213(6):901-3. PMID: 26563238.
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      17. Nielsen TB, Bruhn KW, Pantapalangkoor P, Junus JL, Spellberg B. Cryopreservation of virulent Acinetobacter baumannii to reduce variability of in vivo studies. BMC Microbiol. 2015; 15(1):252. PMID: 26526621.
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      18. Spellberg B, Brass EP. Noninferiority Doesn't Mean Not Inferior. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15; 62(4):525-6. PMID: 26486703.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Bruhn KW, Spellberg B. Transferrin-mediated iron sequestration as a novel therapy for bacterial and fungal infections. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015 Oct; 27:57-61. PMID: 26261881.
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      20. Spellberg B, Bonomo RA. Combination Therapy for Extreme Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Ready for Prime Time? Crit Care Med. 2015 Jun; 43(6):1332-4. PMID: 25978159.
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      21. Spellberg B, Doi Y. The Rise of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Community: Scarier Than We Thought. J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15; 212(12):1853-5. PMID: 25969562.
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      22. Broglio KR, Daar ES, Quintana M, Yuan Y, Kalsekar A, Spellberg B, Lewis RJ, Akker DV, Detry MA, Le T, Berry SM. A meta-analysis platform methodology for determining the comparative effectiveness of antihepatitis C virus regimens. J Comp Eff Res. 2015 Mar; 4(2):101-14. PMID: 25825840.
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      23. Fleischman RJ, Kaji AH, Diaz VM, McKenzie K, Soltero P, Van Natta TL, Spellberg B. A simple intervention to improve hospital flow from emergency department to inpatient units. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb 1; 175(2):289-90. PMID: 25545454.
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      24. Spellberg B, Bartlett J, Wunderink R, Gilbert DN. Novel Approaches Are Needed to Develop Tomorrow's Antibacterial Therapies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan 15; 191(2):135-40. PMID: 25590154.
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      25. Bruhn KW, Pantapalangkoor P, Nielsen T, Tan B, Junus J, Hujer KM, Wright MS, Bonomo RA, Adams MD, Chen W, Spellberg B. Host Fate is Rapidly Determined by Innate Effector-Microbial Interactions During Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteremia. J Infect Dis. 2015 Apr 15; 211(8):1296-305. PMID: 25378635.
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      26. Spellberg B, Gilbert DN. The future of antibiotics and resistance: a tribute to a career of leadership by john bartlett. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 15; 59 Suppl 2:S71-5. PMID: 25151481.
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      27. Kim D, Spellberg B. Does real-time feedback to residents with or without attendings improve medical documentation? Hosp Pract (1995). 2014 Aug; 42(3):123-30. PMID: 25255414.
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      28. Spellberg B, Shlaes D. Prioritized current unmet needs for antibacterial therapies. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Aug; 96(2):151-3. PMID: 25056396.
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      29. Park H, Solis NV, Louie JS, Spellberg B, Rodriguez N, Filler SG. Different tumor necrosis factor a antagonists have different effects on host susceptibility to disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice. Virulence. 2014 Jul 1; 5(5):625-9. PMID: 25007095.
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      30. Spellberg B. The future of antibiotics. Crit Care. 2014; 18(3):228. PMID: 25043962.
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      31. Chang DW, Huynh R, Sandoval E, Han N, Coil CJ, Spellberg B. Volume of fluids administered during resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock and the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Crit Care. 2014 Dec; 29(6):1011-5. PMID: 25027612.
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      32. David MZ, Daum RS, Bayer AS, Chambers HF, Fowler VG, Miller LG, Ostrowsky B, Baesa A, Boyle-Vavra S, Eells SJ, Garcia-Houchins S, Gialanella P, Macias-Gil R, Rude TH, Ruffin F, Sieth JJ, Volinski J, Spellberg B. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia at 5 US Academic Medical Centers, 2008-2011: Significant Geographic Variation in Community-Onset Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 15; 59(6):798-807. PMID: 24879783.
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      33. Spellberg B. Community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2014 May 8; 370(19):1861-2. PMID: 24806182.
