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    Alice Marie Stek, MD

    TitleAssistant Professor of Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology
    SchoolKeck School of Medicine of USC
    DepartmentObstetrics & Gynecology
    AddressIRD 220 2020 Zonal Ave
    Off Campus
    Los Angeles California 90033
    Phone+1 323 226 2534
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      Other Positions
      TitleDirector, Hiv Services


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      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Stek completed a residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology and a fellowship in maternal-fetal medicine (MFM). Her research and clinical interests are primarily in the field of HIV in pregnancy and HIV in women. She has been conducting clinical research in these areas since starting her MFM Fellowship. Dr. Stek has been active in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group for over 12 years, where she serves on the Perinatal RAC, the Obstetrics Subcommittee and the AACTG Womens Health Committee. She is a member of eight PACTG and AACTG protocol teams and is co-chair and vice-chair of several protocols. She is also a member of the local WIHS team.

      Dr. Steks current research, both in the multicenter research organizations and in the MCA Centers own projects, focuses on the use of antiretroviral medications in pregnancy. Dr. Stek, in collaboration with PACTG pharmacologists in Boston, San Diego, and San Francisco, and locally with Dr. Michael Neely and the USC School of Pharmacy, is studying the pharmacokinetics, and safety and efficacy (collaborating with PACTG, AACTG, and MCA internists and pediatricians) of the medications used to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and for maternal health. Together with a pathologist at Baylor University, she is studying placental pathology in women using antiretrovirals during pregnancy. She collaborated with the USC pathology/lo aboratory medicine department and MCA pediatricians in designing and implementing a rapid HIV testing program for women in labor, and is currently evaluating this program with the USC pathology/laboratory medicine department and an MCA epidemiologist. Other collaborative research projects in the PACTG and AACTG include a comprehensive project to collect data on HIV-infected pregnancies, an evaluation of postpartum virologic and immunologic changes, and a trial of a therapeutic HPV vaccine in HIV-positive adolescents. In addition to these research activities, Dr. Stek provides clinical care for MCAs pregnant patients, and teaches at Womens and Childrens Hospital, USC Keck School of Medicine, and occasionally at USC main campus, as well as outside the university both in the local community and outside of Los Angeles.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Scott GB, Brogly SB, Muenz D, Stek A, Read JS. Missed Opportunities for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Apr; 129(4):621-628. PMID: 28277349.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Livingston EG, Huo Y, Patel K, Tuomala RE, Scott GB, Stek A. Complications and Route of Delivery in a Large Cohort Study of HIV-1-Infected Women-IMPAACT P1025. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Sep 01; 73(1):74-82. PMID: 27082506; PMCID: PMC4981552 [Available on 09/01/17].
      3. Mulligan N, Schalkwijk S, Best BM, Colbers A, Wang J, Capparelli EV, Moltó J, Stek A, Taylor G, Smith E, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Chakhtoura N, van Kasteren M, Fletcher CV, Mirochnick M, Burger D. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. Front Pharmacol. 2016; 7:239. PMID: 27540363; PMCID: PMC4972814.
      4. Tran AH, Best BM, Stek A, Wang J, Capparelli EV, Burchett SK, Kreitchmann R, Rungruengthanakit K, George K, Cressey TR, Chakhtoura N, Smith E, Shapiro DE, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of Rilpivirine in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jul 01; 72(3):289-96. PMID: 26918544; PMCID: PMC4911231 [Available on 07/01/17].
      5. Stek A, Best BM, Wang J, Capparelli EV, Burchett SK, Kreitchmann R, Rungruengthanakit K, Cressey TR, Mofenson LM, Smith E, Shapiro D, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of Once Versus Twice Daily Darunavir in Pregnant HIV-Infected Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Sep 01; 70(1):33-41. PMID: 25950206; PMCID: PMC4579345.
      6. Colbers A, Best B, Schalkwijk S, Wang J, Stek A, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Hawkins D, Taylor G, Kreitchmann R, Burchett S, Haberl A, Kabeya K, van Kasteren M, Smith E, Capparelli E, Burger D, Mirochnick M. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 15; 61(10):1582-9. PMID: 26202768; PMCID: PMC4614410 [Available on 11/15/16].