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      34. Spellberg B, Bonomo RA. The Deadly Impact of Extreme Drug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii*. Crit Care Med. 2014 May; 42(5):1289-91. PMID: 24736340.
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      35. Shimizu E, Glaspy K, Witt MD, Poon K, Black S, Schwartz S, Bholat T, Diaz N, Kuo A, Spellberg B. Readmissions at a public safety net hospital. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91244. PMID: 24618829.
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      36. Chambers HF, Bartlett JG, Bonomo RA, Chiou C, Cosgrove SE, Cross HR, Daum RS, Downing M, Evans SR, Knisely J, Kreiswirth BN, Lautenbach E, Mickley BS, Patel R, Pettigrew MM, Rodvold KA, Spellberg B, Fowler VG. Antibacterial resistance leadership group: open for business. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun; 58(11):1571-6. PMID: 24610430.
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      37. Spellberg B. Antibiotic judo: working gently with prescriber psychology to overcome inappropriate use. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar 1; 174(3):432-3. PMID: 24474306.
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      38. Lin L, Pantapalangkoor P, Tan B, Bruhn KW, Ho T, Nielsen T, Skaar EP, Zhang Y, Bai R, Wang A, Doherty TM, Spellberg B. Transferrin iron starvation therapy for lethal bacterial and fungal infections. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15; 210(2):254-64. PMID: 24446527.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Luo G, Spellberg B, Gebremariam T, Lee H, Xiong YQ, French SW, Bayer A, Ibrahim AS. Combination therapy with iron chelation and vancomycin in treating murine staphylococcemia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 May; 33(5):845-51. PMID: 24292099.
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      40. Spellberg B, Rex JH. The value of single-pathogen antibacterial agents. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Dec; 12(12):963. PMID: 24232373.
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      41. Mendez CM, Harrington DW, Christenson P, Spellberg B. Impact of hospital variables on case mix index as a marker of disease severity. Popul Health Manag. 2014 Feb; 17(1):28-34. PMID: 23965045.
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      42. Spellberg B, Bonomo RA. "Airborne assault": a new dimension in Acinetobacter baumannii transmission*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8):2042-4. PMID: 23863241.
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      43. Shlaes DM, Sahm D, Opiela C, Spellberg B. The FDA reboot of antibiotic development. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Oct; 57(10):4605-7. PMID: 23896479.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Montgomery CP, Daniels MD, Zhao F, Spellberg B, Chong AS, Daum RS. Local inflammation exacerbates the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69508. PMID: 23861974.
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      45. Spellberg B, Harrington D, Black S, Sue D, Stringer W, Witt M. Capturing the diagnosis: an internal medicine education program to improve documentation. Am J Med. 2013 Aug; 126(8):739-743.e1. PMID: 23791207.
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      46. Thompson G, Wang S, Bercovitch R, Bolaris M, Van Den Akker D, Taylor S, Lopez R, Catanzaro A, Cadena J, Chin-Hong P, Spellberg B. Routine CSF analysis in coccidioidomycosis is not required. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64249. PMID: 23717579.
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      47. Spellberg B. End points in trials of treatments for skin infections. JAMA. 2013 May 22; 309(20):2091-2. PMID: 23695471.
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      48. Spellberg B, Sue D, Chang D, Witt M. Change in intern calls at night after a work hour restriction process change. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Apr 22; 173(8):707-9; discussion 663. PMID: 23529748.
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      49. Spellberg B, Taylor-Blake B. On the exoneration of Dr. William H. Stewart: debunking an urban legend. Infect Dis Poverty. 2013; 2(1):3. PMID: 23849720.
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      50. Bartlett JG, Gilbert DN, Spellberg B. Seven ways to preserve the miracle of antibiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May; 56(10):1445-50. PMID: 23403172.
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      51. Spellberg B, Bartlett JG, Gilbert DN. The future of antibiotics and resistance. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24; 368(4):299-302. PMID: 23343059.
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      52. Russo TA, Beanan JM, Olson R, MacDonald U, Cox AD, St Michael F, Vinogradov EV, Spellberg B, Luke-Marshall NR, Campagnari AA. The K1 capsular polysaccharide from Acinetobacter baumannii is a potential therapeutic target via passive immunization. Infect Immun. 2013 Mar; 81(3):915-22. PMID: 23297385.
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      53. Lin L, Tan B, Pantapalangkoor P, Ho T, Hujer AM, Taracila MA, Bonomo RA, Spellberg B. Acinetobacter baumannii rOmpA vaccine dose alters immune polarization and immunodominant epitopes. Vaccine. 2013 Jan 2; 31(2):313-8. PMID: 23153442.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Lin L, Tan B, Pantapalangkoor P, Ho T, Baquir B, Tomaras A, Montgomery JI, Reilly U, Barbacci EG, Hujer K, Bonomo RA, Fernandez L, Hancock RE, Adams MD, French SW, Buslon VS, Spellberg B. Inhibition of LpxC protects mice from resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by modulating inflammation and enhancing phagocytosis. MBio. 2012; 3(5). PMID: 23033474.
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      55. Shlaes DM, Spellberg B. Overcoming the challenges to developing new antibiotics. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012 Oct; 12(5):522-6. PMID: 22832234.
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      56. Spellberg B, Lewis RJ, Sue D, Chavoshan B, Vintch J, Munekata M, Kim C, Lanks C, Witt MD, Stringer W, Harrington D. A controlled investigation of optimal internal medicine ward team structure at a teaching hospital. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35576. PMID: 22532860.
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      57. Baquir B, Lemaire S, Van Bambeke F, Tulkens PM, Lin L, Spellberg B. Macrophage killing of bacterial and fungal pathogens is not inhibited by intense intracellular accumulation of the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic oritavancin. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54 Suppl 3:S229-32. PMID: 22431853.
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      58. Spellberg B, Kontoyiannis DP, Fredricks D, Morris MI, Perfect JR, Chin-Hong PV, Ibrahim AS, Brass EP. Risk factors for mortality in patients with mucormycosis. Med Mycol. 2012 Aug; 50(6):611-8. PMID: 22435877.
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      59. Luo G, Spellberg B, Gebremariam T, Bolaris M, Lee H, Fu Y, French SW, Ibrahim AS. Diabetic murine models for Acinetobacter baumannii infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jun; 67(6):1439-45. PMID: 22389456.
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      60. Spellberg B, Sharma P, Rex JH. The critical impact of time discounting on economic incentives to overcome the antibiotic market failure. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012 Feb; 11(2):168. PMID: 22293569.
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      61. Spellberg B, Ibrahim A, Roilides E, Lewis RE, Lortholary O, Petrikkos G, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ. Combination therapy for mucormycosis: why, what, and how? Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb; 54 Suppl 1:S73-8. PMID: 22247449.
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      62. Lewis RE, Lortholary O, Spellberg B, Roilides E, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ. How does antifungal pharmacology differ for mucormycosis versus aspergillosis? Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb; 54 Suppl 1:S67-72. PMID: 22247448.
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      63. Kontoyiannis DP, Lewis RE, Lortholary O, Lotholary O, Spellberg B, Petrikkos G, Roillides E, Ibrahim A, Walsh TJ. Future directions in mucormycosis research. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb; 54 Suppl 1:S79-85. PMID: 22247450.
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      64. Spellberg B. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis: an evolving disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 Feb; 8(2):140-2. PMID: 22485085.
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      65. Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Walsh TJ, Kontoyiannis DP. Pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb; 54 Suppl 1:S16-22. PMID: 22247441.
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      66. Luo G, Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Baquir B, Pantapalangkoor P, Bonomo RA, Doi Y, Adams MD, Russo TA, Spellberg B. Active and passive immunization protects against lethal, extreme drug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii infection. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29446. PMID: 22253723.
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      67. Daum RS, Spellberg B. Progress toward a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 15; 54(4):560-7. PMID: 22186773.
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      68. Spellberg B, Lipsky BA. Systemic antibiotic therapy for chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 1; 54(3):393-407. PMID: 22157324.