      7. Sha BE, Tierney C, Sun X, Stek A, Cohn SE, Coombs RW, Bastow B, Aweeka FT. PHARMACOKINETIC EXPOSURE AND VIROLOGIC RESPONSE IN HIV-1 INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN TREATED WITH LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR: AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP PROTOCOL A5153S: A SUBSTUDY TO A5150. Jacobs J AIDS HIV. 2015; 1(1). PMID: 26878071.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Best BM, Burchett S, Li H, Stek A, Hu C, Wang J, Hawkins E, Byroads M, Watts DH, Smith E, Fletcher CV, Capparelli EV, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir during pregnancy and postpartum. HIV Med. 2015 Sep; 16(8):502-11. PMID: 25959631; PMCID: PMC4862736.
      9. Katz IT, Leister E, Kacanek D, Hughes MD, Bardeguez A, Livingston E, Stek A, Shapiro DE, Tuomala R. Factors associated with lack of viral suppression at delivery among highly active antiretroviral therapy-naive women with HIV: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jan 20; 162(2):90-9. PMID: 25599347; PMCID: PMC4299931.
      10. Watts DH, Stek A, Best BM, Wang J, Capparelli EV, Cressey TR, Aweeka F, Lizak P, Kreitchmann R, Burchett SK, Shapiro DE, Hawkins E, Smith E, Mirochnick M. Raltegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Dec 01; 67(4):375-81. PMID: 25162818; PMCID: PMC4213295.
      11. Aweeka FT, Hu C, Huang L, Best BM, Stek A, Lizak P, Burchett SK, Read JS, Watts H, Mirochnick M, Capparelli EV. Alteration in cytochrome P450 3A4 activity as measured by a urine cortisol assay in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and relationship to antiretroviral pharmacokinetics. HIV Med. 2015 Mar; 16(3):176-83. PMID: 25407158; PMCID: PMC4320673.
      12. Atrio J, Stek A, Vora H, Sanchez-Keeland L, Zannat F, Natavio M. The effect of protease inhibitors on the cervical mucus of HIV-positive women taking norethindrone contraception. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2015 Apr; 20(2):149-53. PMID: 25285572; PMCID: PMC4655593.
      13. Cressey TR, Urien S, Capparelli EV, Best BM, Buranabanjasatean S, Limtrakul A, Rawangban B, Sabsanong P, Treluyer JM, Jourdain G, Stek A, Lallemant M, Mirochnick M. Impact of body weight and missed doses on lopinavir concentrations with standard and increased lopinavir/ritonavir doses during late pregnancy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Jan; 70(1):217-24. PMID: 25261418; PMCID: PMC4267507.
      14. Cressey TR, Best BM, Achalapong J, Stek A, Wang J, Chotivanich N, Yuthavisuthi P, Suriyachai P, Prommas S, Shapiro DE, Watts DH, Smith E, Capparelli E, Kreitchmann R, Mirochnick M. Reduced indinavir exposure during pregnancy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Sep; 76(3):475-83. PMID: 23305215; PMCID: PMC3769674.
      15. Kreitchmann R, Best BM, Wang J, Stek A, Caparelli E, Watts DH, Smith E, Shapiro DE, Rossi S, Burchett SK, Hawkins E, Byroads M, Cressey TR, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of an increased atazanavir dose with and without tenofovir during the third trimester of pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 May 01; 63(1):59-66. PMID: 23392467; PMCID: PMC3625451.
      16. Frederick T, Homans J, Spencer L, Kramer F, Stek A, Operskalski E, Kovacs A. The effect of prenatal highly active antiretroviral therapy on the transmission of congenital and perinatal/early postnatal cytomegalovirus among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Sep; 55(6):877-84. PMID: 22675157.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Cressey TR, Stek A, Capparelli E, Bowonwatanuwong C, Prommas S, Sirivatanapa P, Yuthavisuthi P, Neungton C, Huo Y, Smith E, Best BM, Mirochnick M. Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during the third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Mar 01; 59(3):245-52. PMID: 22083071; PMCID: PMC3288559.
      18. Stek A, Best BM, Luo W, Capparelli E, Burchett S, Hu C, Li H, Read JS, Jennings A, Barr E, Smith E, Rossi SS, Mirochnick M. Effect of pregnancy on emtricitabine pharmacokinetics. HIV Med. 2012 Apr; 13(4):226-35. PMID: 22129166; PMCID: PMC3342997.