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      69. Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Baquir B, Palosaari A, Spellberg B. Luminescent-activated transfected killer cells to monitor leukocyte trafficking during systemic bacterial and fungal infection. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 15; 205(2):337-47. PMID: 22124127.
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      70. Spellberg B, Daum R. Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus. Semin Immunopathol. 2012 Mar; 34(2):335-48. PMID: 22080194.
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      71. Spellberg B. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection trials: the bad is the enemy of the good. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 53(12):1308-9; author reply 1309-10. PMID: 22028435.
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      72. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Chin-Hong PV, Kontoyiannis DP, Morris MI, Perfect JR, Fredricks D, Brass EP. The Deferasirox-AmBisome Therapy for Mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Mar; 67(3):715-22. PMID: 21937481.
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      73. Adams-Haduch JM, Onuoha EO, Bogdanovich T, Tian GB, Marschall J, Urban CM, Spellberg B, Rhee D, Halstead DC, Pasculle AW, Doi Y. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter baumannii in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Nov; 49(11):3849-54. PMID: 21918019.
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      74. Spellberg B. Vaccines for invasive fungal infections. F1000 Med Rep. 2011; 3:13. PMID: 21876719.
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      75. Combating antimicrobial resistance: policy recommendations to save lives. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52 Suppl 5:S397-428. PMID: 21474585.
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      76. Miller LG, McKinnell JA, Vollmer ME, Spellberg B. Impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among S. aureus isolates on surgical site infection risk after coronary artery bypass surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011 Apr; 32(4):342-50. PMID: 21460485.
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      77. Spellberg B. The antibiotic crisis: can we reverse 65 years of failed stewardship? Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jun 27; 171(12):1080-1. PMID: 21357798.
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      78. Spellberg B, Boucher H, Bradley J, Das A, Talbot G. To treat or not to treat: adjunctive antibiotics for uncomplicated abscesses. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):183-5. PMID: 21251530.
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      79. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Luo G, Fu Y, French SW, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Combination therapy of murine mucormycosis or aspergillosis with iron chelation, polyenes, and echinocandins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Apr; 55(4):1768-70. PMID: 21263057.
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      80. Spellberg B, Lewis RJ, Boucher HW, Brass EP. Design of clinical trials of antibacterial agents for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Clin Investig (Lond). 2011 Jan 1; 1(1):19-32. PMID: 21927712.
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      81. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS. Recent advances in the treatment of mucormycosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2010 Nov; 12(6):423-9. PMID: 21308550.
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      82. Spellberg B. Geographic differences in Medicare spending. N Engl J Med. 2010 Oct 21; 363(17):1678; author reply 1678-9. PMID: 20973149.
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      83. Spellberg B. Skin and soft-tissue infections: modern evolution of an ancient problem. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15; 51(8):904-6. PMID: 20839952.
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      84. Spellberg B, Daum R. A new view on development of a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine: insights from mice and men. Hum Vaccin. 2010 Oct; 6(10):857-9. PMID: 20930569.
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      85. Recommended design features of future clinical trials of antibacterial agents for hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 1; 51 Suppl 1:S150-70. PMID: 20597666.
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      86. Luo G, Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Nobile CJ, Mitchell AP, Fu Y. Candida albicans Hyr1p confers resistance to neutrophil killing and is a potential vaccine target. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 1; 201(11):1718-28. PMID: 20415594.
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      87. Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Baquir B, Fu Y, Applebaum D, Schwartz J, Wang A, Avanesian V, Spellberg B. Safety and efficacy of activated transfected killer cells for neutropenic fungal infections. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 1; 201(11):1708-17. PMID: 20397927.
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      88. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Lin L, Luo G, Husseiny MI, Skory CD, Fu Y, French SW, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. The high affinity iron permease is a key virulence factor required for Rhizopus oryzae pathogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Aug; 77(3):587-604. PMID: 20545847.
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      89. Liu M, Spellberg B, Phan QT, Fu Y, Fu Y, Lee AS, Edwards JE, Filler SG, Ibrahim AS. The endothelial cell receptor GRP78 is required for mucormycosis pathogenesis in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jun 1; 120(6):1914-24. PMID: 20484814.
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      90. Quan C, Spellberg B. Mucormycosis, pseudallescheriasis, and other uncommon mold infections. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 May; 7(3):210-5. PMID: 20463250.
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      91. Baquir B, Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Fu Y, Avanesian V, Tu A, Edwards J, Spellberg B. Immunological reactivity of blood from healthy humans to the rAls3p-N vaccine protein. J Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 1; 201(3):473-7. PMID: 20039802.
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      92. Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Xu X, Farber JM, Avanesian V, Baquir B, Fu Y, French SW, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Th1-Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000703. PMID: 20041174.
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      93. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, French SW, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. The iron chelator deferasirox enhances liposomal amphotericin B efficacy in treating murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Feb; 65(2):289-92. PMID: 19942619.
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      94. Spellberg B, Talbot GH, Boucher HW, Bradley JS, Gilbert D, Scheld WM, Edwards J, Bartlett JG. Antimicrobial agents for complicated skin and skin-structure infections: justification of noninferiority margins in the absence of placebo-controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 1; 49(3):383-91. PMID: 19555285.
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      95. Spellberg B, Walsh TJ, Kontoyiannis DP, Edwards J, Ibrahim AS. Recent advances in the management of mucormycosis: from bench to bedside. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15; 48(12):1743-51. PMID: 19435437.
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      96. Spellberg B, Andes D, Perez M, Anglim A, Bonilla H, Mathisen GE, Walsh TJ, Ibrahim AS. Safety and outcomes of open-label deferasirox iron chelation therapy for mucormycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jul; 53(7):3122-5. PMID: 19433555.
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      97. Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Baquir B, Avanesian V, Fu Y, Spellberg B. Immunological surrogate marker of rAls3p-N vaccine-induced protection against Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Apr; 55(3):293-5. PMID: 19159425.
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      98. Freifeld A, Proia L, Andes D, Baddour LM, Blair J, Spellberg B, Arnold S, Lentnek A, Wheat LJ. Voriconazole use for endemic fungal infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Apr; 53(4):1648-51. PMID: 19139290.
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      99. Ibrahim AS, Edwards JE, Bryant R, Spellberg B. Economic burden of mucormycosis in the United States: can a vaccine be cost-effective? Med Mycol. 2009; 47(6):592-600. PMID: 18798118.
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      100. Boucher HW, Talbot GH, Bradley JS, Edwards JE, Gilbert D, Rice LB, Scheld M, Spellberg B, Bartlett J. Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jan 1; 48(1):1-12. PMID: 19035777.
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      101. Spellberg B, Fleming TR, Gilbert DN. Executive summary: workshop on issues in the design and conduct of clinical trials of antibacterial drugs in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1; 47 Suppl 3:S105-7. PMID: 18986274.
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      102. Spellberg B, Talbot GH, Brass EP, Bradley JS, Boucher HW, Gilbert DN. Position paper: recommended design features of future clinical trials of antibacterial agents for community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1; 47 Suppl 3:S249-65. PMID: 19018610.
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      103. Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Edwards J. Iron acquisition: a novel perspective on mucormycosis pathogenesis and treatment. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec; 21(6):620-5. PMID: 18978530.
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      104. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Schwartz JA, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Posaconazole mono- or combination therapy for treatment of murine zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Feb; 53(2):772-5. PMID: 18936190.
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      105. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Liu M, Chamilos G, Kontoyiannis D, Mink R, Kwon-Chung KJ, Fu Y, Skory CD, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Bacterial endosymbiosis is widely present among zygomycetes but does not contribute to the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. J Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 1; 198(7):1083-90. PMID: 18694335.
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      106. Reed C, Bryant R, Ibrahim AS, Edwards J, Filler SG, Goldberg R, Spellberg B. Combination polyene-caspofungin treatment of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1; 47(3):364-71. PMID: 18558882.
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      107. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Yeaman MR, Lin L, Fu Y, Avanesian V, Bayer AS, Filler SG, Lipke P, Otoo H, Edwards JE. The antifungal vaccine derived from the recombinant N terminus of Als3p protects mice against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2008 Oct; 76(10):4574-80. PMID: 18644876.