      19. Walter J, Fraga L, Orin MJ, Decker WD, Gipps T, Stek A, Aldrovandi GM. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 30; 11:263. PMID: 21961998; PMCID: PMC3190379.
      20. Mirochnick M, Best BM, Stek A, Capparelli EV, Hu C, Burchett SK, Rossi SS, Hawkins E, Basar M, Smith E, Read JS. Atazanavir pharmacokinetics with and without tenofovir during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Apr 15; 56(5):412-9. PMID: 21283017; PMCID: PMC3125419.
      21. Sha BE, Tierney C, Cohn SE, Sun X, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM, Kalams SA, Aweeka FT, Bastow B, Bardeguez A, Kmack A, Stek A. Postpartum viral load rebound in HIV-1-infected women treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5150. HIV Clin Trials. 2011 Jan-Feb; 12(1):9-23. PMID: 21388937; PMCID: PMC3227722.
      22. Best BM, Stek A, Mirochnick M, Hu C, Li H, Burchett SK, Rossi SS, Smith E, Read JS, Capparelli EV. Lopinavir tablet pharmacokinetics with an increased dose during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Aug; 54(4):381-8. PMID: 20632458; PMCID: PMC3265163.
      23. Livingston EG, Huo Y, Patel K, Brogly SB, Tuomala R, Scott GB, Bardeguez A, Stek A, Read JS. Mode of delivery and infant respiratory morbidity among infants born to HIV-1-infected women. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug; 116(2 Pt 1):335-43. PMID: 20664394; PMCID: PMC2964131.
      24. Patel K, Shapiro DE, Brogly SB, Livingston EG, Stek A, Bardeguez AD, Tuomala RE. Prenatal protease inhibitor use and risk of preterm birth among HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 01; 201(7):1035-44. PMID: 20196654; PMCID: PMC2946359.
      25. Aweeka FT, Stek A, Best BM, Hu C, Holland D, Hermes A, Burchett SK, Read J, Mirochnick M, Capparelli EV. Lopinavir protein binding in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. HIV Med. 2010 Apr; 11(4):232-8. PMID: 20002783; PMCID: PMC2874627.
      26. Stek A. Antiretroviral medications during pregnancy for therapy or prophylaxis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2009 May; 6(2):68-76. PMID: 19358777.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Kapetanovic S, Christensen S, Karim R, Lin F, Mack WJ, Operskalski E, Frederick T, Spencer L, Stek A, Kramer F, Kovacs A. Correlates of perinatal depression in HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Feb; 23(2):101-8. PMID: 19196032; PMCID: PMC2856494.
      28. Bennetto-Hood C, Bryson YJ, Stek A, King JR, Mirochnick M, Acosta EP. Zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. HIV Clin Trials. 2009 Jan-Feb; 10(1):41-7. PMID: 19362995.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Mirochnick M, Best BM, Stek A, Capparelli E, Hu C, Burchett SK, Holland DT, Smith E, Gaddipati S, Read JS. Lopinavir exposure with an increased dose during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 15; 49(5):485-91. PMID: 18989231; PMCID: PMC3912695.
      30. Read JS, Best BM, Stek A, Hu C, Capparelli EV, Holland DT, Burchett SK, Smith ME, Sheeran EC, Shearer WT, Febo I, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of new 625 mg nelfinavir formulation during pregnancy and postpartum. HIV Med. 2008 Nov; 9(10):875-82. PMID: 18795962; PMCID: PMC2732353.
      31. Bardeguez AD, Lindsey JC, Shannon M, Tuomala RE, Cohn SE, Smith E, Stek A, Buschur S, Cotter A, Bettica L, Read JS. Adherence to antiretrovirals among US women during and after pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Aug 01; 48(4):408-17. PMID: 18614923; PMCID: PMC2764488.
      32. Capparelli EV, Aweeka F, Hitti J, Stek A, Hu C, Burchett SK, Best B, Smith E, Read JS, Watts H, Nachman S, Thorpe EM, Spector SA, Jimenez E, Shearer WT, Foca M, Mirochnick M. Chronic administration of nevirapine during pregnancy: impact of pregnancy on pharmacokinetics. HIV Med. 2008 Apr; 9(4):214-20. PMID: 18366444; PMCID: PMC2755564.