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      108. Spellberg B. Dr. William H. Stewart: mistaken or maligned? Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 15; 47(2):294. PMID: 18564938.
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      109. Spellberg B. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Apr; 8(4):211-2; author reply 212-4. PMID: 18353258.
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      110. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Lin L, Avanesian V, Fu Y, Lipke P, Otoo H, Ho T, Edwards JE. Antibody titer threshold predicts anti-candidal vaccine efficacy even though the mechanism of protection is induction of cell-mediated immunity. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1; 197(7):967-71. PMID: 18419471.
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      111. Spellberg B. Novel insights into disseminated candidiasis: pathogenesis research and clinical experience converge. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Feb 8; 4(2):e38. PMID: 18282100.
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      112. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Husseiny MI, Stevens DA, Fu Y, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Comparison of lipid amphotericin B preparations in treating murine zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Apr; 52(4):1573-6. PMID: 18227182.
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      113. Ibrahim AS, Gebremariam T, Fu Y, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. Combination echinocandin-polyene treatment of murine mucormycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Apr; 52(4):1556-8. PMID: 18212099.
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      114. Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D, Bradley J, Boucher HW, Scheld WM, Bartlett JG, Edwards J. The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46(2):155-64. PMID: 18171244.
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      115. Lin L, Ibrahim AS, Avanesian V, Edwards JE, Fu Y, Baquir B, Taub R, Spellberg B. Considerable differences in vaccine immunogenicities and efficacies related to the diluent used for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Mar; 15(3):582-4. PMID: 18184821.
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      116. Fu Y, Luo G, Spellberg B, Edwards JE, Ibrahim AS. Gene overexpression/suppression analysis of candidate virulence factors of Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell. 2008 Mar; 7(3):483-92. PMID: 18178776.
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      117. Spellberg B. Prospects for and barriers to a fungal vaccine. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2007 Dec; 7(12):1785-8. PMID: 18034644.
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      118. Ibrahim AS, Gebermariam T, Fu Y, Lin L, Husseiny MI, French SW, Schwartz J, Skory CD, Edwards JE, Spellberg B. The iron chelator deferasirox protects mice from mucormycosis through iron starvation. J Clin Invest. 2007 Sep; 117(9):2649-57. PMID: 17786247.
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      119. Perlroth J, Choi B, Spellberg B. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Med Mycol. 2007 Jun; 45(4):321-46. PMID: 17510856.
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      120. Spellberg B, Miller LG, Kuo MN, Bradley J, Scheld WM, Edwards JE. Societal costs versus savings from wild-card patent extension legislation to spur critically needed antibiotic development. Infection. 2007 Jun; 35(3):167-74. PMID: 17565458.
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      121. Miller LG, Perdreau-Remington F, Bayer AS, Diep B, Tan N, Bharadwa K, Tsui J, Perlroth J, Shay A, Tagudar G, Ibebuogu U, Spellberg B. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics cannot distinguish community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infection: a prospective investigation. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15; 44(4):471-82. PMID: 17243048.
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      122. Spellberg B, Collins M, Avanesian V, Gomez M, Edwards JE, Cogle C, Applebaum D, Fu Y, Ibrahim AS. Optimization of a myeloid cell transfusion strategy for infected neutropenic hosts. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Mar; 81(3):632-41. PMID: 17158608.
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      123. Reed C, Ibrahim A, Edwards JE, Walot I, Spellberg B. Deferasirox, an iron-chelating agent, as salvage therapy for rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Nov; 50(11):3968-9. PMID: 17000743.
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      124. Spellberg B, Schwartz J, Fu Y, Avanesian V, Adler-Moore J, Edwards JE, Ibrahim AS. Comparison of antifungal treatments for murine fusariosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Nov; 58(5):973-9. PMID: 16973654.
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      125. Ibrahim AS, Edwards JE, Fu Y, Spellberg B. Deferiprone iron chelation as a novel therapy for experimental mucormycosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Nov; 58(5):1070-3. PMID: 16928702.
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      126. Rieg G, Spellberg B, Schwartz J, Fu Y, Edwards JE, Sheppard DC, Ibrahim AS. Antifungal prophylaxis is effective against murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Aug; 50(8):2895-6. PMID: 16870798.
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      127. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Avanesian V, Fu Y, Myers C, Phan QT, Filler SG, Yeaman MR, Edwards JE. Efficacy of the anti-Candida rAls3p-N or rAls1p-N vaccines against disseminated and mucosal candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 15; 194(2):256-60. PMID: 16779733.
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      128. Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Avanesian V, Fu Y, Edwards JE. The anti-Candida vaccine based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of Als1p is broadly active against disseminated candidiasis. Infect Immun. 2006 May; 74(5):3039-41. PMID: 16622247.
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      129. Spellberg B. Immunoglobulin G2 antibodies and HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors: what is the mechanism? J Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 1; 193(7):1047; author reply 1047-8. PMID: 16518769.
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      130. Spellberg B, Filler SG, Edwards JE. Current treatment strategies for disseminated candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 15; 42(2):244-51. PMID: 16355336.
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      131. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Avenissian V, Filler SG, Myers CL, Fu Y, Edwards JE. The anti-Candida albicans vaccine composed of the recombinant N terminus of Als1p reduces fungal burden and improves survival in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):6191-3. PMID: 16113347.
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      132. Spellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A. Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Jul; 18(3):556-69. PMID: 16020690.
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      133. Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Edwards JE, Filler SG. Mice with disseminated candidiasis die of progressive sepsis. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 15; 192(2):336-43. PMID: 15962230.
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      134. Spellberg B. Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) and cholera: the cause of World War II? J Med Biogr. 2005 May; 13(2):108-12. PMID: 19813314.
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      135. Spellberg B, Collins M, French SW, Edwards JE, Fu Y, Ibrahim AS. A phagocytic cell line markedly improves survival of infected neutropenic mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2005 Aug; 78(2):338-44. PMID: 15857941.
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      136. Miller LG, Perdreau-Remington F, Rieg G, Mehdi S, Perlroth J, Bayer AS, Tang AW, Phung TO, Spellberg B. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Los Angeles. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 7; 352(14):1445-53. PMID: 15814880.
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      137. Spellberg B. Is computed tomography of the head useful before lumbar puncture? Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1; 40(7):1061; author reply 1062-3. PMID: 15825004.
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      138. Ibrahim AS, Bowman JC, Avanessian V, Brown K, Spellberg B, Edwards JE, Douglas CM. Caspofungin inhibits Rhizopus oryzae 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase, lowers burden in brain measured by quantitative PCR, and improves survival at a low but not a high dose during murine disseminated zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb; 49(2):721-7. PMID: 15673756.
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      139. Spellberg B, Fu Y, Edwards JE, Ibrahim AS. Combination therapy with amphotericin B lipid complex and caspofungin acetate of disseminated zygomycosis in diabetic ketoacidotic mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb; 49(2):830-2. PMID: 15673781.
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      140. Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Avanessian V, Fu Y, Edwards JE. Rhizopus oryzae adheres to, is phagocytosed by, and damages endothelial cells in vitro. Infect Immun. 2005 Feb; 73(2):778-83. PMID: 15664916.
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      141. Ibrahim AS, Spellberg B, Avenissian V, Fu Y, Filler SG, Edwards JE. Vaccination with recombinant N-terminal domain of Als1p improves survival during murine disseminated candidiasis by enhancing cell-mediated, not humoral, immunity. Infect Immun. 2005 Feb; 73(2):999-1005. PMID: 15664943.
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      142. Spellberg B, Yoo T, Bayer AS. Reversal of linezolid-associated cytopenias, but not peripheral neuropathy, by administration of vitamin B6. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004 Oct; 54(4):832-5. PMID: 15317746.
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      143. Miller LG, Spellberg B. Treatment of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections with drainage but no antibiotic therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Aug; 23(8):795; author reply 795-6. PMID: 15295240.