      33. Stek A. Antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008 Mar; 3(2):155-60. PMID: 19372959.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Bryson YJ, Mirochnick M, Stek A, Mofenson LM, Connor J, Capparelli E, Watts DH, Huang S, Hughes MD, Kaiser K, Purdue L, Asfaw Y, Keller M, Smith E. Pharmacokinetics and safety of nelfinavir when used in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine in HIV-infected pregnant women: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 353. HIV Clin Trials. 2008 Mar-Apr; 9(2):115-25. PMID: 18474496; PMCID: PMC4043374.
      35. Watts DH, Park JG, Cohn SE, Yu S, Hitti J, Stek A, Clax PA, Muderspach L, Lertora JJ. Safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy: ACTG A5093. Contraception. 2008 Feb; 77(2):84-90. PMID: 18226670; PMCID: PMC2424313.
      36. Sha BE, Gawel SH, Hershow RC, Passaro D, Augenbraun M, Darragh TM, Stek A, Golub ET, Mph LC, Moxley MD, Weber KM, Watts DH. Analysis of standard methods for diagnosing vaginitis: HIV infection does not complicate the diagnosis of vaginitis. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2007 Oct; 11(4):240-50. PMID: 17917568.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Hitti J, Andersen J, McComsey G, Liu T, Melvin A, Smith L, Stek A, Aberg J, Hull A, Alston-Smith B, Watts DH, Livingston E. Protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy and glucose tolerance in pregnancy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5084. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr; 196(4):331.e1-7. PMID: 17403409.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Brogly S, Read JS, Shapiro D, Stek A, Tuomala R. Participation of HIV-infected pregnant women in research in the United States. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Jan; 23(1):51-3. PMID: 17263632.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Cohn SE, Park JG, Watts DH, Stek A, Hitti J, Clax PA, Yu S, Lertora JJ. Depo-medroxyprogesterone in women on antiretroviral therapy: effective contraception and lack of clinically significant interactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb; 81(2):222-7. PMID: 17192768.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Stek A, Mirochnick M, Capparelli E, Best BM, Hu C, Burchett SK, Elgie C, Holland DT, Smith E, Tuomala R, Cotter A, Read JS. Reduced lopinavir exposure during pregnancy. AIDS. 2006 Oct 03; 20(15):1931-9. PMID: 16988514.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Best BM, Mirochnick M, Capparelli EV, Stek A, Burchett SK, Holland DT, Read JS, Smith E, Hu C, Spector SA, Connor JD. Impact of pregnancy on abacavir pharmacokinetics. AIDS. 2006 Feb 28; 20(4):553-60. PMID: 16470119.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Mirochnick M, Stek A, Acevedo M, Keller M, Holland D, Capparelli E, Connor J, Huang S, Hughes M, Watts H, Mofenson L, Bryson Y. Safety and pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir coadministered with zidovudine and lamivudine in infants during the first 6 weeks of life. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Jun 01; 39(2):189-94. PMID: 15905735.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Nikolopoulou GB, Nowicki MJ, Du W, Homans J, Stek A, Kramer F, Kovacs A. HCV viremia is associated with drug use in young HIV-1 and HCV coinfected pregnant and non-pregnant women. Addiction. 2005 May; 100(5):626-35. PMID: 15847620; PMCID: PMC3118993.
      44. Gilmore W, Arias M, Stroud N, Stek A, McCarthy KA, Correale J. Preliminary studies of cytokine secretion patterns associated with pregnancy in MS patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004 Sep 15; 224(1-2):69-76. PMID: 15450773.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Hitti J, Frenkel LM, Stek A, Nachman SA, Baker D, Gonzalez-Garcia A, Provisor A, Thorpe EM, Paul ME, Foca M, Gandia J, Huang S, Wei LJ, Stevens LM, Watts DH, McNamara J. Maternal toxicity with continuous nevirapine in pregnancy: results from PACTG 1022. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Jul 01; 36(3):772-6. PMID: 15213559.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Acosta EP, Bardeguez A, Zorrilla CD, Van Dyke R, Hughes MD, Huang S, Pompeo L, Stek A, Pitt J, Watts DH, Smith E, Jiménez E, Mofenson L. Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir plus low-dose ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Feb; 48(2):430-6. PMID: 14742191; PMCID: PMC321538.