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      144. Fu Y, Lee H, Collins M, Tsai HF, Spellberg B, Edwards JE, Kwon-Chung KJ, Ibrahim AS. Cloning and functional characterization of the Rhizopus oryzae high affinity iron permease (rFTR1) gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Jun 1; 235(1):169-76. PMID: 15158278.
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      145. Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE. Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 1; 38(9):1279-86. PMID: 15127341.
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      146. Spellberg B, Witt MD, Beck CK. Amphotericin B: is a lipid-formulation gold standard feasible? Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15; 38(2):304-5; author reply 306-7. PMID: 14699470.
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      147. Miller LG, Spellberg B. Spider bites and infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2004; 5(3):321-2; author reply 322. PMID: 15684805.
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      148. Ibrahim AS, Avanessian V, Spellberg B, Edwards JE. Liposomal amphotericin B, and not amphotericin B deoxycholate, improves survival of diabetic mice infected with Rhizopus oryzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct; 47(10):3343-4. PMID: 14506054.
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      149. Spellberg B, Johnston D, Phan QT, Edwards JE, French SW, Ibrahim AS, Filler SG. Parenchymal organ, and not splenic, immunity correlates with host survival during disseminated candidiasis. Infect Immun. 2003 Oct; 71(10):5756-64. PMID: 14500497.
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      150. Spellberg B, Rieg G, Bayer A, Edwards JE. Lack of cross-hepatotoxicity between fluconazole and voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Apr 15; 36(8):1091-3. PMID: 12684933.
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      151. Spellberg B, Edwards JE. The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Candida Sepsis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2002 Oct; 4(5):387-399. PMID: 12228025.
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      152. Spellberg B, Carroll RM, Robinson E, Brass E. mtDNA disease in the primary care setting. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Nov 12; 161(20):2497-500. PMID: 11700163.
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      153. Spellberg B, Edwards JE. Type 1/Type 2 immunity in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jan; 32(1):76-102. PMID: 11118387.
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      154. Spellberg B. The cutaneous citadel: a holistic view of skin and immunity. Life Sci. 2000 Jun 23; 67(5):477-502. PMID: 10993114.
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      155. Spellberg B, Schiller GJ. Autologous bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1999 Oct; 13(5):919-38. PMID: 10553255.
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      156. Spellberg B. Mechanism of intravenous immune globulin therapy. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jul 1; 341(1):57-8. PMID: 10391765.
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      157. Wirshing DA, Spellberg B, Erhart SM, Marder SR, Wirshing WC. Novel antipsychotics and new onset diabetes. Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Oct 15; 44(8):778-83. PMID: 9798083.
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      158. Deirmenjian JM, Erhart SM, Wirshing DA, Spellberg B, Wirshing WC. Olanzapine-induced reversible priaprism: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Aug; 18(4):351-3. PMID: 9690708.
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      159. Fu Y, Filler SG, Spellberg B, Fonzi W, Ibrahim AS, Kanbe T, Ghannoum MA, Edwards JE. Cloning and characterization of CAD1/AAF1, a gene from Candida albicans that induces adherence to endothelial cells after expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Infect Immun. 1998 May; 66(5):2078-84. PMID: 9573092.
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      160. Libraty DH, Airan LE, Uyemura K, Jullien D, Spellberg B, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Interferon-gamma differentially regulates interleukin-12 and interleukin-10 production in leprosy. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jan 15; 99(2):336-41. PMID: 9006002.
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      161. Filler SG, Pfunder AS, Spellberg B, Spellberg JP, Edwards JE. Candida albicans stimulates cytokine production and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression by endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 1996 Jul; 64(7):2609-17. PMID: 8698486.
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      162. Ghannoum MA, Spellberg B, Saporito-Irwin SM, Fonzi WA. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans PHR1 mutants. Infect Immun. 1995 Nov; 63(11):4528-30. PMID: 7591097.
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      163. Ghannoum MA, Spellberg B, Ibrahim AS, Ritchie JA, Currie B, Spitzer ED, Edwards JE, Casadevall A. Sterol composition of Cryptococcus neoformans in the presence and absence of fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Sep; 38(9):2029-33. PMID: 7811014.
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