      47. Massad LS, Springer G, Jacobson L, Watts H, Anastos K, Korn A, Cejtin H, Stek A, Young M, Schmidt J, Minkoff H. Pregnancy rates and predictors of conception, miscarriage and abortion in US women with HIV. AIDS. 2004 Jan 23; 18(2):281-6. PMID: 15075546.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Tuomala RE, Shapiro DE, Mofenson LM, Bryson Y, Culnane M, Hughes MD, O'Sullivan MJ, Scott G, Stek A, Wara D, Bulterys M. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and the risk of an adverse outcome. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 13; 346(24):1863-70. PMID: 12063370.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Samadi R, Stek A, Greenspoon JS. Evaluation of a rapid optical immunoassay-based test for group B streptococcus colonization in intrapartum patients. J Matern Fetal Med. 2001 Jun; 10(3):203-8. PMID: 11444791.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Minkoff H, Ahdieh L, Watts H, Greenblatt RM, Schmidt J, Schneider M, Stek A. The relationship of pregnancy to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 May; 184(6):1221-7. PMID: 11349192.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Olivero OA, Shearer GM, Chougnet CA, Kovacs AA, Baker R, Stek A, Khoury MM, Poirier MC. Incorporation of zidovudine into cord blood DNA of infants and peripheral blood DNA of their HIV-1-positive mothers. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Nov; 918:262-8. PMID: 11131712.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Lambert JS, Watts DH, Mofenson L, Stiehm ER, Harris DR, Bethel J, Whitehouse J, Jimenez E, Gandia J, Scott G, O'Sullivan MJ, Kovacs A, Stek A, Shearer WT, Hammill H, van Dyke R, Maupin R, Silio M, Fowler MG. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 185 Team. AIDS. 2000 Jul 07; 14(10):1389-99. PMID: 10930154.
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      53. Beckerman KP, Morris AB, Stek A. Mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jul 15; 341(3):205-6; author reply 206-7. PMID: 10409037.
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      54. Olivero OA, Shearer GM, Chougnet CA, Kovacs AA, Landay AL, Baker R, Stek A, Khoury MM, Proia LA, Kessler HA, Sha BE, Tarone RE, Poirier MC. Incorporation of zidovudine into leukocyte DNA from HIV-1-positive adults and pregnant women, and cord blood from infants exposed in utero. AIDS. 1999 May 28; 13(8):919-25. PMID: 10371172.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Stiehm ER, Lambert JS, Mofenson LM, Bethel J, Whitehouse J, Nugent R, Moye J, Glenn Fowler M, Mathieson BJ, Reichelderfer P, Nemo GJ, Korelitz J, Meyer WA, Sapan CV, Jimenez E, Gandia J, Scott G, O'Sullivan MJ, Kovacs A, Stek A, Shearer WT, Hammill H. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185. J Infect Dis. 1999 Mar; 179(3):567-75. PMID: 9952362.
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      56. Sorvillo F, Kovacs A, Kerndt P, Stek A, Muderspach L, Sanchez-Keeland L. Risk factors for trichomoniasis among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at a public clinic in Los Angeles County, California: implications for HIV prevention. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Apr; 58(4):495-500. PMID: 9574798.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Lambert JS, Mofenson LM, Fletcher CV, Moye J, Stiehm ER, Meyer WA, Nemo GJ, Mathieson BJ, Hirsch G, Sapan CV, Cummins LM, Jimenez E, O'Neill E, Kovacs A, Stek A. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb; 175(2):283-91. PMID: 9203648.
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      58. Stek A, Baker RS, Fisher BK, Lang U, Clark KE. Fetal responses to maternal and fetal methamphetamine administration in sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Nov; 173(5):1592-8. PMID: 7503206.
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      59. Stek A, Fisher BK, Baker RS, Lang U, Tseng CY, Clark KE. Maternal and fetal cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine in the pregnant sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Oct; 169(4):888-97. PMID: 8238145.
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